E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Metabolites in Diatoms"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Véronique Martin-Jézéquel

IUML, FR 3473 CNRS, University of Nantes, EA 2160, 2 rue de la Houssinière, F-44322, Nantes, France
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +33 2 51 12 56 66
Interests: diatoms; carbon and nitrogen metabolism; silicium; physiology; biochemistry; phytoplankton and microphytobenthos ecology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diatoms constitute one of the major lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes, and appear as major contributor in aquatic systems with more of 100,000 species. Moreover, they have a specific chemistry involved during their cellular growth in relation with their silica shell. Because of their success in many different habitats, open ocean, coastal waters or pools, from hypersaline to fresh waters, diatoms have developed physiological capacities within a wide range of growth conditions. Their biochemistry has been first studied with regard to their ecological situation, and their natural compounds first related to nutritional value and use in aquaculture. More recently, the role of diatoms as source of secondary metabolites with biological activity, such as the toxic domoïc acid, has been explored. Progress on identification of all theses components was recently facilitated due to the use of new techniques, including molecular genetic tools and different chemical approach. However, many aspects of diatom’s metabolism and production of natural compounds are still unknown. In this special issue, we want to explore all topics in physiological regulations and production of metabolites in relation with diatom’s growth. This issue will cover many aspects of diatom’s biochemistry, biosynthesis and diversity of metabolites, ecological role as well as prospects in biotechnological and biomedical application.

As guest editor, I invite you to contribute to the special issue on “Metabolites in Diatoms”.
Original research reports and reviews will be published online in Marine Drugs.

Dr. Véronique Martin-Jézéquel
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • diatom
  • secondary metabolite
  • biosynthesis
  • metabolic fingerprint
  • pigment
  • toxin (domoic acid)
  • oxylipin
  • polyunsaturated aldehyde (PUA)
  • polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)
  • chemical ecology
  • bioactive molecule
  • apoptosis
  • biotechnology

Published Papers (26 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-26
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Specific Metabolites in a Phaeodactylum tricornutum Strain Isolated from Western Norwegian Fjord Water
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(1), 9; doi:10.3390/md14010009
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
PDF Full-text (1168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have searched for special characteristics in growth, protein expression, fatty acids and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a local Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin strain (Bergen Marine Biobank), by comparing it with a common accession strain (CCAP). Differences in growth and expressed proteins were
[...] Read more.
We have searched for special characteristics in growth, protein expression, fatty acids and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a local Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin strain (Bergen Marine Biobank), by comparing it with a common accession strain (CCAP). Differences in growth and expressed proteins were detected between the BMB strain and the CCAP strain, and the BMB strain reached the highest cell densities under the given growth conditions. Fatty acid (FA) analyses showed highest relative eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels in the exponential phase (25.73% and 28.31%), and highest levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1 n-7) in the stationary phase (46.36% and 43.66%) in the BMB and CCAP strain, respectively. The most striking finding of the VOCs analyses was the relatively high levels of ectocarpene, 6-((1E)-butenyl)-1,4-cycloheptadiene, hormosirene, and desmarestene and structurally related compounds, which were exclusively detected in the BMB strain. Many of the VOCs detected in the CCAP and, in particular, in the BMB strain have been reported as antimicrobial agents. We suggest that the array of pheromones and antimicrobial substances could be part of an allelopathic strategy of the BMB strain, dominated by oval cells, thus reflecting the benthic life stage of this morphological form. These findings show the potential for bioactive metabolites in the BMB strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae) in Culture
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7067-7086; doi:10.3390/md13127055
Received: 27 June 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 26 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in
[...] Read more.
Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in estuarine and coastal waters reinforces the need to understand better the environmental control of its growth and domoic acid (DA) production. Here, we document Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth and toxicity on a large set of inorganic and organic nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, urea, glutamate, glutamine, arginine and taurine). Our study focused on two species isolated from European coastal waters: P. multiseries CCL70 and P. australis PNC1. The nitrogen sources induced broad differences between the two species with respect to growth rate, biomass and cellular DA, but no specific variation could be attributed to any of the inorganic or organic nitrogen substrates. Enrichment with ammonium resulted in an enhanced growth rate and cell yield, whereas glutamate did not support the growth of P. multiseries. Arginine, glutamine and taurine enabled good growth of P. australis, but without toxin production. The highest DA content was produced when P. multiseries grew with urea and P. australis grew with glutamate. For both species, growth rate was not correlated with DA content but more toxin was produced when the nitrogen source could not sustain a high biomass. A significant negative correlation was found between cell biomass and DA content in P. australis. This study shows that Pseudo-nitzschia can readily utilize organic nitrogen in the form of amino acids, and confirms that both inorganic and organic nitrogen affect growth and DA production. Our results contribute to our understanding of the ecophysiology of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and may help to predict toxic events in the natural environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Determination of Lipid Hydroperoxides in Marine Diatoms by the FOX2 Assay
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5767-5783; doi:10.3390/md13095767
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 2 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
PDF Full-text (533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ecologically-relevant marine diatoms produce a plethora of bioactive oxylipins deriving from fatty acid oxidation, including aldehydes, hydroxy-fatty acids, epoxy-hydroxy-fatty acids, and oxo-acids. These secondary metabolites have been related to the negative effect of diatoms on copepod reproduction, causing low hatching success and teratogenesis
[...] Read more.
Ecologically-relevant marine diatoms produce a plethora of bioactive oxylipins deriving from fatty acid oxidation, including aldehydes, hydroxy-fatty acids, epoxy-hydroxy-fatty acids, and oxo-acids. These secondary metabolites have been related to the negative effect of diatoms on copepod reproduction, causing low hatching success and teratogenesis in the offspring during periods of intense diatom blooms. The common intermediates in the formation of oxylipins are fatty acid hydroperoxides. The quantitative measurement of these intermediates can fundamentally contribute to understanding the function and role of lipoxygenase metabolites in diatom-copepod interactions. Here, we describe the successful adaptation of the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange 2 (FOX2) assay to diatom samples, which showed several advantages over other spectrophotometric and polarographic methods tested in the present work. Using this method we assessed fatty acid hydroperoxide levels in three diatom species: Skeletonema marinoi, Thalassiosira rotula, and Chaetoceros affinis, and discuss results in light of the literature data on their detrimental effects on copepod reproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effect of an Introduced Phytoene Synthase Gene Expression on Carotenoid Biosynthesis in the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5334-5357; doi:10.3390/md13085334
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Carotenoids exert beneficial effects on human health through their excellent antioxidant activity. To increase carotenoid productivity in the marine Pennales Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we genetically engineered the phytoene synthase gene (psy) to improve expression because RNA-sequencing analysis has suggested that the
[...] Read more.
Carotenoids exert beneficial effects on human health through their excellent antioxidant activity. To increase carotenoid productivity in the marine Pennales Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we genetically engineered the phytoene synthase gene (psy) to improve expression because RNA-sequencing analysis has suggested that the expression level of psy is lower than other enzyme-encoding genes that are involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. We isolated psy from P. tricornutum, and this gene was fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene to detect psy expression. After transformation using the microparticle bombardment technique, we obtained several P. tricornutum transformants and confirmed psy expression in their plastids. We investigated the amounts of PSY mRNA and carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin and β-carotene, at different growth phases. The introduction of psy increased the fucoxanthin content of a transformants by approximately 1.45-fold relative to the levels in the wild-type diatom. However, some transformants failed to show a significant increase in the carotenoid content relative to that of the wild-type diatom. We also found that the amount of PSY mRNA at log phase might contribute to the increase in carotenoids in the transformants at stationary phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessArticle Dangerous Relations in the Arctic Marine Food Web: Interactions between Toxin Producing Pseudo-nitzschia Diatoms and Calanus Copepodites
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3809-3835; doi:10.3390/md13063809
Received: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia produce domoic acid (DA), a toxin that is vectored in the marine food web, thus causing serious problems for marine organisms and humans. In spite of this, knowledge of interactions between grazing zooplankton and diatoms is restricted. In
[...] Read more.
Diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia produce domoic acid (DA), a toxin that is vectored in the marine food web, thus causing serious problems for marine organisms and humans. In spite of this, knowledge of interactions between grazing zooplankton and diatoms is restricted. In this study, we examined the interactions between Calanus copepodites and toxin producing Pseudo-nitzschia. The copepodites were fed with different concentrations of toxic P. seriata and a strain of P. obtusa that previously was tested to be non-toxic. The ingestion rates did not differ among the diets (P. seriata, P. obtusa, a mixture of both species), and they accumulated 6%–16% of ingested DA (up to 420 µg per dry weight copepodite). When P. seriata was exposed to the copepodites, either through physical contact with the grazers or separated by a membrane, the toxicity of P. seriata increased (up to 3300%) suggesting the response to be chemically mediated. The induced response was also triggered when copepodites grazed on another diatom, supporting the hypothesis that the cues originate from the copepodite. Neither pH nor nutrient concentrations explained the induced DA production. Unexpectedly, P. obtusa also produced DA when exposed to grazing copepodites, thus representing the second reported toxic polar diatom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Dissolved Polyunsaturated Aldehydes on Microzooplankton Growth Rates in the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Coastal Waters
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2834-2856; doi:10.3390/md13052834
Received: 25 January 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Allelopathy is wide spread among marine phytoplankton, including diatoms, which can produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA). Most studies on diatom-produced PUA have been dedicated to their inhibitory effects on reproduction and development of marine invertebrates. However, little information exists
[...] Read more.
Allelopathy is wide spread among marine phytoplankton, including diatoms, which can produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA). Most studies on diatom-produced PUA have been dedicated to their inhibitory effects on reproduction and development of marine invertebrates. However, little information exists on their impact on key herbivores in the ocean, microzooplankton. This study examined the effects of dissolved 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal on the growth rates of natural ciliate and dinoflagellate populations in the Chesapeake Bay and the coastal Atlantic waters. The overall effect of PUA on microzooplankton growth was negative, especially at the higher concentrations, but there were pronounced differences in response among common planktonic species. For example, the growth of Codonella sp., Leegaardiella sol, Prorodon sp., and Gyrodinium spirale was impaired at 2 nM, whereas Strombidium conicum, Cyclotrichium gigas, and Gymnodinium sp. were not affected even at 20 nM. These results indicate that PUA can induce changes in microzooplankton dynamics and species composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessArticle Ciona intestinalis as a Marine Model System to Study Some Key Developmental Genes Targeted by the Diatom-Derived Aldehyde Decadienal
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1451-1465; doi:10.3390/md13031451
Received: 12 January 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The anti-proliferative effects of diatoms, described for the first time in copepods, have also been demonstrated in benthic invertebrates such as polychaetes, sea urchins and tunicates. In these organisms PUAs (polyunsaturated aldehydes) induce the disruption of gametogenesis, gamete functionality, fertilization, embryonic mitosis, and
[...] Read more.
The anti-proliferative effects of diatoms, described for the first time in copepods, have also been demonstrated in benthic invertebrates such as polychaetes, sea urchins and tunicates. In these organisms PUAs (polyunsaturated aldehydes) induce the disruption of gametogenesis, gamete functionality, fertilization, embryonic mitosis, and larval fitness and competence. These inhibitory effects are due to the PUAs, produced by diatoms in response to physical damage as occurs during copepod grazing. The cell targets of these compounds remain largely unknown. Here we identify some of the genes targeted by the diatom PUA 2-trans-4-trans-decadienal (DD) using the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. The tools, techniques and genomic resources available for Ciona, as well as the suitability of Ciona embryos for medium-to high-throughput strategies, are key to their employment as model organisms in different fields, including the investigation of toxic agents that could interfere with developmental processes. We demonstrate that DD can induce developmental aberrations in Ciona larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, through a preliminary analysis, DD is shown to affect the expression level of genes involved in stress response and developmental processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessArticle Inventory of Fatty Acid Desaturases in the Pennate Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1317-1339; doi:10.3390/md13031317
Received: 17 December 2014 / Revised: 17 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 February 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The diatom Phaeodactylum is rich in very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Fatty acid (FA) synthesis, elongation, and desaturation have been studied in depth in plants including Arabidopsis, but for secondary endosymbionts the full picture remains unclear. FAs are synthesized up
[...] Read more.
