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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1460-1470; doi:10.3390/md12031460
Article

Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain

1,* , 2
 and 3
1 Research Institute for Production Development, Shimogamo-Morimoto-cho 15, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-0805, Japan 2 Okhotsk Sea Ice Museum of Hokkaido, Motomombetsu, Monbetsu, Hokkaido 094-0023, Japan 3 Hokkaido Research Organization, Abashiri Fisheries Research Institute, Minatomachi, Monbetsu, Hokkaido 094-0011, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids)
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Abstract

Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction.
Keywords: carotenoids; sea angels; food chain; metabolism carotenoids; sea angels; food chain; metabolism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maoka, T.; Kuwahara, T.; Narita, M. Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1460-1470.

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