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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2009), Pages 1-394

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Impact of Deoxynivalenol on the Intestinal Microflora of Pigs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/ijms10010001
Received: 6 November 2008 / Revised: 22 December 2008 / Accepted: 24 December 2008 / Published: 27 December 2008
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, is a frequent contaminant of cereal. In the present study, 24 weanling piglets received either control feed or feed naturally contaminated with DON (2.8 mg/kg) for four weeks. Consumption of contaminated feed significantly [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, is a frequent contaminant of cereal. In the present study, 24 weanling piglets received either control feed or feed naturally contaminated with DON (2.8 mg/kg) for four weeks. Consumption of contaminated feed significantly reduced the animal weight gain during the first week of the experiment, but had a moderate effect on cultivable bacteria in the pig intestine. By contrast, changes in the intestinal microflora were observed by Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) in DON-exposed animals, suggesting an impact of this toxin on the dynamics of intestinal bacteria communities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of Novel Microsatellite Markers for Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 18-27; doi:10.3390/ijms10010018
Received: 27 November 2008 / Revised: 15 December 2008 / Accepted: 18 December 2008 / Published: 27 December 2008
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To perform whole genome scanning for complex trait analysis, we isolated and characterized a total of 21 novel genomic-SSRs and EST-SSRs for yellow perch (Perca flavescens), using the methods of construction of SSR-enrichment libraries and EST database mining of a [...] Read more.
To perform whole genome scanning for complex trait analysis, we isolated and characterized a total of 21 novel genomic-SSRs and EST-SSRs for yellow perch (Perca flavescens), using the methods of construction of SSR-enrichment libraries and EST database mining of a related species P. fluviatilis. Of 16 genomic-SSR primer pairs examined, eight successfully amplified scorable products. The number of alleles at these informative loci varied from 3 - 14 with an average of 8.5 alleles per locus. When tested on wild perch from a population in Pennsylvania, observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.07 - 0.81 and from 0.37 - 0.95, respectively. Of 2,226 EST sequences examined, only 110 (4.93%) contained microsatellites and for those, 13 markers were tested, 12 of which exhibited polymorphism. Compared with genomic-SSRs, EST-SSRs exhibited a lower level of genetic variability with the number of alleles of averaging only 2.6 alleles per locus. Cross-species utility indicated that three of the genomic-SSRs and eight of the EST-SSRs successfully cross-amplified in a related species, the walleye (Sander vitreus). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Over-expression, Rapid Preparation and Some Properties of C-terminal BARc Region in PICK1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 28-36; doi:10.3390/ijms10010028
Received: 19 October 2008 / Revised: 16 December 2008 / Accepted: 18 December 2008 / Published: 27 December 2008
PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A DNA fragment encoding C-terminal BARc region (amino acids 128-416) of rat PICK1 (NP_445912 ) was inserted into a modified vector pMAL-s involving human rhinovirus 3C protease cleavage site to produce a recombinant plasmid, pMAL-s-barc. The construct can express the [...] Read more.