The diatom Phaeodactylum is rich in very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Fatty acid (FA) synthesis, elongation, and desaturation have been studied in depth in plants including Arabidopsis, but for secondary endosymbionts the full picture remains unclear. FAs are synthesized up to a chain length of 18 carbons inside chloroplasts, where they can be incorporated into glycerolipids. They are also exported to the ER for phospho- and betaine lipid syntheses. Elongation of FAs up to 22 carbons occurs in the ER. PUFAs can be reimported into plastids to serve as precursors for glycerolipids. In both organelles, FA desaturases are present, introducing double bonds between carbon atoms and giving rise to a variety of molecular species. In addition to the four desaturases characterized in Phaeodactylum (FAD2, FAD6, PtD5, PtD6), we identified eight putative desaturase genes. Combining subcellular localization predictions and comparisons with desaturases from other organisms like Arabidopsis, we propose a scheme at the whole cell level, including features that are likely specific to secondary endosymbionts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Polyunsaturated Aldehydes on Skeletonema marinoi (Bacillariophyceae): The Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(7), 4165-4187; doi:10.3390/md12074165
Received: 18 January 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 30 June 2014 / Published: 14 July 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (854 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated in the marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi (SM), exposed to 2E,4E/Z-decadienal (DECA), 2E,4E/Z-octadienal (OCTA), 2E,4E/Z-heptadienal
[...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated in the marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi (SM), exposed to 2E,4E/Z-decadienal (DECA), 2E,4E/Z-octadienal (OCTA), 2E,4E/Z-heptadienal (HEPTA) and a mix of these last two (MIX). When exposed to polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA), a decrease of NO was observed, proportional to the PUA concentration (85% of the initial level after 180 min with 66 µM DECA). Only OCTA, HEPTA and MIX induced a parallel increase of ROS, the highest (2.9-times the control) with OCTA concentrations twice the EC50 for growth at 24 h (20 μM). The synthesis of carotenoids belonging to the xanthophyll cycle (XC) was enhanced during exposure, suggesting their antioxidant activity. Our data provide evidence that specific pathways exist as a reaction to PUA and that they depend upon the PUA used and/or the diatom species. In fact, Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PT) produces NO in response to DECA, but not to OCTA. We advance the hypothesis that SM perceives OCTA and HEPTA as intra-population infochemicals (as it produces PUA), while PT (non-PUA producing species) perceives them as allelochemicals. The ability to produce and to use PUA as infochemicals may underlie ecological traits of different diatom species and modulate ecological success in natural communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Link between Domoic Acid Production and Cell Physiology after Exchange of Bacterial Communities between Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Non-Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(6), 3587-3607; doi:10.3390/md12063587
Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacteria are known to influence domoic acid (DA) production by Pseudo-nitzschia spp., but the link between DA production and physiology of diatoms requires more investigation. We compared a toxic P. multiseries to a non-toxic P. delicatissima, investigating links between DA production, physiological
[...] Read more.
