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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 133-146; doi:10.3390/ijms10010133
Article

Compensatory Growth Induced in Zebrafish Larvae after Pre-Exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa Natural Bloom Extract Containing Microcystins

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1 Department of Biology, Laboratory of Biology and Biotechnology of Microorganisms, Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Unit, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, P.O. Box 2390, Marrakech 40000, Morocco 2 Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, CIIMAR/CIMAR-LA, Rua dos Bragas 289, Porto 4050-123, Portugal 3 Departamento de Zoologia e Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal 4 Departamento de Biologia, Laboratorio de Fisiologia Vegetal, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2008 / Revised: 27 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 January 2009 / Published: 5 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Abstract

Early life stage tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect toxic effects of compounds from a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom extracton their embryolarval development. We carried out the exposure of developing stages of fish to complex cyanobacterial blooms containing hepatotoxic molecules - microcystins. Fish embryo tests performed with the bloom extract containing 3 mg·L-1 Eq microcystin-LR showed that after 24 h of exposure all fish embryos died. The same tests performed with other diluted extracts (containing 0.3, 0.1 and 0.03 mg·L-1 Eq microcystin-LR) were shown to have an influence on zebrafish development and a large number of embryos showed malformation signs (edema, bent and curving tail). After hatching the larvae were transferred to a medium without toxins to follow the larval development under the new conditions. The specific growth of the pre-exposed larvae was significantly more important than that of the control larvae. This may represent a compensatory growth used to reduce the difference in size with the control fish noted after hatching.
Keywords: Cyanobacterial bloom extract; Natural risk; Microcystins; Malformations; Compensatory growth Cyanobacterial bloom extract; Natural risk; Microcystins; Malformations; Compensatory growth
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Ghazali, I.E.; Saqrane, S.; Carvalho, A.P.; Ouahid, Y.; Oudra, B.; Fernandez Del Campo, F.; Vasconcelos, V. Compensatory Growth Induced in Zebrafish Larvae after Pre-Exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa Natural Bloom Extract Containing Microcystins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 133-146.

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