A DNA fragment encoding C-terminal BARc region (amino acids 128-416) of rat PICK1 (NP_445912 ) was inserted into a modified vector pMAL-s involving human rhinovirus 3C protease cleavage site to produce a recombinant plasmid, pMAL-s-barc. The construct can express the fusion protein, MBP-BARc in the soluble form in E.coli. To remove the MBP tag, MBP-BARc purified from amylose beads was digested with human rhinovirus 3C protease and the cleavage efficiency is about 95% when the ratio of protein / enzyme (w/w) reaches 50:1, as analyzed on SDS-PAGE. The enzymatic reaction mixture was rapidly separated into two parts, MBP in the supernatant and BARc in the precipitate at the concentration of 1 M ammonium sulfate. In such case, the target protein BARc could be economically produced in a soluble state to be as the sample for measuring its biochemical function, for example, protein-protein interaction and protein-lipid combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Developmental Toxicity of Ochratoxin A in Rat Embryo Midbrain Micromass Cultures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 37-49; doi:10.3390/ijms10010037
Received: 5 November 2008 / Revised: 15 December 2008 / Accepted: 18 December 2008 / Published: 27 December 2008
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Embryonic midbrain micromass cultures were exposed for five days to ochratoxin A (OTA) at seven concentrations (ranging from 0.16 to 10 ?g/mL). Cell viability was assessed in neutral red uptake test (NRU), and differentiation - by immunoenzymatic determination of structural proteins (?III-tubulin, MAP2, GFAP) expression level as well as by computer image analysis. Dose dependent decrease in cell number and differentiation was observed. Concentration-response curves were analysed and the mean inhibition concentrations (?g/mL) for cytotoxicity (IC50) and differentiation (ID50) were calculated. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity of neurons in early and late stage of differentiation and astrocytes to the toxic activity of this compound. For all endpoints ID50 value was very low (< 10 ?g/mL) so OTA was classified as a strong teratogen. IC50/ ID50 ratios <2 pointed out that with harmful action of OTA the basic cytotoxicity should be connected. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 50-61; doi:10.3390/ijms10010050
Received: 2 April 2008 / Revised: 12 December 2008 / Accepted: 17 December 2008 / Published: 27 December 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (82 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB1. Prolonged exposure to FB1 caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB1. Animals receiving a single dose of FB1 presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Function Annotation of an SBP-box Gene in Arabidopsis Based on Analysis of Co-expression Networks and Promoters
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 116-132; doi:10.3390/ijms10010116
Received: 21 October 2008 / Revised: 15 December 2008 / Accepted: 18 December 2008 / Published: 2 January 2009
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN–LIKE (SPL) gene family is an SBP-box transcription family in Arabidopsis. While several physiological responses to SPL genes have been reported, their biological role remains elusive. Here, we use a combined analysis of expression correlation, the interactome, [...] Read more.
The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN–LIKE (SPL) gene family is an SBP-box transcription family in Arabidopsis. While several physiological responses to SPL genes have been reported, their biological role remains elusive. Here, we use a combined analysis of expression correlation, the interactome, and promoter content to infer the biological role of the SPL genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of the SPL-correlated gene network reveals multiple functions for SPL genes. Network analysis shows that SPL genes function by controlling other transcription factor families and have relatives with membrane protein transport activity. The interactome analysis of the correlation genes suggests that SPL genes also take part in metabolism of glucose, inorganic salts, and ATP production. Furthermore, the promoters of the correlated genes contain a core binding cis-element (GTAC). All of these analyses suggest that SPL genes have varied functions in Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Molecular Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle Compensatory Growth Induced in Zebrafish Larvae after Pre-Exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa Natural Bloom Extract Containing Microcystins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 133-146; doi:10.3390/ijms10010133
Received: 5 November 2008 / Revised: 27 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 January 2009 / Published: 5 January 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Early life stage tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect toxic effects of compounds from a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom extracton their embryolarval development. We carried out the exposure of developing stages of fish to complex cyanobacterial blooms [...] Read more.
Early life stage tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect toxic effects of compounds from a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom extracton their embryolarval development. We carried out the exposure of developing stages of fish to complex cyanobacterial blooms containing hepatotoxic molecules - microcystins. Fish embryo tests performed with the bloom extract containing 3 mg·L-1 Eq microcystin-LR showed that after 24 h of exposure all fish embryos died. The same tests performed with other diluted extracts (containing 0.3, 0.1 and 0.03 mg·L-1 Eq microcystin-LR) were shown to have an influence on zebrafish development and a large number of embryos showed malformation signs (edema, bent and curving tail). After hatching the larvae were transferred to a medium without toxins to follow the larval development under the new conditions. The specific growth of the pre-exposed larvae was significantly more important than that of the control larvae. This may represent a compensatory growth used to reduce the difference in size with the control fish noted after hatching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
Open AccessArticle Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 174-183; doi:10.3390/ijms10010174
Received: 5 November 2008 / Revised: 10 December 2008 / Accepted: 29 December 2008 / Published: 6 January 2009
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 mg·kg-1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 mg·kg-1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day-1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. Full article
Open AccessArticle Extrudate versus Powder Silica Alumina as Support for Re2O7 Catalyst in the Metathesis of Seed Oil-Derivatives – A Comparison
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 213-220; doi:10.3390/ijms10010213
Received: 16 September 2008 / Revised: 26 December 2008 / Accepted: 29 December 2008 / Published: 8 January 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Self- and cross-metathesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) was investigated using a silica alumina supported Re2O7 catalyst. Although a 3 wt% Re2O7/SiO2-Al2O3/SnBu4 is already active for the [...] Read more.
