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Nutrients, Volume 6, Issue 9 (September 2014), Pages 3353-3980

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Open AccessArticle Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3353-3362; doi:10.3390/nu6093353
Received: 3 July 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve [...] Read more.
Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo). Results: The intervention participants (n = 577) reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434). Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3382-3402; doi:10.3390/nu6093382
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product [...] Read more.
Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. Full article
Open AccessArticle Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3460-3473; doi:10.3390/nu6093460
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 August 2014 / Published: 4 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a [...] Read more.
The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Average Sodium Content of Prepacked Foods with Nutrition Declarations: The Importance of Sales Data
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3501-3515; doi:10.3390/nu6093501
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 August 2014 / Published: 4 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Processed foods are recognized as a major contributor to high dietary sodium intake, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Different public health actions are being introduced to reduce sodium content in processed foods and sodium intake in general. A gradual reduction [...] Read more.
Processed foods are recognized as a major contributor to high dietary sodium intake, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Different public health actions are being introduced to reduce sodium content in processed foods and sodium intake in general. A gradual reduction of sodium content in processed foods was proposed in Slovenia, but monitoring sodium content in the food supply is essential to evaluate the progress. Our primary objective was to test a new approach for assessing the sales-weighted average sodium content of prepacked foods on the market. We show that a combination of 12-month food sales data provided by food retailers covering the majority of the national market and a comprehensive food composition database compiled using food labelling data represent a robust and cost-effective approach to assessing the sales-weighted average sodium content of prepacked foods. Food categories with the highest sodium content were processed meats (particularly dry cured meat), ready meals (especially frozen pizza) and cheese. The reported results show that in most investigated food categories, market leaders in the Slovenian market have lower sodium contents than the category average. The proposed method represents an excellent tool for monitoring sodium content in the food supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt and Health: A Public Health Issue)
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Open AccessArticle Fermentation with Aquilariae Lignum Enhances the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea in Type II Diabetic db/db Mouse
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3536-3571; doi:10.3390/nu6093536
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 5 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 9 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (17209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The major components of tea may be significantly influenced according to the type of fermentation, and consequently the effects of different teas will differ. We examined whether green tea fermented with Aquilariae Lignum (fGT) shows a stronger anti-diabetic effect than unfermented green [...] Read more.
The major components of tea may be significantly influenced according to the type of fermentation, and consequently the effects of different teas will differ. We examined whether green tea fermented with Aquilariae Lignum (fGT) shows a stronger anti-diabetic effect than unfermented green tea (GT) on mice with type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the anti-obesity effect of fGT, we assessed body weight, fecal excretion, serum leptin levels, exocrine pancreatic zymogen granule contents, and periovarian fat weight and adiponectin contents. Blood glucose levels, pancreatic weight, and numbers of pancreatic islet insulin- and glucagon-producing cells were determined to evaluate anti-hypoglycemic effects, while total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low- and high-density lipoprotein levels were determined to evaluate anti-hyperlipidemic effects. The antioxidant effect of fGT was detected by measuring malondialdehyde and glutathione contents and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. fGT showed anti-obesity, anti-hypoglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemia, and antioxidant effects. Additionally, fGT exerted stronger anti-diabetic effects compared with GT. Collectively, these results suggested that fGT fermented with the appropriate amounts of Aquilariae Lignum (49:1) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Thus, fGT is a promising and potent new therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Sucrose Concentration on Sucrose-Dependent Adhesion and Glucosyltransferase Expression of S. mutans in Children with Severe Early-Childhood Caries (S-ECC)
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3572-3586; doi:10.3390/nu6093572
Received: 12 July 2014 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 20 August 2014 / Published: 9 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs) are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC). However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different [...] Read more.
Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs) are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC). However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF) children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%–20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 10% and 20% groups. The fingerprints of S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p < 0.05). Further, the expression of gtfB and gtfC in the S-ECC group was significantly different among the 1- to 5-genotype groups (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that sucrose-dependent adhesion might be related to the diversity of genotypes of S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a “turning point” and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fatty Acid Status and Its Relationship to Cognitive Decline and Homocysteine Levels in the Elderly
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3624-3640; doi:10.3390/nu6093624
Received: 24 May 2014 / Revised: 11 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 August 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (837 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in [...] Read more.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥60 years) were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12) and the control group (n = 33). Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy), hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA) and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly. Full article
Open AccessArticle Vitamin E Concentrations in Adults with HIV/AIDS on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3641-3652; doi:10.3390/nu6093641
Received: 21 June 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
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Abstract
HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. [...] Read more.
HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 182 HIV/AIDS patients receiving different HAART regimens. The patients were divided into three groups according to regimen: nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); NRTIs + protease inhibitors + ritonavir; NRTIs + other classes. Alpha-tocopherol was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of HAART regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen on alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were on average 4.12 μmol/L lower for the NRTIs + other classes regimen when compared to the NRTIs + NNRTIs regimen (p = 0.037). A positive association (p < 0.001) was observed between alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations, a finding due, in part, to the relationship between liposoluble vitamins and lipid profile. This study demonstrated differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations between patients using different HAART regimens, especially regimens involving the use of new drugs. Long-term prospective cohort studies are needed to monitor vitamin E status in HIV/AIDS patients since the beginning of treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E Nutrition and Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3696-3710; doi:10.3390/nu6093696
Received: 5 June 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 27 August 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The [...] Read more.
Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cordyceps militaris Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3711-3726; doi:10.3390/nu6093711
Received: 11 June 2014 / Revised: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the major cause of degenerative disorders including aging and disease. In this study, we investigated whether Cordyceps militaris extract (CME) has in vitro protective effects on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the major cause of degenerative disorders including aging and disease. In this study, we investigated whether Cordyceps militaris extract (CME) has in vitro protective effects on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Our results showed that the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of CME was increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that hydrogen peroxide treatment in HDFs increased ROS generation and cell death as compared with the control. However, CME improved the survival of HDFs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of intracellular ROS production. CME treatment inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death and apoptotic nuclear condensation in HDFs. In addition, CME prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced SA-β-gal-positive cells suggesting CME could inhibit oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Therefore, these results suggest that CME might have protective effects against oxidative stress-induced premature senescence via scavenging ROS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Large Updated Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3734-3746; doi:10.3390/nu6093734
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 18 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, [...] Read more.
The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, we quantitatively summarized evidence from prospective studies. Eligible studies were identified on PubMed and Embase databases. The summary risk estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity and dose-response analyses were conducted. The present meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies. A pooled analysis of these studies suggested that coffee consumption (highest vs. lowest consumption) was not associated with risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.93–1.36). In the subgroup analysis, significant increased risk was detected in the U.S. studies (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.74) and in the studies with <10 years of follow-up (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00–1.54), and the greatest increase in risk was observed in those studies without adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13–1.93). There was some evidence of publication bias (P for Egger’s test = 0.03). Cumulative evidence from prospective studies suggests that coffee consumption is not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The observed positive results may be confounded by smoking and need further investigation. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Evaluation of the Effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue Targets on the Sodium Content of Bread, Breakfast Cereals and Processed Meats
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3802-3817; doi:10.3390/nu6093802
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 1 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 August 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats) to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 [...] Read more.
