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Compensatory Growth Induced in Zebrafish Larvae after Pre-Exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa Natural Bloom Extract Containing Microcystins
Department of Biology, Laboratory of Biology and Biotechnology of Microorganisms, Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Unit, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, P.O. Box 2390, Marrakech 40000, Morocco
Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, CIIMAR/CIMAR-LA, Rua dos Bragas 289, Porto 4050-123, Portugal
Departamento de Zoologia e Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Departamento de Biologia, Laboratorio de Fisiologia Vegetal, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2008; in revised form: 27 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 January 2009 / Published: 5 January 2009
Abstract: Early life stage tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect toxic effects of compounds from a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom extracton their embryolarval development. We carried out the exposure of developing stages of fish to complex cyanobacterial blooms containing hepatotoxic molecules - microcystins. Fish embryo tests performed with the bloom extract containing 3 mg·L-1 Eq microcystin-LR showed that after 24 h of exposure all fish embryos died. The same tests performed with other diluted extracts (containing 0.3, 0.1 and 0.03 mg·L-1 Eq microcystin-LR) were shown to have an influence on zebrafish development and a large number of embryos showed malformation signs (edema, bent and curving tail). After hatching the larvae were transferred to a medium without toxins to follow the larval development under the new conditions. The specific growth of the pre-exposed larvae was significantly more important than that of the control larvae. This may represent a compensatory growth used to reduce the difference in size with the control fish noted after hatching.
Keywords: Cyanobacterial bloom extract; Natural risk; Microcystins; Malformations; Compensatory growth
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Ghazali, I.E.; Saqrane, S.; Carvalho, A.P.; Ouahid, Y.; Oudra, B.; Fernandez Del Campo, F.; Vasconcelos, V. Compensatory Growth Induced in Zebrafish Larvae after Pre-Exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa Natural Bloom Extract Containing Microcystins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 133-146.
Ghazali IE, Saqrane S, Carvalho AP, Ouahid Y, Oudra B, Fernandez Del Campo F, Vasconcelos V. Compensatory Growth Induced in Zebrafish Larvae after Pre-Exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa Natural Bloom Extract Containing Microcystins. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(1):133-146.
Ghazali, Issam E.; Saqrane, Sanaa; Carvalho, Antonio P.; Ouahid, Youness; Oudra, Brahim; Fernandez Del Campo, Francisca; Vasconcelos, Vitor. 2009. "Compensatory Growth Induced in Zebrafish Larvae after Pre-Exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa Natural Bloom Extract Containing Microcystins." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 1: 133-146.