Self- and cross-metathesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) was investigated using a silica alumina supported Re2O7 catalyst. Although a 3 wt% Re2O7/SiO2-Al2O3/SnBu4 is already active for the metathesis of unsaturated FAMEs, the results have shown that particle size of silica alumina support has a profound influence on its activity and selectivity. Consequently, high substrate conversions coupled with improved product yields (for mono- and diesters) and reaction rates were obtained upon using powder, as opposed to extrudate silica alumina as the support material. Diesters are platform compounds for the synthesis of polymers and fragrances. In this paper a comparative outline of the influence of particle size of silica alumina (extrudate versus powder) on catalytic performance of a 3 wt% Re2O7/SiO2-Al2O3/SnBu4 for self- and cross-metathesis of FAMEs is made. Low surface area and diffusion constraints associated with extrudates were identified as some of the factors leading to low catalytic activity and selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Structural Antitumoral Activity Relationships of Synthetic Chalcones
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 221-231; doi:10.3390/ijms10010221
Received: 30 September 2008 / Revised: 31 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 January 2009 / Published: 9 January 2009
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Relationships between the structural characteristic of synthetic chalcones and their antitumoral activity were studied. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones resulted in apoptosis induction and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. The calculated reactivity indexes and the adiabatic electron [...] Read more.
Relationships between the structural characteristic of synthetic chalcones and their antitumoral activity were studied. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones resulted in apoptosis induction and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. The calculated reactivity indexes and the adiabatic electron affinities using the DFT method including solvent effects, suggest a structure-activity relationship between the Chalcones structure and the apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The absence of methoxy substituents in the B ring of synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones, showed the mayor structure-activity pattern along the series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Mineral Content in Methanolic Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed Extract and Its Effect on Osteoblast Markers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 292-305; doi:10.3390/ijms10010292
Received: 31 August 2008 / Revised: 30 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 January 2009 / Published: 12 January 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds are used as a folk medicine to enhance bone formation or to prevent osteoporosis in Korea. Therefore, the methanolic extract of safflower seeds (MESS) containing high mineral content, such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and phosphorous [...] Read more.