The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats) to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squared or McNemar’s tests. The mean sodium level of bread products fell from 454 to 415 mg/100 g (9% lower, p < 0.001), and the proportion reaching target rose from 42% to 67% (p < 0.005). The mean sodium content of breakfast cereals also fell substantially from 316 to 237 mg/100 g (25% lower, p < 0.001) over the study period. The decline in mean sodium content of bacon/ham/cured meats from 1215 to 1114 mg/100 g (8% lower, p = 0.001) was smaller, but associated with a rise in the proportion meeting the target from 28% to 47%. Declines in mean sodium content did not appreciably differ between companies that did and did not make public commitments to the targets. These data show that the Australian food industry can reduce salt levels of processed foods and provide a strong case for broadening and strengthening of the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt and Health: A Public Health Issue)
Open AccessArticle Long-Term Vitamin D3 Supplementation Does Not Prevent Colonic Inflammation or Modulate Bone Health in IL-10 Knockout Mice at Young Adulthood
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3847-3862; doi:10.3390/nu6093847
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic disease that can impair bone metabolism. Low vitamin D status has been implicated in its progress. This study used interleukin (IL)-10 knockout (KO) mice, that develop an intestinal inflammation when housed in a non-sterile environment, [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic disease that can impair bone metabolism. Low vitamin D status has been implicated in its progress. This study used interleukin (IL)-10 knockout (KO) mice, that develop an intestinal inflammation when housed in a non-sterile environment, to determine if supplementation with vitamin D3 throughout life could mitigate inflammation and attenuate the lower bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), and bone strength. Female IL-10 KO mice were randomized 25 or 5000 IU vitamin D3/kg diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, offspring received the same or opposite diet as their mother until age three months. Body weight growth was similar among groups within a sex. At three months of age, there were no differences in inflammation and gene expression in the colon of offspring. Male offspring exposed to continuous 25 IU vitamin D3/kg diet had lower (p < 0.001) colonic VDR expression and those exposed only to low vitamin D3 until weaning had higher serum IL-6. There were no differences in femur or vertebral BMC, BMD or bone strength. In summary, long-term exposure to vitamin D3 did not attenuate intestinal inflammation or preserve bone mineral or bone strength. Thus, supplementation with vitamin D3 does not exert anti-inflammatory effects in this mouse model that mimics human inflammatory bowel disease. Full article
Open AccessArticle β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3863-3877; doi:10.3390/nu6093863
Received: 25 June 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
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Abstract
Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term [...] Read more.
Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3878-3894; doi:10.3390/nu6093878
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as [...] Read more.
The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3913-3928; doi:10.3390/nu6093913
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition [...] Read more.
Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
Open AccessArticle Interactive Effects of Dietary Fat/Carbohydrate Ratio and Body Mass Index on Iron Deficiency Anemia among Taiwanese Women
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3929-3941; doi:10.3390/nu6093929
Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
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Abstract
Whether being overweight or obese is associated with increased risk of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains controversial. We evaluated the dietary intakes and risk for IDA in relation to body mass index (BMI). One thousand two hundred and seventy-four females aged ≥19 [...] Read more.
Whether being overweight or obese is associated with increased risk of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains controversial. We evaluated the dietary intakes and risk for IDA in relation to body mass index (BMI). One thousand two hundred and seventy-four females aged ≥19 years, enrolled in the third Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005–2008, were selected. Half of the women were either overweight (24.0%) or obese (25.3%). The overall prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and IDA among adult women was 19.5%, 8.6% and 6.2%. BMI showed a protective effect on IDA: overweight (odds ratio, OR: 0.365 (0.181–0.736)) and obese (OR: 0.480 (0.259–0.891)) when compared with normal weight. Univariate analysis identified increased IDA risk for overweight/obese women who consumed higher dietary fat but lower carbohydrate (CHO) (OR: 10.119 (1.267–80.79)). No such relationship was found in IDA women with normal weight (OR: 0.375 (0.036–4.022)). Analysis of interaction(s) showed individuals within the highest BMI tertile (T3) had the lowest risk for IDA and the risk increased with increasing tertile groups of fat/CHO ratio; OR 0.381 (0.144–1.008; p = 0.051), 0.370 (0.133–1.026; p = 0.056) and 0.748 (0.314–1.783; p = 0.513); for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. In conclusion, a protective effect of BMI on IDA may be attenuated in women who had increased fat/CHO ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Deficiency: Development, Implications and Treatment)

Review

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Open AccessReview Genetic Sensitivity to the Bitter Taste of 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) and Its Association with Physiological Mechanisms Controlling Body Mass Index (BMI)
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3363-3381; doi:10.3390/nu6093363
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
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Abstract
Taste sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is considered a marker for individual differences in taste perception that may influence food preferences and eating behavior, and thereby energy metabolism. This review describes genetic factors that may contribute to PROP [...] Read more.
