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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1690-1698; doi:10.3390/md12031690
Review

New and Rare Carotenoids Isolated from Marine Bacteria and Their Antioxidant Activities

1,*  and 2
Received: 10 February 2014; in revised form: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids)
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Abstract: Marine bacteria have not been examined as extensively as land bacteria. We screened carotenoids from orange or red pigments-producing marine bacteria belonging to rare or novel species. The new acyclic carotenoids with a C30 aglycone, diapolycopenedioc acid xylosylesters A–C and methyl 5-glucosyl-5,6-dihydro-apo-4,4′-lycopenoate, were isolated from the novel Gram-negative bacterium Rubritalea squalenifaciens, which belongs to phylum Verrucomicrobia, as well as the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Planococcus maritimus strain iso-3 belonging to the class Bacilli, phylum Firmicutes, respectively. The rare monocyclic C40 carotenoids, (3R)-saproxanthin and (3R,2′S)-myxol, were isolated from novel species of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. In this review, we report the structures and antioxidant activities of these carotenoids, and consider relationships between bacterial phyla and carotenoid structures.
Keywords: diapolycopenedioc acid xylosylesters A–C; methyl 5-glucosyl-5, 6-dihydro-apo-4,4′-lycopenoate; (3R)-saproxanthin; (3R,2′S)-myxol; antioxidant activity diapolycopenedioc acid xylosylesters A–C; methyl 5-glucosyl-5, 6-dihydro-apo-4,4′-lycopenoate; (3R)-saproxanthin; (3R,2′S)-myxol; antioxidant activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shindo, K.; Misawa, N. New and Rare Carotenoids Isolated from Marine Bacteria and Their Antioxidant Activities. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1690-1698.

AMA Style

Shindo K, Misawa N. New and Rare Carotenoids Isolated from Marine Bacteria and Their Antioxidant Activities. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(3):1690-1698.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shindo, Kazutoshi; Misawa, Norihiko. 2014. "New and Rare Carotenoids Isolated from Marine Bacteria and Their Antioxidant Activities." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 3: 1690-1698.


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