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Mar. Drugs, Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2014), Pages 1169-1698

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Open AccessReview New and Rare Carotenoids Isolated from Marine Bacteria and Their Antioxidant Activities
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1690-1698; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031690
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine bacteria have not been examined as extensively as land bacteria. We screened carotenoids from orange or red pigments-producing marine bacteria belonging to rare or novel species. The new acyclic carotenoids with a C30 aglycone, diapolycopenedioc acid xylosylesters A–C and methyl 5-glucosyl-5,6-dihydro-apo-4,4′-lycopenoate,
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Marine bacteria have not been examined as extensively as land bacteria. We screened carotenoids from orange or red pigments-producing marine bacteria belonging to rare or novel species. The new acyclic carotenoids with a C30 aglycone, diapolycopenedioc acid xylosylesters A–C and methyl 5-glucosyl-5,6-dihydro-apo-4,4′-lycopenoate, were isolated from the novel Gram-negative bacterium Rubritalea squalenifaciens, which belongs to phylum Verrucomicrobia, as well as the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Planococcus maritimus strain iso-3 belonging to the class Bacilli, phylum Firmicutes, respectively. The rare monocyclic C40 carotenoids, (3R)-saproxanthin and (3R,2′S)-myxol, were isolated from novel species of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. In this review, we report the structures and antioxidant activities of these carotenoids, and consider relationships between bacterial phyla and carotenoid structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of the Bifurcaria bifurcata Epiphytic Bacteria
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1676-1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031676
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface-associated marine bacteria are an interesting source of new secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of epiphytic bacteria from the marine brown alga, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bacteria
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Surface-associated marine bacteria are an interesting source of new secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of epiphytic bacteria from the marine brown alga, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bacteria extracts. The identification of epiphytic bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteria extracts were obtained with methanol and dichloromethane (1:1) extraction. The antioxidant activity of extracts was performed by quantification of total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Antimicrobial activities were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. A total of 39 Bifurcaria bifurcata-associated bacteria were isolated and 33 were identified as Vibrio sp. (48.72%), Alteromonas sp. (12.82%), Shewanella sp. (12.26%), Serratia sp. (2.56%), Citricoccus sp. (2.56%), Cellulophaga sp. (2.56%), Ruegeria sp. (2.56%) and Staphylococcus sp. (2.56%). Six (15.38%) of the 39 bacteria Bifurcaria bifurcata-associated bacteria presented less than a 90% Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) match, and some of those could be new. The highest antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity (against B. subtilis) was exhibited by strain 16 (Shewanella sp.). Several strains also presented high antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, mainly belonging to Alteromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. There were no positive results against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. Bifurcaria bifurcata epiphytic bacteria were revealed to be excellent sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. Full article
Open AccessReview The Challenge of Ecophysiological Biodiversity for Biotechnological Applications of Marine Microalgae
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1641-1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031641
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 31 January 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review, we aim to explore the potential of microalgal biodiversity and ecology for biotechnological use. A deeper exploration of the biodiversity richness and ecophysiological properties of microalgae is crucial for enhancing their use for applicative purposes. After describing the actual biotechnological
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In this review, we aim to explore the potential of microalgal biodiversity and ecology for biotechnological use. A deeper exploration of the biodiversity richness and ecophysiological properties of microalgae is crucial for enhancing their use for applicative purposes. After describing the actual biotechnological use of microalgae, we consider the multiple faces of taxonomical, morphological, functional and ecophysiological biodiversity of these organisms, and investigate how these properties could better serve the biotechnological field. Lastly, we propose new approaches to enhancing microalgal growth, photosynthesis, and synthesis of valuable products used in biotechnological fields, mainly focusing on culture conditions, especially light manipulations and genetic modifications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Largazole Pharmacokinetics in Rats by LC-MS/MS
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1623-1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031623
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 30 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A highly sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of largazole thiol, the active species of the marine-derived preclinical histone deacetylase inhibitor, largazole (prodrug), was developed and validated. Largazole thiol was extracted with ethyl acetate from human or rat plasma along with
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A highly sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of largazole thiol, the active species of the marine-derived preclinical histone deacetylase inhibitor, largazole (prodrug), was developed and validated. Largazole thiol was extracted with ethyl acetate from human or rat plasma along with the internal standard, harmine. Samples were separated on an Onyx Monolithic C18 column by a stepwise gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid in methanol and 0.1% aqueous formic acid employing multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 12.5–400 ng/mL with 200 µL of human plasma. The overall intra-day precision was from 3.87% to 12.6%, and the inter-day precision was from 7.12% to 9.8%. The accuracy at low, medium and high concentrations ranged from 101.55% to 105.84%. Plasma protein bindings of largazole thiol in human and rat plasma as determined by an ultrafiltration method were 90.13% and 77.14%, respectively. Plasma drug concentrations were measured by this LC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetics of largazole thiol in rats was studied following i.v. administration at 10 mg/kg and found to follow a two-compartment model. Largazole thiol was rapidly eliminated from systemic circulation within 2 h. The established LC-MS/MS method is suitable for the analysis of largazole thiol in human plasma, as well. Full article
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Open AccessReview Chemistry and Biology of Bengamides and Bengazoles, Bioactive Natural Products from Jaspis Sponges
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1580-1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031580
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sponges corresponding to the Jaspidae family have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among these, the bengamides and the bengazoles stand out by virtue of their unprecedented molecular architectures and impressive biological profiles, including antitumor, antibiotic and anthelmintic properties.