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds are used as a folk medicine to enhance bone formation or to prevent osteoporosis in Korea. Therefore, the methanolic extract of safflower seeds (MESS) containing high mineral content, such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and phosphorous (P), was evaluated for the role on osteoblast (Ob) markers of Sprague-Dawley rats. In serum of 3 to 11 weeks (wks) old rats, both osteocalcin (OC) content and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) activity increased to their maximum levels in 4-7 wks. Hence, 3 wks old rats were selected for 8 wks oral treatment of MESS, resulted in the significant increase of Ob markers in serum such as OC content (4-8 wks), B-ALP activity (1-2 wks) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) level (1 wk), and the growth parameter such as the length of femur (2-8 wks) and tibia (4 wks). On the basis of Pearson’s correlation coefficient, there were a moderate correlation between OC and B-ALP at 8 wks, a low correlation between OC and IGF-I at 1, 4 and 8 wks, a moderate correlation between OC and femur length at 1, 2 and 8 wks, and a moderate correlations between OC and tibia length at 1 and 8 wks of MESS-treated groups. The result reveals that the changes of OC correlated at low to moderate level with the changes of B-ALP activity, IGF-I content and femur and tibia length in the MESS-treatment period. On the other hand, there were a strong correlation between IGF-I and femur length at 2 wks and moderate correlation between IGF-I and tibia length at 1, 2 and 8 wks of MESS-treated groups. Therefore, the effect of MESS on bone formation likely appears to be mediated by IGF-I at the early stage of treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exochelin Production in Mycobacterium neoaurum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 345-353; doi:10.3390/ijms10010345
Received: 26 September 2008 / Revised: 13 January 2009 / Accepted: 15 January 2009 / Published: 20 January 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycobacterium neoaurum is a soil saprophyte and obligate aerobic bacterium. This group of mycobacterium is relatively fast-growing. They form colonies on nutrient agar at 37ºC within 3 – 4 days. In natural soil habitats, bioavailability of iron is limited. To facilitate iron [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium neoaurum is a soil saprophyte and obligate aerobic bacterium. This group of mycobacterium is relatively fast-growing. They form colonies on nutrient agar at 37ºC within 3 – 4 days. In natural soil habitats, bioavailability of iron is limited. To facilitate iron uptake, most mycobacteria produce siderophores. One example is exochelin, which is extracellular and water-soluble. In this report, the production of exochelin in M. neoaurum was induced in iron-deficiency, but repressed under iron-sufficiency growth conditions. It is however not induced under zinc-deficiency growth conditions. The growth of this mycobacterium was correlated with exochelin secretion under iron-deficiency culture conditions. When M. neoaurum was grown in defined medium containing 0.04 μg Fe(III)/mL (final concentration), the production of exochelin reached a maximum and the corresponding cell growth was comparable to that under iron-sufficiency conditions. In this study, exochelin was purified from spent supernatant of M. neoaurum bysemi-preparative chromatography. When saturated ferric chloride solution was added into the purified exochelin, a ferri-exochelin complex was formed. It is proposed that iron uptake in M. neoaurum is exochelin-mediated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for 2,4-Dinitrophenol
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 354-365; doi:10.3390/ijms10010354
Received: 13 October 2008 / Revised: 19 December 2008 / Accepted: 17 January 2009 / Published: 22 January 2009
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) are considered one of the most promising selective and novel separation methods for removal phenolic compound in wastewater treatment. MIP are crosslinked polymeric materials that exhibit high binding capacity and selectivity towards a target molecule (template), purposely present [...] Read more.
Molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) are considered one of the most promising selective and novel separation methods for removal phenolic compound in wastewater treatment. MIP are crosslinked polymeric materials that exhibit high binding capacity and selectivity towards a target molecule (template), purposely present during the synthesis process. In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively. An adsorption process for removal of nitrophenol using the fabricated MIP was evaluated under various pH and time conditions. The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. The maximum adsorption of nitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was 3.50 mg/g. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was found effective at pH 6.0. A kinetics study showed that nitrophenol adsorption follows a second order adsorption rate and the adsorption isotherm data is explained well by the Langmuir model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Strategy for Adapting Wine Yeasts for Bioethanol Production
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 385-394; doi:10.3390/ijms10010385