Taste sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is considered a marker for individual differences in taste perception that may influence food preferences and eating behavior, and thereby energy metabolism. This review describes genetic factors that may contribute to PROP sensitivity including: (1) the variants of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor with their different affinities for the stimulus; (2) the gene that controls the gustin protein that acts as a salivary trophic factor for fungiform taste papillae; and (3) other specific salivary proteins that could be involved in facilitating the binding of the PROP molecule with its receptor. In addition, we speculate on the influence of taste sensitivity on energy metabolism, possibly via modulation of the endocannabinoid system, and its possible role in regulating body composition homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
Open AccessReview Does Sufficient Evidence Exist to Support a Causal Association between Vitamin D Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk? An Assessment Using Hill’s Criteria for Causality
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3403-3430; doi:10.3390/nu6093403
Received: 22 May 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 2 September 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been found to be inversely associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. This review looks for evidence of a causal association between low 25(OH)D levels and increased [...] Read more.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been found to be inversely associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. This review looks for evidence of a causal association between low 25(OH)D levels and increased CVD risk. We evaluated journal articles in light of Hill’s criteria for causality in a biological system. The results of our assessment are as follows. Strength of association: many randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and cross-sectional studies found statistically significant inverse associations between 25(OH)D levels and CVD risk factors. Consistency of observed association: most studies found statistically significant inverse associations between 25(OH)D levels and CVD risk factors in various populations, locations and circumstances. Temporality of association: many RCTs and prospective studies found statistically significant inverse associations between 25(OH)D levels and CVD risk factors. Biological gradient (dose-response curve): most studies assessing 25(OH)D levels and CVD risk found an inverse association exhibiting a linear biological gradient. Plausibility of biology: several plausible cellular-level causative mechanisms and biological pathways may lead from a low 25(OH)D level to increased risk for CVD with mediators, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence: some well-designed RCTs found increased CVD risk factors with decreasing 25(OH)D levels. Analogy: the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and CVD risk is analogous to that between 25(OH)D levels and the risk of overall cancer, periodontal disease, multiple sclerosis and breast cancer. Conclusion: all relevant Hill criteria for a causal association in a biological system are satisfied to indicate a low 25(OH)D level as a CVD risk factor. Full article
Open AccessReview The Role of Sweet Taste in Satiation and Satiety
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3431-3450; doi:10.3390/nu6093431
Received: 30 May 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 2 September 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual’s ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is [...] Read more.
Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual’s ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is thought to be one of many factors influencing food acceptance, and therefore, taste may play an essential role in modulating food acceptance and/or energy intake. Emerging evidence now suggests that the sweet taste signaling mechanisms identified in the oral cavity also operate in the gastrointestinal system and may influence the development of satiety. Understanding the individual differences in detecting sweetness in both the oral and gastrointestinal system towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and the functional role of the sweet taste system may be important in understanding the reasons for excess energy intake. This review will summarize evidence of possible associations between the sweet taste mechanisms within the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the brain systems towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and sweet taste function, which may influence satiation, satiety and, perhaps, predisposition to being overweight and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugar and Obesity)
Open AccessReview Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Review
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3474-3500; doi:10.3390/nu6093474
Received: 1 May 2014 / Revised: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 4 September 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search [...] Read more.
Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search to examine all the cardiovascular risk factors combined and their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) pattern as primary prevention against cardiodiabesity in a holistic approach. Research was conducted using the PubMed database including clinical trials, cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed: fourteen related to obesity, ten to CVD, nine to MetS, and four to T2DM. Indeed 33 provided strong evidence on the association between adherence to a MedDiet and a reduced incidence of collective cardiodiabesity risk in epidemiological studies. This scientific evidence makes the MedDiet pattern very useful for preventive strategies directed at the general population and also highlights the need to consider all these diet-related risk factors and health outcomes together in daily primary care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and CVD)
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Open AccessReview Is the Inclusion of Animal Source Foods in Fortified Blended Foods Justified?