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Sponges corresponding to the Jaspidae family have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among these, the bengamides and the bengazoles stand out by virtue of their unprecedented molecular architectures and impressive biological profiles, including antitumor, antibiotic and anthelmintic properties. As a consequence, intense research activity has been devoted to these compounds from both chemical and biological standpoints. This review describes in detail the research into these classes of natural products and the benefits they offer in chemistry and biology. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Ochracenoids A and B, Guaiazulene-Based Analogues from Gorgonian Anthogorgia ochracea Collected from the South China Sea
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1569-1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031569
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 14 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new guaiazulene-based analogues, ochracenoids A (1) and B (2), along with four known analogues (36), were isolated from the gorgonian Anthogorgia ochracea collected from the South China Sea. The planar structures of the new
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Two new guaiazulene-based analogues, ochracenoids A (1) and B (2), along with four known analogues (36), were isolated from the gorgonian Anthogorgia ochracea collected from the South China Sea. The planar structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined as 3R by the comparison of TDDFT calculated electronic circular dichroism with its experimental spectrum. Compound 1 is a rare guaiazulene-based analogue possessing a unique C16 skeleton. The possible generation process of 1 through an intermolecular one-carbon-transfer reaction was also discussed. Compound 2 was previously described as a presumed intermediate involved in the biogenesis of anthogorgienes A and I. Compound 3 exhibited antiproliferative effects on the embryo development of zebrafish Danio rerio. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Open AccessArticle Three New and Eleven Known Unusual C25 Steroids: Activated Production of Silent Metabolites in a Marine-Derived Fungus by Chemical Mutagenesis Strategy using Diethyl Sulphate
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1545-1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031545
Received: 11 January 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three new (13) and 11 known (414) C25 steroids with an unusual bicyclo[4.4.1]A/B ring system were isolated by tracing newly produced metabolites in the EtOAc extract of an antitumor mutant AD-1-2 obtained by the diethyl
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Three new (13) and 11 known (414) C25 steroids with an unusual bicyclo[4.4.1]A/B ring system were isolated by tracing newly produced metabolites in the EtOAc extract of an antitumor mutant AD-1-2 obtained by the diethyl sulphate (DES) mutagenesis of a marine-derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59. HPLC-PDAD-UV and HPLC-ESI-MS analyses indicated that the G59 strain did not produce these metabolites and the production of 114 in the mutant AD-1-2 extract was caused by the activation of silent metabolites in the original G59 strain by DES mutagenesis. The structures of the new compounds, named antineocyclocitrinols A (1) and B (2) and 23-O-methylantineocyclocitrinol (3), including their absolute configurations were determined by various spectroscopic methods, especially the NMR and Mo2-induced CD analyses. Compounds 13 provide the first examples of the C25 bicyclo[4.4.1]A/B ring steroids with the Z-configuration of 20,22-double bond. All of 114 weakly inhibited several human cancer cell lines to varying extents. These results provided additional examples for the successful application of the chemical mutagenesis strategy using DES to discover new compounds by activating silent metabolites in fungal isolates and supported also the effectiveness and usefulness of this new strategy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle CS5931, a Novel Polypeptide in Ciona savignyi, Represses Angiogenesis via Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs)
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1530-1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031530
Received: 15 November 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CS5931 is a novel polypeptide from Ciona savignyi with anticancer activities. Previous study in our laboratory has shown that CS5931 can induce cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In the present study, we found that the polypeptide could inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro
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CS5931 is a novel polypeptide from Ciona savignyi with anticancer activities. Previous study in our laboratory has shown that CS5931 can induce cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In the present study, we found that the polypeptide could inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. CS5931 inhibited the proliferation, migration and formation of capillary-like structures of HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, CS5931 repressed spontaneous angiogenesis of the zebrafish vessels. Further studies showed that CS5931 also blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production but without any effect on its mRNA expression. Moreover, CS5931 reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) both on protein and mRNA levels in HUVEC cells. We demonstrated that CS5931 possessed strong anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo, possible via VEGF and MMPs. This study indicates that CS5931 has the potential to be developed as a novel therapeutic agent as an inhibitor of angiogenesis for the treatment of cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Diabetic Effects of CTB-APSL Fusion Protein in Type 2 Diabetic Mice
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1512-1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031512
