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Special Issue "Natural Compounds for the Treatment and Prevention of Metabolic Diseases"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chang Won Choi

Department of Biology & Medicinal Science, Pai Chai University, 155-40 Baejae-ro, Seo-Gu, Daejeon 35345, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-42-520-5617
Fax: +82-70-4362-6308
Interests: plant-derived biomedicines; plant-made pharmaceuticals; molecular farming; recombinant proteins; plant metabolic engineering; hypoglycaemic; hypolipidemic; antioxidants; antiviral

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A number of plant species worldwide are known to have hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic or both activities. Despite the presence of known anti-diabetic or anti-lipidemic medicines in the pharmaceutical market, search for new sources from natural plants or resources is still attractive, because they contain substances that have an alternative on diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Numerous studies have been published, though, the natual compounds and their modes of action are not fully understood yet. The objective of this special issue is to provide high quality research results on novel findings of the effects and mechanisms of natural compounds on pathways involved in metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity.

Dr. Chang Won Choi
Guest Editor

Leading Papers and Reviews

  • Visavadiya, N.P.; Narasimhacharya, A.V.R.L.; Hypocholesteremic and antioxidant effects of Withania somnifera (Dunal) in hypercholesteremic rats. Phytomedicine 2007, 14, 136-142.
  • Chan, C.M.; Chan, Y.W.; Lau, C.H.; Lau, T.W.; Lau, K.M.; Lam, F.C.; Che, C.T.; Leung, P.C.; Fung, K.P.; Lau, C.B.S.; Ho, Y.Y.; Influence of an anti-diabetic foot ulcer formula and its component herbs on tissue and systemic glucose homeostasis. J. Ethnopharm. 2007, 109, 10-20.
  • Chenni, A.; Ait Yahia, D.; Boukortt, F.O.; Prost, J.; Lacaille-Dubois, M.A.; Bouchenak, M.; Effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva supplementation on plasma lipid profile and tissue antioxidant status in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. J. Ethnopharm. 2007, 109, 207-213.
  • Sánchez-Salgado, J.C.; Ortiz-Andrade, R.R.; Aguirre-Crespo, F.; Vergara-Galicia, J.; León-Rivera, I.; Montes, S.; Villalobos-Molina, R.; Estrada-Soto, S.; Hypoglycemic, vasorelaxant and hepatoprotective effects of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Sprengel: A potential agent for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. J. Ethnopharm. 2007, 109, 400-405.
  • Kumari, K.; Augusti, K.T.; Lipid lowering effect of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide from Allium cepa Linn in high cholesterol diet fed rats. J. Ethnopharm. 2007, 109, 367-371.
  • Choi, S.-E.; Shin, H.-C.; Kim, H.-E.; Lee, S.-J.; Jang, H.-J.; Lee, K.-W.; Kang, Y.; Involvement of Ca2+, CaMK II and PKA in EGb 761-induced insulin secretion in INS-1 cells. J. Ethnopharm. 2007, 110, 49-55.
  • Nakagawa, T.; Goto, H.; Hikiami, H.; Yokozawa, T.; Shibahara, N.; Shimada, Y.; Protective effects of keishibukuryogan on the kidney of spontaneously diabetic WBN/Kob rat. J. Ethnopharm. 2007, 110, 311-317.
  • Kim, C.-S.; Sohn, E.J.; Lim, Y. S.; Jung, D. H.; Jang, D.S.; Lee, Y.M.; Kim, D.-H.; Kim, J.S.; Effect of KIOM-79 on hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. J. Ethnopharm. 2007, 111, 240-247.
  • Jung, H.-J.; Nam, J.-H.; Park, H.-J.; Lee, K.T.; Park, K.-K.; Kim, W.-B.; Choi, J.; The MeOH extract of Pleurospermum kamtschaticum and its active component buddlejasaponin (IV) inhibits intrinsic and extrinsic hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in the rat. J. Ethnopharm. 2007, (in press).
  • Gad, M.Z.; El-Sawalhi, M.M.; Ismail, M.F.; El-Tanbouly, N.D.; Biochemical study of the anti-diabetic action of the Egyptian plants Fenugreek and Balanites. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2006, 281, 173-183.
  • Abidi, P.; Chen, W.; Kraemer, F.B.; Li, H.; Liu, J.; The medicinal plant goldenseal is a natural LDL-lowering agent with multiple bioactive components and new action mechanisms. J. Lipid Res. 2006, 47, 2134-2147.