Bacteria are known to influence domoic acid (DA) production by Pseudo-nitzschia spp., but the link between DA production and physiology of diatoms requires more investigation. We compared a toxic P. multiseries to a non-toxic P. delicatissima, investigating links between DA production, physiological parameters, and co-occurring bacteria. Bacterial communities in cultures of both species were reduced by antibiotic treatment, and each of the diatoms was inoculated with the bacterial community of the other species. The physiology of P. delicatissima was minimally affected by the absence of bacteria or the presence of alien bacteria, and no DA was detected. P. multiseries grew faster without bacteria, did not produce a significant amount of DA, and exhibited physiological characteristics of healthy cells. When grown with alien bacteria, P. multiseries did not grow and produced more DA; the physiology of these cells was affected, with decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency, an increase in esterase activity, and almost 50% mortality of the cells. The alien bacterial community had morphological and cellular characteristics very different from the original bacteria, and the number of free-living bacteria per algal cell was much higher, suggesting the involvement of bacteria in DA production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessArticle Potential Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under Two Tidal Regimes
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1438-1459; doi:10.3390/md12031438
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection
[...] Read more.
Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell−1. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of the Diatom Phaeodactylum Δ5-Elongase Gene for Transgenic LC-PUFA Production in Pichia pastoris
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1317-1334; doi:10.3390/md12031317
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) up to 30% of the total fatty acids. This species has been targeted for isolating gene encoding desaturases and elongases for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) metabolic engineering. Here we first report the cloning
[...] Read more.
The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) up to 30% of the total fatty acids. This species has been targeted for isolating gene encoding desaturases and elongases for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) metabolic engineering. Here we first report the cloning and characterization of Δ5-elongase gene in P. tricornutum. A full-length cDNA sequence, designated PhtELO5, was shown to contain a 1110 bp open reading frame encoding a 369 amino acid polypeptide. The putative protein contains seven transmembrane regions and two elongase characteristic motifs of FLHXYHH and MYSYY, the latter being typical for microalgal Δ5-elongases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PhtELO5 belongs to the ELO5 group, tightly clustered with the counterpart of Thalassiosira pseudonana. Heterologous expression of PhtELO5 in Pichia pastoris confirmed that it encodes a specific Δ5-elongase capable of elongating arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Co-expression of PhtELO5 and IsFAD4 (a ∆4-desaturase from Isochrysis sphaerica) demonstrated that the high-efficiency biosynthetic pathway of docosahexaenoic acid was assembled in the transgenic yeast. Substrate competition revealed that PhtELO5 exhibited higher activity towards n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. It is hypothesized that Phaeodactylum ELO5 may preferentially participate in biosynthesis of transgenic LC-PUFA via a n-3 pathway in the yeast host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessArticle Polyunsaturated Aldehydes from Large Phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean Surface (42°N to 33°S)
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 682-699; doi:10.3390/md12020682
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are organic compounds mainly produced by diatoms, after cell wounding. These compounds are increasingly reported as teratogenic for species of grazers and deleterious for phytoplanktonic species, but there is still scarce information regarding concentration ranges and the composition of PUAs
[...] Read more.
Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are organic compounds mainly produced by diatoms, after cell wounding. These compounds are increasingly reported as teratogenic for species of grazers and deleterious for phytoplanktonic species, but there is still scarce information regarding concentration ranges and the composition of PUAs in the open ocean. In this study, we analyzed the spatial distribution and the type of aldehydes produced by the large-sized (>10 μm) phytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean surface. Analyses were conducted on PUAs released after mechanical disruption of the phytoplankton cells, referred to here as potential PUAs (pPUAs). Results show the ubiquitous presence of pPUA in the open ocean, including upwelling areas, as well as oligotrophic gyres. Total pPUA concentrations ranged from zero to 4.18 pmol from cells in 1 L. Identified PUAs were heptadienal, octadienal and decadienal, with heptadienal being the most common (79% of total stations). PUA amount and composition across the Atlantic Ocean was mainly related to the nitrogen:phosphorus ratio, suggesting nutrient-driven mechanisms of PUA production. Extending the range of trophic conditions considered by adding data reported for productive coastal waters, we found a pattern of PUA variation in relation to trophic status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Apoptogenic Metabolites in Fractions of the Benthic Diatom Cocconeis scutellum parva
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 547-567; doi:10.3390/md12010547
Received: 26 November 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Benthic diatoms of the genus Cocconeis contain a specific apoptogenic activity. It triggers a fast destruction of the androgenic gland in the early post-larval life of the marine shrimp Hippolyte inermis, leading to the generation of small females. Previous in vitro investigations
[...] Read more.