Received: 2 December 2008 / Revised: 21 January 2009 / Accepted: 22 January 2009 / Published: 26 January 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains 71B-1122 and K1-V1116 were used to derive strains that could tolerate and produce higher ethanol yields. Respiratory-deficient mutants resistant to 500 mg/mL lycorine were isolated. Two mutants, 71B-1122 YEBr L3 and K1-V1116 YEBr L4, were shown [...] Read more.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains 71B-1122 and K1-V1116 were used to derive strains that could tolerate and produce higher ethanol yields. Respiratory-deficient mutants resistant to 500 mg/mL lycorine were isolated. Two mutants, 71B-1122 YEBr L3 and K1-V1116 YEBr L4, were shown to achieve about 10% and 18% improvement in their glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency compared to their respective parent strains. The K1-V1116 YEBr L4 in particular can tolerate an ethanol yield of 18.8 ± 0.8% at 3.5 weeks of fermentation and continued to consume most of the sugar until less than 1% glucose was left. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview An Overview of Conventional and Emerging Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mycotoxins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 62-115; doi:10.3390/ijms10010062
Received: 29 October 2008 / Revised: 24 November 2008 / Accepted: 1 January 2009 / Published: 2 January 2009
Cited by 64 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycotoxins are a group of compounds produced by various fungi and excreted into the matrices on which they grow, often food intended for human consumption or animal feed. The high toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds and their ability to cause various [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are a group of compounds produced by various fungi and excreted into the matrices on which they grow, often food intended for human consumption or animal feed. The high toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds and their ability to cause various pathological conditions has led to widespread screening of foods and feeds potentially polluted with them. Maximum permissible levels in different matrices have also been established for some toxins. As these are quite low, analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins have to be both sensitive and specific. In addition, an appropriate sample preparation and pre-concentration method is needed to isolate analytes from rather complicated samples. In this article, an overview of methods for analysis and sample preparation published in the last ten years is given for the most often encountered mycotoxins in different samples, mainly in food. Special emphasis is on liquid chromatography with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection, while in the field of sample preparation various solid-phase extraction approaches are discussed. However, an overview of other analytical and sample preparation methods less often used is also given. Finally, different matrices where mycotoxins have to be determined are discussed with the emphasis on their specific characteristics important for the analysis (human food and beverages, animal feed, biological samples, environmental samples). Various issues important for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses are critically discussed: sampling and choice of representative sample, sample preparation and possible bias associated with it, specificity of the analytical method and critical evaluation of results. Full article
Open AccessReview Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 147-173; doi:10.3390/ijms10010147
Received: 7 November 2008 / Revised: 16 December 2008 / Accepted: 5 January 2009 / Published: 6 January 2009
Cited by 91 | PDF Full-text (128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage [...] Read more.
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the disease, and reduce trichothecene contamination of cereal-based food products. This review provides a brief summary of the trichothecene synthesis in Fusarium species, their toxicity in plants and humans, followed by the current methods of screening and breeding for resistance to FHB and trichothecene accumulation. Full article
Open AccessReview Molecular Neuropathology of Gliomas
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 184-212; doi:10.3390/ijms10010184
Received: 9 December 2008 / Revised: 2 January 2009 / Accepted: 5 January 2009 / Published: 7 January 2009
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gliomas are the most common primary human brain tumors. They comprise a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms that are histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the nervous system. Over the past 20 years [...] Read more.
Gliomas are the most common primary human brain tumors. They comprise a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms that are histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the nervous system. Over the past 20 years the cytogenetic and molecular genetic alterations associated with glioma formation and progression have been intensely studied and genetic profiles as additional aids to the definition of brain tumors have been incorporated in the WHO classification. In fact, first steps have been undertaken in supplementing classical histopathological diagnosis by the use of molecular tests, such as MGMT promoter hypermethylation in glioblastomas or detection of losses of chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors. The tremendous progress that has been made in the use of array-based profiling techniques will likely contribute to a further molecular refinement of glioma classification and lead to the identification of glioma core pathways that can be specifically targeted by more individualized glioma therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Neuropathology)
Open AccessReview Molecular Neuropathology of TDP-43 Proteinopathies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 232-246; doi:10.3390/ijms10010232
Received: 19 December 2008 / Revised: 6 January 2009 / Accepted: 8 January 2009 / Published: 9 January 2009
Cited by 69 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The identification of TDP-43 as the major component of the pathologic inclusions in most forms of sporadic and familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) resolved a long-standing enigma concerning the nature of the ubiquitinated disease [...] Read more.