  • Lemhadri, A.; Hajji, L.; Michel, J.-B.; Eddouks, M.; Cholesterol and triglycerides lowering activities of caraway fruits in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharm. 2006, 106, 321-326.
  • Zeggwagh, N.-A.; Ouahidi, M.-L.; Lemhardi, A.; Eddouks, M.; Study of hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects of Inula viscosa L. aqueous extract in normal and diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharm. 2006, 108, 223-227.
  • Sharma, S.B.; Nasir, A.; Prabhu, K.M.; Murthy, P.S.; Antihyperglycemic effect of the fruit-pulp of Eugenia jambolana in experimental diabetes mellitus. J. Ethnopharm. 2006, 104, 367-373.
  • Banskota, A.H.; Nguyen, N.T.; Tezuka, Y.; Nobukawa, T.; Kadota, S.; Hypoglycemic effects of the wood of Taxus yunnanensis on streoptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and its active components. Phytomedicine 2006, 13, 109-114.
  • Ribnicky, D.M.; Poulev, A.; Watford, M.; Cefalu, W.T.; Raskin, I.; Antihyperglycemic activities of TarralinTM, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. Phytomedicine 2006, 13, 550-557.
  • Martineau, L.C.; Couture, A.; Spoor, D.; Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A.; Harris, C.; Meddah, B.; Leduc, C.; Burt, A.; Vuong, T.; Le, P.M.; Prentki, M.; Bennett, S.A,; Arnason, J.T.; Haddad, P.S.; Anti-diabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Phytomedicine 2006, 13, 612-623.
  • Narendhirakannan, R.T.; Subramanian, S.; Kandaswamy, M.; Biochemical evaluation of antidiabetogenic properties of some commonly used Indian plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats. Clin. Exp. Pharm. Physiol. 2006, 33, 1150-1157.
  • Saravanan, R.; Pari, L.; Antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin, a polyherbal formulation in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2005, 5, 14
  • Han, L.-K.; Zheng, Y.-N.; Yoshikawa, M.; Okuda, H.; Kimura, Y.; Anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from Panax japonicus rhizomes. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2005, 5, 9
  • Grover, J.K.; Vats, V.; Yadav, S.S.; Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate. Diabetes, Obes. Metab. 2005, 7, 414-420.
  • Mahomoodally, M.F.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty, A.H.; Experimental evidence for in vitro fluid transport in the presence of a traditional medicinal fruit extract across rat everted intestinal sacs. Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology 2004, 19, 87-92.
  • Attele, A.S.; Zhou, Y.-P.; Xie, J.-T.; Wu, J.A.; Zhang, L.; Dey, L.; Pugh, W.; Rue, P.A.; Polonsky, K.S.; Yuan, C.-S,; Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component. Diabetes 2002, 51, 1851-1858.
  • Best, L.; Elliott, A.C.; Brown, P.D.; Curcumin induces electrical activity in rat pancreatic β-cells by activating the volume-regulated anion channel. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2007, 73, 1768-1775.
  • Araszkiewicz, A.; Zozulińska, D.A.; Trepińska, M.M.; Wierusz-Wysocka, B.; Inflammatory markers as risk factors for microangiopathy in type 1 diabetic patients on functional intensive insulin therapy from the onset of the disease. Diab. Res. Clin. Pract. 2006, 74S, S34-S40.
  • Wood, D.M.; Athwal, S.; Panahloo, A.; The advantage and disadvantages of a ‘herbal’ medicine in a patient with diabetes mellitus” a case report. Diabet. Med. 2004, 21, 625-627.
  • de Galan, B.E.; Netea, M.G.; Smits, P.; van der Meer, J.W.M.; Hypoglycaemia downregulates endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-α, but does not affect IL-1β, IL-6 or IL-10. Cytokine, 2003, 22, 71-76.
  • Costantino, L.; Raimondi, L.; Pirisino, R.; Brunetti, T.; Pessotto, P.; Giannessi, F.; Lins, A.P.; Barlocco, D.; Antolini, L.; El-Abady, S.A.; Isolation and pharmacological activities of the Tecoma stans alkaloids. IL Farmaco, 2003, 58, 781-785.
  • M’Bemba, J.; Cynober, L.; de Bandt, P.; Taverna, M.; Chevalier, A.; Bardin, C.; Slama, G.; Selam, J.L.; Effects of dipeptide administration on hypoglycaemic counterregulation in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2003, 29, 412-417.
  • Lindstöm, J.; Peltonen, M.; Eriksson, J.E.; Louheranta, A.; Fogelholm, M.; Uusitupa, M.; Tuomilehto, J.; High-fibre, low-fat diet predicts lomg-term weight loss and decreased type 2 diabetes risk: the Finnish diabetes prevention study. Diabetologia 2006, 49, 912-920.
