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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 133-146; doi:10.3390/ijms10010133
Article

Compensatory Growth Induced in Zebrafish Larvae after Pre-Exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa Natural Bloom Extract Containing Microcystins

1
, 1
, 2,3
, 4
, 1
, 4
 and 1,*
1 Department of Biology, Laboratory of Biology and Biotechnology of Microorganisms, Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Unit, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, P.O. Box 2390, Marrakech 40000, Morocco 2 Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, CIIMAR/CIMAR-LA, Rua dos Bragas 289, Porto 4050-123, Portugal 3 Departamento de Zoologia e Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal 4 Departamento de Biologia, Laboratorio de Fisiologia Vegetal, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2008 / Revised: 27 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 January 2009 / Published: 5 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Abstract

Early life stage tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect toxic effects of compounds from a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom extracton their embryolarval development. We carried out the exposure of developing stages of fish to complex cyanobacterial blooms containing hepatotoxic molecules - microcystins. Fish embryo tests performed with the bloom extract containing 3 mg·L-1 Eq microcystin-LR showed that after 24 h of exposure all fish embryos died. The same tests performed with other diluted extracts (containing 0.3, 0.1 and 0.03 mg·L-1 Eq microcystin-LR) were shown to have an influence on zebrafish development and a large number of embryos showed malformation signs (edema, bent and curving tail). After hatching the larvae were transferred to a medium without toxins to follow the larval development under the new conditions. The specific growth of the pre-exposed larvae was significantly more important than that of the control larvae. This may represent a compensatory growth used to reduce the difference in size with the control fish noted after hatching.
Keywords: Cyanobacterial bloom extract; Natural risk; Microcystins; Malformations; Compensatory growth Cyanobacterial bloom extract; Natural risk; Microcystins; Malformations; Compensatory growth
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghazali, I.E.; Saqrane, S.; Carvalho, A.P.; Ouahid, Y.; Oudra, B.; Fernandez Del Campo, F.; Vasconcelos, V. Compensatory Growth Induced in Zebrafish Larvae after Pre-Exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa Natural Bloom Extract Containing Microcystins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 133-146.

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