The identification of TDP-43 as the major component of the pathologic inclusions in most forms of sporadic and familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) resolved a long-standing enigma concerning the nature of the ubiquitinated disease protein under these conditions. Anti-TDP-43 immunohistochemistry and the recent development of novel tools, such as phosphorylation-specific TDP-43 antibodies, have increased our knowledge about the spectrum of pathological changes associated with FTLD-U and ALS and moreover, facilitated the neuropathological routine diagnosis of these conditions. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding on the molecular neuropathology and pathobiology of TDP-43 in FTLD and ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Neuropathology)
Open AccessReview The Capabilities of Chaos and Complexity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 247-291; doi:10.3390/ijms10010247
Received: 6 November 2008 / Revised: 27 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 January 2009 / Published: 9 January 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To what degree could chaos and complexity have organized a Peptide or RNA World of crude yet necessarily integrated protometabolism? How far could such protolife evolve in the absence of a heritable linear digital symbol system that could mutate, instruct, regulate, optimize [...] Read more.
To what degree could chaos and complexity have organized a Peptide or RNA World of crude yet necessarily integrated protometabolism? How far could such protolife evolve in the absence of a heritable linear digital symbol system that could mutate, instruct, regulate, optimize and maintain metabolic homeostasis? To address these questions, chaos, complexity, self-ordered states, and organization must all be carefully defined and distinguished. In addition their cause-and-effect relationships and mechanisms of action must be delineated. Are there any formal (non physical, abstract, conceptual, algorithmic) components to chaos, complexity, self-ordering and organization, or are they entirely physicodynamic (physical, mass/energy interaction alone)? Chaos and complexity can produce some fascinating self-ordered phenomena. But can spontaneous chaos and complexity steer events and processes toward pragmatic benefit, select function over non function, optimize algorithms, integrate circuits, produce computational halting, organize processes into formal systems, control and regulate existing systems toward greater efficiency? The question is pursued of whether there might be some yet-to-be discovered new law of biology that will elucidate the derivation of prescriptive information and control. “System” will be rigorously defined. Can a low-informational rapid succession of Prigogine’s dissipative structures self-order into bona fide organization? Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Origin of Life)
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Open AccessReview Potential Mechanisms of Muscle Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging and Obesity and Cellular Consequences
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 306-324; doi:10.3390/ijms10010306
Received: 10 October 2008 / Revised: 7 January 2009 / Accepted: 9 January 2009 / Published: 13 January 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mitochondria play a key role in the energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. A new concept has emerged suggesting that impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle may be the underlying defect that causes insulin resistance. According to current knowledge, the causes and [...] Read more.
Mitochondria play a key role in the energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. A new concept has emerged suggesting that impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle may be the underlying defect that causes insulin resistance. According to current knowledge, the causes and the underlying molecular mechanisms at the origin of decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle still remain to be elucidated. The present review focuses on recent data investigating these issues in the area of metabolic disorders and describes the potential causes, mechanisms and consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular System Bioenergetics)
Open AccessReview High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 325-344; doi:10.3390/ijms10010325
Received: 28 November 2008 / Revised: 8 January 2009 / Accepted: 13 January 2009 / Published: 15 January 2009
Cited by 64 | PDF Full-text (997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are [...] Read more.
For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology for the 21st Century - Materials and Devices)
Open AccessReview The Importance of Brain Banks for Molecular Neuropathological Research: The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre Experience
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 366-384; doi:10.3390/ijms10010366
Received: 19 December 2008 / Revised: 14 January 2009 / Accepted: 22 January 2009 / Published: 23 January 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New developments in molecular neuropathology have evoked increased demands for postmortem human brain tissue. The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (TRC) at The University of Sydney has grown from a small tissue collection into one of the leading international brain banking [...] Read more.
New developments in molecular neuropathology have evoked increased demands for postmortem human brain tissue. The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (TRC) at The University of Sydney has grown from a small tissue collection into one of the leading international brain banking facilities, which operates with best practice and quality control protocols. The focus of this tissue collection is on schizophrenia and allied disorders, alcohol use disorders and controls. This review highlights changes in TRC operational procedures dictated by modern neuroscience, and provides examples of applications of modern molecular techniques to study the neuropathogenesis of many different brain disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Neuropathology)

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