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3516-3535; doi:10.3390/nu6093516
Received: 9 June 2014 / Revised: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 4 September 2014
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Abstract
Fortified blended foods (FBF) are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) in nutritionally vulnerable individuals, particularly children. A recent review of FBF recommended the addition of animal source food (ASF) in the form of whey protein concentrate [...] Read more.
Fortified blended foods (FBF) are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) in nutritionally vulnerable individuals, particularly children. A recent review of FBF recommended the addition of animal source food (ASF) in the form of whey protein concentrate (WPC), especially to corn-soy blends. The justification for this recommendation includes the potential of ASF to increase length, weight, muscle mass accretion and recovery from wasting, as well as to improve protein quality and provide essential growth factors. Evidence was collected from the following four different types of studies: (1) epidemiological; (2) ASF versus no intervention or a low-calorie control; (3) ASF versus an isocaloric non-ASF; and (4) ASF versus an isocaloric, isonitrogenous non-ASF. Epidemiological studies consistently associated improved growth outcomes with ASF consumption; however, little evidence from isocaloric and isocaloric, isonitrogenous interventions was found to support the inclusion of meat or milk in FBF. Evidence suggests that whey may benefit muscle mass accretion, but not linear growth. Overall, little evidence supports the costly addition of WPC to FBFs. Further, randomized isocaloric, isonitrogenous ASF interventions with nutritionally vulnerable children are needed. Full article
Open AccessReview Obesity as an Emerging Risk Factor for Iron Deficiency
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3587-3600; doi:10.3390/nu6093587
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 29 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and [...] Read more.
Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This constellation has been named the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS)”. Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN) along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Deficiency: Development, Implications and Treatment)
Open AccessReview Fortification of Foods with Vitamin D in India
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3601-3623; doi:10.3390/nu6093601
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent in India, despite abundant sunshine. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is a viable strategy to target an entire population. Vitamin D fortification programs implemented in the United States and Canada have improved the vitamin [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent in India, despite abundant sunshine. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is a viable strategy to target an entire population. Vitamin D fortification programs implemented in the United States and Canada have improved the vitamin D status in these countries, but a significant proportion of the population is still vitamin D deficient. Before fortification programs are designed and implemented in India, it is necessary to study the efficacy of the American and Canadian vitamin D fortification programs and then improve upon them to suit the Indian scenario. This review explores potential strategies that could be used for the fortification of foods in the Indian context. These strategies have been proposed considering the diverse dietary practices necessitated by social, economic, cultural and religious practices and the diverse climatic conditions in India. Fortification of staple foods, such as chapati flour, maida, rice flour and rice, may be more viable strategies. Targeted fortification strategies to meet the special nutritional needs of children in India are discussed separately in a review entitled, “Fortification of foods with vitamin D in India: Strategies targeted at children”. Full article
Open AccessReview Food Addiction in the Light of DSM-5
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3653-3671; doi:10.3390/nu6093653
Received: 24 July 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The idea that specific kind of foods may have an addiction potential and that some forms of overeating may represent an addicted behavior has been discussed for decades. In recent years, the interest in food addiction is growing and research on this [...] Read more.