  • Wang, S.J.Y.; Birtles, S.; de Schoolmeester, J.; Swales, J.; Moody, G.; Hislop, D.; O’Dowd, J.; Smith, D.M.; Turnbull, A.V.; Arch, J.R.S.; Inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reduces food intake and weight gain but maintains energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice. Diabetologia 2006, 49, 1333-1337.
  • Dorfmeister, B.; Brandlhofer, S.; Schaap, F.G.; Hermann, M.; Fürnsinn, C.; Hagerty, B.P.; Stangl, H.; Patsch, W.; Strobl, W.; Apolipoprotein AV does not contribute to hypertriglyceridaemia or triglyceride lowering by dietary fish oil and rosglitazone in obese Zucker rats. Diabetologia 2006, 49, 1324-1332
  • Babaya, N.; Nakayama, M.; Moriyama, H.; Gianani, R.; Still, T.; Miao, D.; Yu, L.; Hutton, J.C.; Eisenbarth, G.S.; A new model of insulin-deficient diabetes: male NOD mice with a single copy of Ins1 and no Ins2. Diabetologia, 2006, 49, 1222-1228.
  • Levy, E.; Spahis, S.; Ziv, E.; Marette, A.; Elchebly, M.; Lambert, M.; Delvin, E.; Overproduction of intestinal lipoprotein containing apolipoprotein B-48 in Psammomys obesus: impact of dietary n-3 fatty acids. Diabetologia 2006, 49, 1937-1945.
  • Nolan, C.J.; Leahy, J.L.; Delghingaro-Augusto, V.; Moibi, J.; Soni, K.; Peyot, M.-L.; Fortier, M.; Guay, C.; Lamontagne, J.; Barbeau, A.; Przybytkowski, E.; Joly, E.; Masiello, P.; Wang, S.; Mitchell, G.A.; Prentki, M.; Beta cell compensation for insulin resistance in Zucker fatty rats: increased lipolysis and fatty acid signaling. Diabetologia 2006, 49, 2120-2130.
  • Obrosova, I.G.; Drel, V.R.; Kumagai, A.K.; Szábo, C.; Pacher, P.; Stevens, M.J.; Early diabetes-induced biochemical changes in the retina: comparison of rat and mouse models. Diabetologia 2006, 49, 2525-2533.
  • Bidel, S.; Hu, G.; Jousilahti, P.; Antikainen, R.; Tuomilehto, J.; Coffee consumption and risk of total and cardiovascular mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes; Diabetologia, 2006, 49, 2618-2626.
  • Vieira, E.; Salehi, A.; Gylfe, E.; Glucose inhibits glucagon secretion by a direct effect on mouse pancreatic alpha cells. Diabetologia, 2007, 50, 370-379.
  • Fyfe, M.C.T.; White, J.R.; Taylor, A.; Chatfield, R.; Wargent, E.; Printz, R.L.; Sulpice, T.; McCormack, J.G.; Procter, M.J.; Reynet, C.; Widdowson, P.S.; Wong-Kai-In, P.; Glucokinase activator PSN-GK1 displays enhanced antihyperglycaemic and insulinotropic actions. Diabetologia, 2007, 50, 1277-1287.
  • Brennan, L.; Hewage, C.; Malthouse, J.P.G.; McClenaghan, N.H.; Flatt, P.R.; Newsholme, P.; Investigation of the effects of sulfonylurea exposure on pancreatic beta cell metabolism. FEBS Journal 2006, 273, 5160-5168.
  • Sennoune, S.; Gerbi, A.; Duran, M.-J.; Grillasca, J.-P.; Compe, E.; Pierre, S.; Planells, R.; Bourdeaux, M.; Vague, P.; Pieroni, G.; Maixent, J.-M.; Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on rat liver Na/K-ATPase. Eur. J. Biochem. 2000, 267, 2071-2078.
  • Alexander-Lindo, R.L.; Morrison, E.Y.St.A.; Nair, M.G.; Hypoglycaemic effect of stigmast-4-en-3-one and its corresponding alcohol from the bark of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew). Phytother. Res. 2004, 18, 403-407.
  • Laurenz, J.C.; Collier, C.C.; Kuti, J.O.; Hypoglycaemic effect of Opuntia lindheimeri Englem. In a diabetic pig model. Phytother. Res. 2003, 17, 26-29.
  • Johnson, L.; Strich, H.; Taylor, A.; Timmermann, B.; Malone, D.; Teufel-Shone, N.; Drummond, R.; Woosley, R.; Pereira, E.; Martinez, A.; Use of herbal remedies by diabetic Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. Phytother. Res. 2006, 20, 250-255.
  • Donati, D.; Lampariello, L.R.; Pagani, R.; Guerranti, R.; Cinci, G.; Marinello, E.; Antidiabetic oligocyclitols in seeds of Mucuna pruriens. Phytother. Res. 2005, 19, 1057-1060.
  • Martins, A.; Wink, M.; Tei, A.; Brum-Bousquet, M.; Tillequin, F.; Rauter, A.-P.; A phytochemical study of the quinolizidine alkaloids from Genista tenera by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phytochem. Anal. 2005, 16, 264-266
  • Verspohl, E.J.; Bauer, K.; Neddermann, E.; Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum in vivo and in vitro. Phytother. Res. 2005, 19, 203-206.

