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Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4073-4092; doi:10.3390/nu6104073

Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

1
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, 70 El Venizelou Avenue, Kallithea, 17671 Athens, Greece
2
EnviNHealth S.A., Vasilissis Sofias 22, Marousi, 15124 Athens, Greece
3
FrieslandCampina, Stationsplein 4, Post Box 1551, Amersfoort 3800 BN, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 3 October 2014
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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; nutrients; age; socio-economic status; Greece diet; nutrients; age; socio-economic status; Greece
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Manios, Y.; Moschonis, G.; Mavrogianni, C.; Bos, R.; Singh-Povel, C. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4073-4092.

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