Benthic diatoms of the genus Cocconeis contain a specific apoptogenic activity. It triggers a fast destruction of the androgenic gland in the early post-larval life of the marine shrimp Hippolyte inermis, leading to the generation of small females. Previous in vitro investigations demonstrated that crude extracts of these diatoms specifically activate a dose-dependent apoptotic process in human cancer cells (BT20 breast carcinoma) but not in human normal lymphocytes. Here, a bioassay-guided fractionation has been performed to detect the apoptogenic compound(s). Various HPLC separation systems were needed to isolate the active fractions, since the apoptogenic metabolite is highly active, present in low amounts and is masked by abundant but non-active cellular compounds. The activity is due to at least two compounds characterized by different polarities, a hydrophilic and a lipophilic fraction. We purified the lipophilic fraction, which led to the characterization of an active sub-fraction containing a highly lipophilic compound, whose molecular structure has not yet been identified, but is under investigation. The results point to the possible medical uses of the active compound. Once the molecular structure has been identified, the study and modulation of apoptotic processes in various types of cells will be possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessArticle Haloperoxidase Mediated Quorum Quenching by Nitzschia cf pellucida: Study of the Metabolization of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones by a Benthic Diatom
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 352-367; doi:10.3390/md12010352
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 16 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diatoms are known to produce a variety of halogenated compounds, which were recently shown to have a role in allelopathic interactions between competing species. The production of these compounds is linked to haloperoxidase activity. This research, has shown that this system may also
[...] Read more.
Diatoms are known to produce a variety of halogenated compounds, which were recently shown to have a role in allelopathic interactions between competing species. The production of these compounds is linked to haloperoxidase activity. This research, has shown that this system may also be involved in diatom-bacteria interactions via the H2O2 dependent inactivation of a type of quorum sensing (QS) molecule, i.e., N-β-ketoacylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), by a natural haloperoxidase system from the benthic diatom Nitzschia cf pellucida. The AHL degradation pathway towards corresponding halogenated derivatives was elucidated via HPLC-MS analysis and the synthesis of a broad series of novel halogenated AHL analogues as reference compounds. Furthermore, their biological activity as quorum sensing modulators was directly compared and evaluated against a series of naturally occurring β-keto-AHLs. It has been demonstrated that the loss of the QS activity results from the final cleavage of the halogenated N-acyl chain of the signal molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Oxylipin Diversity in the Diatom Family Leptocylindraceae Reveals DHA Derivatives in Marine Diatoms
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 368-384; doi:10.3390/md12010368
Received: 18 November 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Marine planktonic organisms, such as diatoms, are prospective sources of novel bioactive metabolites. Oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids, generally referred to as oxylipins, in diatoms comprise a highly diverse and complex family of secondary metabolites. These molecules have recently been implicated in several
[...] Read more.
Marine planktonic organisms, such as diatoms, are prospective sources of novel bioactive metabolites. Oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids, generally referred to as oxylipins, in diatoms comprise a highly diverse and complex family of secondary metabolites. These molecules have recently been implicated in several biological processes including intra- and inter-cellular signaling as well as in defense against biotic stressors and grazers. Here, we analyze the production and diversity of C20 and C22 non-volatile oxylipins in five species of the family Leptocylindraceae, which constitute a basal clade in the diatom phylogeny. We report the presence of species-specific lipoxygenase activity and oxylipin patterns, providing the first demonstration of enzymatic production of docosahexaenoic acid derivatives in marine diatoms. The differences observed in lipoxygenase pathways among the species investigated broadly reflected the relationships observed with phylogenetic markers, thus providing functional support to the taxonomic diversity of the individual species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessArticle Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Oleaginous Marine Diatom Fistulifera sp. Strain JPCC DA0580
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 5008-5023; doi:10.3390/md11125008
Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 November 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in microalgae are of great importance for many reasons, including the production of biofuel and variable omega 3-long chain PUFAs. The elucidation of the PUFA biosynthesis pathway is necessary for bioengineering to increase or decrease PUFA
[...] Read more.
Studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in microalgae are of great importance for many reasons, including the production of biofuel and variable omega 3-long chain PUFAs. The elucidation of the PUFA biosynthesis pathway is necessary for bioengineering to increase or decrease PUFA content in certain microalgae. In this study, we identified the PUFA synthesis pathway in the oleaginous marine diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580, a promising candidate for biodiesel production. The data revealed not only the presence of the desaturases and elongases involved in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) synthesis, but also the unexpected localization of ω3-desaturase expression in the chloroplast. This suggests that this microalga might perform the final step of EPA synthesis in the chloroplast and not in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) like other diatoms. The detailed fatty acid profile suggests that the EPA was synthesized only through the ω6-pathway in this strain, which was also different from other diatoms. Finally, the transcriptome analysis demonstrated an overall down-regulation of desaturases and elongases over incubation time. These genetic features might explain the decrease of PUFA percentage over incubation time in this strain. The important insights into metabolite synthesis acquired here will be useful for future metabolic engineering to control PUFA content in this diatom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessArticle Chemical Diversity as a Function of Temperature in Six Northern Diatom Species
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4232-4245; doi:10.3390/md11114232
Received: 12 August 2013 / Revised: 17 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we investigate how metabolic fingerprints are related to temperature. Six common northern temperate diatoms (Attheya longicornis, Chaetoceros socialis, Chaetoceros furcellatus, Porosira glacialis, Skeletonema marinoi, and Thalassiosira gravida) were cultivated at two different temperatures,
[...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate how metabolic fingerprints are related to temperature. Six common northern temperate diatoms (Attheya longicornis, Chaetoceros socialis, Chaetoceros furcellatus, Porosira glacialis, Skeletonema marinoi, and Thalassiosira gravida) were cultivated at two different temperatures, 0.5 and 8.5 °C. To exclude metabolic variations due to differences in growth rates, the growth rates were kept similar by performing the experiments under light limited conditions but in exponential growth phase. Growth rates and maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis were measured and interpreted as physiological variables, and metabolic fingerprints were acquired by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The chemical diversity varied substantially between the two temperatures for the tested species, ranging from 31% similarity for C. furcellatus and P. glacialis to 81% similarity for A. longicornis. The chemical diversity was generally highest at the lowest temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Diatom-Specific Oligosaccharide and Polysaccharide Structures Help to Unravel Biosynthetic Capabilities in Diatoms
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5993-6018; doi:10.3390/md13095993
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diatoms are marine organisms that represent one of the most important sources of biomass in the ocean, accounting for about 40% of marine primary production, and in the biosphere, contributing up to 20% of global CO2 fixation. There has been a recent
[...] Read more.
Diatoms are marine organisms that represent one of the most important sources of biomass in the ocean, accounting for about 40% of marine primary production, and in the biosphere, contributing up to 20% of global CO2 fixation. There has been a recent surge in developing the use of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds in the food and cosmetic industries. In addition, the potential of diatoms such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum as cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals is currently under evaluation. These biotechnological applications require a comprehensive understanding of the sugar biosynthesis pathways that operate in diatoms. Here, we review diatom glycan and polysaccharide structures, thus revealing their sugar biosynthesis capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessReview Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5847-5881; doi:10.3390/md13095847
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which
[...] Read more.
Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessReview Silaffins in Silica Biomineralization and Biomimetic Silica Precipitation
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 5297-5333; doi:10.3390/md13085297
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomineralization processes leading to complex solid structures of inorganic material in biological systems are constantly gaining attention in biotechnology and biomedical research. An outstanding example for biomineral morphogenesis is the formation of highly elaborate, nano-patterned silica shells by diatoms. Among the organic macromolecules
[...] Read more.