Review Papers

  • Andrade-Cetto, A.; Heinrich, M.; Mexican plants with hypoglycaemic effect used in the treatment of diabetes. J. Ethnopharm. 2005, 99, 325-348.
  • Stintzing, F.C.; Carle, R.; Cactus stems (Opuntia spp.): A review on their chemistry, technology, and uses. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 2005, 49, 175-194.
  • Yeh, G.Y.; Kaptchuk, T.H.; Eisenberg, D.M.; Phillips, R.S.; Systematic review of herbs and supplements for glycemic control in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003, 26, 1277-1294.
  • Szkudelski, T.; The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in B cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol. Res. 2001, 536-546.
  • Burge, M.R.; Sood, V.; Sobhy, T.A.; Rassam, A.G.; Schade, D.S.; Sulphonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review. Diabet. Obes. Metab. 1999, 1, 199-206.
  • Giacco, R.; Clemente, G.; Riccardi, G.; Dietary fibre in treatment of diabetes: myth or reality. Digest. Liver Dis. 2002, 34, S140-144.
  • Weickert, M.O.; Pfeiffer, A.F.H.; Signalling mechanisms linking hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Diabetologia 2006, 49, 1732-1741.
  • Pawa, M.; Use of traditional/herbal remedies by Indo-Asian people with type 2 diabetes. Pract. Diab. Int. 2005, 22, 292-294.
  • Mentreddy, S.R.; Medicinal plant species with potential antidiabetic properties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2007, 87, 743-750.

 

 

 

Keywords

  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • glucose metabolism
  • glycaemic control
  • hypoglycaemic
  • hypolipidemic
  • antihyperlipidemic
  • antihypercholesterolemia
  • insulin resistance
  • cholesterol
  • triglycerides