The idea that specific kind of foods may have an addiction potential and that some forms of overeating may represent an addicted behavior has been discussed for decades. In recent years, the interest in food addiction is growing and research on this topic lead to more precise definitions and assessment methods. For example, the Yale Food Addiction Scale has been developed for the measurement of addiction-like eating behavior based on the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence of the fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). In 2013, diagnostic criteria for substance abuse and—dependence were merged, thereby increasing the number of symptoms for substance use disorders (SUDs) in the DSM-5. Moreover, gambling disorder is now included along SUDs as a behavioral addiction. Although a plethora of review articles exist that discuss the applicability of the DSM-IV substance dependence criteria to eating behavior, the transferability of the newly added criteria to eating is unknown. Thus, the current article discusses if and how these new criteria may be translated to overeating. Furthermore, it is examined if the new SUD criteria will impact future research on food addiction, for example, if “diagnosing” food addiction should also be adapted by considering all of the new symptoms. Given the critical response to the revisions in DSM-5, we also discuss if the recent approach of Research Domain Criteria can be helpful in evaluating the concept of food addiction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)
Open AccessReview To Legislate or Not to Legislate? A Comparison of the UK and South African Approaches to the Development and Implementation of Salt Reduction Programs
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3672-3695; doi:10.3390/nu6093672
Received: 19 July 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (899 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The World Health Organization promotes salt reduction as a best-buy strategy to reduce chronic diseases, and Member States have agreed to a 30% reduction target in mean population salt intake by 2025. Whilst the UK has made the most progress on salt [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization promotes salt reduction as a best-buy strategy to reduce chronic diseases, and Member States have agreed to a 30% reduction target in mean population salt intake by 2025. Whilst the UK has made the most progress on salt reduction, South Africa was the first country to pass legislation for salt levels in a range of processed foods. This paper compares the process of developing salt reduction strategies in both countries and highlights lessons for other countries. Like the UK, the benefits of salt reduction were being debated in South Africa long before it became a policy priority. Whilst salt reduction was gaining a higher profile internationally, undoubtedly, local research to produce context-specific, domestic costs and outcome indicators for South Africa was crucial in influencing the decision to legislate. In the UK, strong government leadership and extensive advocacy activities initiated in the early 2000s have helped drive the voluntary uptake of salt targets by the food industry. It is too early to say which strategy will be most effective regarding reductions in population-level blood pressure. Robust monitoring and transparent mechanisms for holding the industry accountable will be key to continued progress in each of the countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt and Health: A Public Health Issue)
Open AccessReview Dietary Determinants of and Possible Solutions to Iron Deficiency for Young Women Living in Industrialized Countries: A Review
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3747-3776; doi:10.3390/nu6093747
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron deficiency is a concern in both developing and developed (industrialized) countries; and young women are particularly vulnerable. This review investigates dietary determinants of and possible solutions to iron deficiency in young women living in industrialized countries. Dietary factors including ascorbic acid [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency is a concern in both developing and developed (industrialized) countries; and young women are particularly vulnerable. This review investigates dietary determinants of and possible solutions to iron deficiency in young women living in industrialized countries. Dietary factors including ascorbic acid and an elusive factor in animal protein foods (meat; fish and poultry) enhance iron absorption; while phytic acid; soy protein; calcium and polyphenols inhibit iron absorption. However; the effects of these dietary factors on iron absorption do not necessarily translate into an association with iron status and iron stores (serum ferritin concentration). In cross-sectional studies; only meat intake has consistently (positively) been associated with higher serum ferritin concentrations. The enhancing effects of ascorbic acid and meat on iron absorption may be negated by the simultaneous consumption of foods and nutrients which are inhibitory. Recent cross-sectional studies have considered the combination and timing of foods consumed; with mixed results. Dietary interventions using a range of focused dietary measures to improve iron status appear to be more effective than dietary approaches that focus on single nutrients or foods. Further research is needed to determine optimal dietary recommendations for both the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Deficiency: Development, Implications and Treatment)
Open AccessReview Dietary Regulation of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Pathway: Focus on Plant-Derived Compounds and Trace Minerals
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3777-3801; doi:10.3390/nu6093777
Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 13 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has become increasingly evident that chronic inflammation underpins the development of many chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is inherently a biochemical dysregulation of the redox status of the intracellular environment, which under homeostatic conditions [...] Read more.