Biomineralization processes leading to complex solid structures of inorganic material in biological systems are constantly gaining attention in biotechnology and biomedical research. An outstanding example for biomineral morphogenesis is the formation of highly elaborate, nano-patterned silica shells by diatoms. Among the organic macromolecules that have been closely linked to the tightly controlled precipitation of silica in diatoms, silaffins play an extraordinary role. These peptides typically occur as complex posttranslationally modified variants and are directly involved in the silica deposition process in diatoms. However, even in vitro silaffin-based peptides alone, with and without posttranslational modifications, can efficiently mediate biomimetic silica precipitation leading to silica material with different properties as well as with encapsulated cargo molecules of a large size range. In this review, the biomineralization process of silica in diatoms is summarized with a specific focus on silaffins and their in vitro silica precipitation properties. Applications in the area of bio- and nanotechnology as well as in diagnostics and therapy are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessReview Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3672-3709; doi:10.3390/md13063672
Received: 12 February 2015 / Revised: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 14 May 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted
[...] Read more.
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Figures

Open AccessReview Cadmium-Containing Carbonic Anhydrase CDCA1 in Marine Diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 1688-1697; doi:10.3390/md13041688
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 12 March 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Carbon Concentration Mechanism (CCM) allows phytoplakton species to accumulate the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) necessary for an efficient photosynthesis even under carbon dioxide limitation. In this mechanism of primary importance for diatoms, a key role is played by carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes
[...] Read more.
The Carbon Concentration Mechanism (CCM) allows phytoplakton species to accumulate the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) necessary for an efficient photosynthesis even under carbon dioxide limitation. In this mechanism of primary importance for diatoms, a key role is played by carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2, thus taking part in the acquisition of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis. A novel CA, named CDCA1, has been recently discovered in the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. CDCA1 is a cambialistic enzyme since it naturally uses Cd2+ as catalytic metal ion, but if necessary can spontaneously exchange Cd2+ to Zn2+. Here, the biochemical and structural features of CDCA1 enzyme will be presented together with its putative biotechnological applications for the detection of metal ions in seawaters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Figures

Open AccessReview Marennine, Promising Blue Pigments from a Widespread Haslea Diatom Species Complex
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(6), 3161-3189; doi:10.3390/md12063161
Received: 19 March 2014 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 29 April 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In diatoms, the main photosynthetic pigments are chlorophylls a and c, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin. The marine pennate diatom Haslea ostrearia has long been known for producing, in addition to these generic pigments, a water-soluble blue pigment, marennine. This pigment, responsible for
[...] Read more.
In diatoms, the main photosynthetic pigments are chlorophylls a and c, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin. The marine pennate diatom Haslea ostrearia has long been known for producing, in addition to these generic pigments, a water-soluble blue pigment, marennine. This pigment, responsible for the greening of oysters in western France, presents different biological activities: allelopathic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and growth-inhibiting. A method to extract and purify marennine has been developed, but its chemical structure could hitherto not be resolved. For decades, H. ostrearia was the only organism known to produce marennine, and can be found worldwide. Our knowledge about H. ostrearia-like diatom biodiversity has recently been extended with the discovery of several new species of blue diatoms, the recently described H. karadagensis, H. silbo sp. inedit. and H. provincialis sp. inedit. These blue diatoms produce different marennine-like pigments, which belong to the same chemical family and present similar biological activities. Aside from being a potential source of natural blue pigments, H. ostrearia-like diatoms thus present a commercial potential for aquaculture, cosmetics, food and health industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessReview Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 153-166; doi:10.3390/md12010153
Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 7 January 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1039 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This
[...] Read more.
The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium) and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCorrection Dolch, L.-J. and Maréchal, E. Inventory of Fatty Acid Desaturases in the Pennate Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 1317–1339
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5732-5735; doi:10.3390/md13095732
Received: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract We have found eight inadvertent errors in our paper published in Mar. Drugs [1]. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Marine Drugs Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
marinedrugs@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Marine Drugs
Back to Top