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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1676-1689; doi:10.3390/md12031676
Article

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of the Bifurcaria bifurcata Epiphytic Bacteria

1,†
, 1,†
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 2
, 1,3
 and 1,4,*
1 Marine Resources Research Group (GIRM), School of Tourism and Maritime Technology (ESTM), Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, 2520-641 Peniche, Portugal 2 Higher School of Agricultural Engineering (ETSEA), University of Lleida, E-25003 Lleida, Spain 3 Gulbenkian Institute of Science, 2780-156 Oeira, Portugal 4 Center of Pharmacology and Chemical Biopathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
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Abstract

Surface-associated marine bacteria are an interesting source of new secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of epiphytic bacteria from the marine brown alga, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bacteria extracts. The identification of epiphytic bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteria extracts were obtained with methanol and dichloromethane (1:1) extraction. The antioxidant activity of extracts was performed by quantification of total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Antimicrobial activities were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. A total of 39 Bifurcaria bifurcata-associated bacteria were isolated and 33 were identified as Vibrio sp. (48.72%), Alteromonas sp. (12.82%), Shewanella sp. (12.26%), Serratia sp. (2.56%), Citricoccus sp. (2.56%), Cellulophaga sp. (2.56%), Ruegeria sp. (2.56%) and Staphylococcus sp. (2.56%). Six (15.38%) of the 39 bacteria Bifurcaria bifurcata-associated bacteria presented less than a 90% Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) match, and some of those could be new. The highest antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity (against B. subtilis) was exhibited by strain 16 (Shewanella sp.). Several strains also presented high antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, mainly belonging to Alteromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. There were no positive results against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. Bifurcaria bifurcata epiphytic bacteria were revealed to be excellent sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.
Keywords: marine microorganisms; natural compounds; human pathogenic; Alteromonas sp.; Shewanella sp.; antibacterial; surface-associated microorganisms; marine symbiosis; macro-algae; seaweeds marine microorganisms; natural compounds; human pathogenic; Alteromonas sp.; Shewanella sp.; antibacterial; surface-associated microorganisms; marine symbiosis; macro-algae; seaweeds
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Horta, A.; Pinteus, S.; Alves, C.; Fino, N.; Silva, J.; Fernandez, S.; Rodrigues, A.; Pedrosa, R. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of the Bifurcaria bifurcata Epiphytic Bacteria. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1676-1689.

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