It has become increasingly evident that chronic inflammation underpins the development of many chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is inherently a biochemical dysregulation of the redox status of the intracellular environment, which under homeostatic conditions is a reducing environment, whereas inflammation is the biological response to oxidative stress in that the cell initiates the production of proteins, enzymes, and other compounds to restore homeostasis. At the center of the day-to-day biological response to oxidative stress is the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, which regulates the transcription of many antioxidant genes that preserve cellular homeostasis and detoxification genes that process and eliminate carcinogens and toxins before they can cause damage. The Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway plays a major role in health resilience and can be made more robust and responsive by certain dietary factors. Transient activation of Nrf2 by dietary electrophilic phytochemicals can upregulate antioxidant and chemopreventive enzymes in the absence of actual oxidative stress inducers. Priming the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway by upregulating these enzymes prior to oxidative stress or xenobiotic encounter increases cellular fitness to respond more robustly to oxidative assaults without activating more intense inflammatory NFκB-mediated responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
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Open AccessReview Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3818-3846; doi:10.3390/nu6093818
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival [...] Read more.
Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. Full article
Open AccessReview Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3895-3912; doi:10.3390/nu6093895
Received: 7 July 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). Full article
Open AccessReview GI Symptoms in Infants Are a Potential Target for Fermented Infant Milk Formulae: A Review
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3942-3967; doi:10.3390/nu6093942
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow’s milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial [...] Read more.
Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow’s milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. Full article
Open AccessReview Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3968-3980; doi:10.3390/nu6093968
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron [...] Read more.
Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans) can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium) for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily) on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily) for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Deficiency: Development, Implications and Treatment)

Other

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Open AccessMeeting Report Meeting Report from “Frontiers in Nutritional Science: Nutritional Metabolomics”
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3451-3459; doi:10.3390/nu6093451
Received: 26 June 2014 / Accepted: 28 August 2014 / Published: 3 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The potential for transforming nutritional and health research through the discovery and application of non-invasive markers of dietary intake and metabolic status is profound. The science of metabolomics for the fingerprinting of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from expired human breath holds great [...] Read more.
The potential for transforming nutritional and health research through the discovery and application of non-invasive markers of dietary intake and metabolic status is profound. The science of metabolomics for the fingerprinting of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from expired human breath holds great promise in this regard. Coupled with tools utilising sensor technology, breath volatile signatures allow a new horizon of research in which indicators of metabolic risk and indicators of dietary intake could be collected at a population level with unprecedented simplicity and low cost. Metabolomics (measuring metabolites from physiological process) provides a “window into the body”, which could transform how we measure health, how we identify and monitor people most at risk of disease and the way we monitor food intake. [...] Full article
Open AccessCommentary Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability
Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3727-3733; doi:10.3390/nu6093727
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 8 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The joint symposium of The Omega-3 Centre and the Australasian Section American Oil Chemists Society; Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability, was held November 7, 2013 in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Over 115 attendees received new information on a [...] Read more.
The joint symposium of The Omega-3 Centre and the Australasian Section American Oil Chemists Society; Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability, was held November 7, 2013 in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Over 115 attendees received new information on a range of health benefits, aquaculture as a sustainable source of supply, and current and potential new and novel sources of these essential omega-3 long-chain (LC, ≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrients (also termed LC omega-3). The theme of “Food versus Fuel” was an inspired way to present a vast array of emerging and ground breaking Omega-3 research that has application across many disciplines. Eleven papers submitted following from the Omega-3 Symposium are published in this Special Issue volume, with topics covered including: an update on the use of the Omega-3 Index (O3I), the effects of dosage and concurrent intake of vitamins/minerals on omega-3 incorporation into red blood cells, the possible use of the O3I as a measure of risk for adiposity, the need for and progress with new land plant sources of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3), the current status of farmed Australian and New Zealand fish, and also supplements, in terms of their LC omega-3 and persistent organic pollutants (POP) content, progress with cheap carbon sources in the culture of DHA-producing single cell organisms, a detailed examination of the lipids of the New Zealand Greenshell mussel, and a pilot investigation of the purification of New Zealand hoki liver oil by short path distillation. The selection of papers in this Special Issue collectively highlights a range of forward looking and also new and including positive scientific outcomes occurring in the omega-3 field. Full article

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