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL) fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori) baculovirus expression vector system
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To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL) fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori) baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), then the fusion protein was orally administrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five weeks in diabetic mice. The results demonstrated that the oral administration of CTB-APSL fusion protein can effectively reduce the levels of both fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb), promote insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance, significantly improve lipid metabolism, reduce triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and increase high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, as well as effectively improve the inflammatory response of type 2 diabetic mice through the reduction of the levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Histopathology shows that the fusion protein can significantly repair damaged pancreatic tissue in type 2 diabetic mice, significantly improve hepatic steatosis and hepatic cell cloudy swelling, reduce the content of lipid droplets in type 2 diabetic mice, effectively inhibit renal interstitial inflammatory cells invasion and improve renal tubular epithelial cell nucleus pyknosis, thus providing an experimental basis for the development of a new type of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Construction and Characterization of an Escherichia coli Mutant Producing Kdo2-Lipid A
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1495-1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031495
Received: 8 December 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo)2-lipid A is the conserved structure domain of lipopolysaccharide found in most Gram-negative bacteria, and it is believed to stimulate the innate immune system through the TLR4/MD2 complex. Therefore, Kdo2-lipid A is an important stimulator
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3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo)2-lipid A is the conserved structure domain of lipopolysaccharide found in most Gram-negative bacteria, and it is believed to stimulate the innate immune system through the TLR4/MD2 complex. Therefore, Kdo2-lipid A is an important stimulator for studying the mechanism of the innate immune system and for developing bacterial vaccine adjuvants. Kdo2-lipid A has not been chemically synthesized to date and could only be isolated from an Escherichia coli mutant strain, WBB06. WBB06 cells grow slowly and have to grow in the presence of tetracycline. In this study, a novel E. coli mutant strain, WJW00, that could synthesize Kdo2-lipid A was constructed by deleting the rfaD gene from the genome of E. coli W3110. The rfaD gene encodes ADP-l-glycero-d-manno-heptose-6-epimerase RfaD. Based on the analysis by SDS-PAGE, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS), WJW00 could produce similar levels of Kdo2-lipid A to WBB06. WJW00 cells grow much better than WBB06 cells and do not need to add any antibiotics during growth. Compared with the wild-type strain, W3110, WJW00 showed increased hydrophobicity, higher cell permeability, greater autoaggregation and decreased biofilm-forming ability. Therefore, WJW00 could be a more suitable strain than WBB06 for producing Kdo2-lipid A and a good base strain for developing lipid A adjuvants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipopolysaccharides)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Biophysical Parameters in the Antilipopolysaccharide Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Fish
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1471-1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031471
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
PDF Full-text (1254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs.
[...] Read more.
Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipopolysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1460-1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031460
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P.
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Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))
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Open AccessArticle Potential Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under Two Tidal Regimes
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1438-1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031438
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection
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Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell−1. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
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Open AccessArticle Genomic Sequence and Experimental Tractability of a New Decapod Shrimp Model, Neocaridina denticulata
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1419-1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031419
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 23 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (1537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a
[...] Read more.
The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10−6). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols and a Monoacylglycerol from the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1406-1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031406
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the
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A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 Ω9). Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 Ω3) combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 Ω3) or linolenic acid (C18:3 Ω3), respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC50 of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity. Full article
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