Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1185-1207; doi:10.3390/md12031185
Concept Paper

Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

Received: 12 November 2013; in revised form: 8 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
Keywords: domoic acid; amnesic shellfish poison; seizure; epilepsy; aggression; olfactory; piriform cortex; rat; sea lion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramsdell, J.S.; Gulland, F.M. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1185-1207.

AMA Style

Ramsdell JS, Gulland FM. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(3):1185-1207.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M. 2014. "Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 3: 1185-1207.

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