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effect of Glucans from Caripia montagnei Mushroom on TNBS-Induced Colitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2368-2385; doi:10.3390/ijms15022368
Received: 18 November 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 19 January 2014 / Published: 10 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the effect of different doses of polysaccharides extracted from Caripia montagnei mushroom at different intervals of treatment on colonic injury in the model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The FT-IR analysis and NMR showed that
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In this study, we evaluated the effect of different doses of polysaccharides extracted from Caripia montagnei mushroom at different intervals of treatment on colonic injury in the model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The FT-IR analysis and NMR showed that the polysaccharides from this species of mushroom are composed of α- and β-glucans. The colonic damage was evaluated by macroscopic, histological, biochemical and immunologic analyses. The results showed the reduction of colonic lesions in all groups treated with the glucans. Such glucans significantly reduced the levels of IL-6 (50 and 75 mg/kg, p < 0.05), a major inflammatory cytokine. Biochemical analyses showed that the glucans from C. montagnei acted on reducing levels of alkaline phosphatase (75 mg/kg, p < 0.01) and myeloperoxidase (p < 0.001), a result confirmed by the reduction of cellular infiltration observed microscopically. The increase of catalase activity possibly indicates a protective effect of these glucans on colonic tissue, confirming their anti-inflammatory potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Annona muricata L. Leaves in Animal Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(5), 2067-2078; doi:10.3390/ijms11052067
Received: 2 April 2010 / Revised: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annonamuricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg).
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Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annonamuricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg). Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o) inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: firstphase (23.67% and 45.02%) and the secondphase (30.09% and 50.02%), respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04%) and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o.) at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%) significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Root and Leaf on Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(1), 67-78; doi:10.3390/ijms11010067
Received: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 30 December 2009 / Published: 6 January 2010
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), an oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to favorably affect choleretic, antirheumatic and diuretin properties. Recent reports have indicated that excessive oxidative stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosislinked metabolic syndrome. The objective of this current study was
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Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), an oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to favorably affect choleretic, antirheumatic and diuretin properties. Recent reports have indicated that excessive oxidative stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosislinked metabolic syndrome. The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of dandelion root and leaf in rabbits fed with a high-cholesterol diet. A group of twenty eight male rabbits was divided into four subgroups; a normal diet group, a high-cholesterol diet group, a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion leaf group, and a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion root group. After the treatment period, the plasma antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles were determined. Our results show that treatment with dandelion root and leaf positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rabbits, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Dandelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sage Tea Drinking Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Defences in Humans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(9), 3937-3950; doi:10.3390/ijms10093937
Received: 1 July 2009 / Revised: 25 August 2009 / Accepted: 8 September 2009 / Published: 9 September 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Salvia officinalis (common sage) is a plant with antidiabetic properties. A pilot trial (non-randomized crossover trial) with six healthy female volunteers (aged 40-50) was designed to evaluate the beneficial properties of sage tea consumption on blood glucose regulation, lipid profile and transaminase activity
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Salvia officinalis (common sage) is a plant with antidiabetic properties. A pilot trial (non-randomized crossover trial) with six healthy female volunteers (aged 40-50) was designed to evaluate the beneficial properties of sage tea consumption on blood glucose regulation, lipid profile and transaminase activity in humans. Effects of sage consumption on erythrocytes’ SOD and CAT activities and on Hsp70 expression in lymphocytes were also evaluated. Four weeks sage tea treatment had no effects on plasma glucose. An improvement in lipid profile was observed with lower plasma LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels as well as higher plasma HDL cholesterol levels during and two weeks after treatment. Sage tea also increased lymphocyte Hsp70 expression and erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities. No hepatotoxic effects or other adverse effects were observed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Withania somnifera Root and Leaf Extracts on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(5), 2367-2382; doi:10.3390/ijms10052367
Received: 4 April 2009 / Revised: 11 May 2009 / Accepted: 19 May 2009 / Published: 20 May 2009
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant, which is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases.Flavonoids were determined in the extracts of W. somnifera root (WSREt) and leaf (WSLEt). The amounts of total flavonoids found in WSREt and WSLEt were 530 and
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Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant, which is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases.Flavonoids were determined in the extracts of W. somnifera root (WSREt) and leaf (WSLEt). The amounts of total flavonoids found in WSREt and WSLEt were 530 and 520 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of WSREt and WSLEt were also investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. WSREt and WSLEt and the standard drug glibenclamide were orally administered daily to diabetic rats for eight weeks. After the treatment period, urine sugar, blood glucose, haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), liver glycogen, serum and tissues lipids, serum and tissues proteins, liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) and serum enzymes like aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined. The levels of urine sugar, blood glucose, HbA1C, G6P, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, serum lipids except high density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol (HDL-c) and tissues like liver, kidney and heart lipids were significantly (p < 0.05) increased, however Hb, total protein, albumin, albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio, tissues protein and glycogen were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with WSREt, WSLEt and glibenclamide restored the changes of the above parameters to their normal level after eight weeks of treatment, indicating that WSREt and WSLEt possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Full article
Open AccessArticle Determination of Mineral Content in Methanolic Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed Extract and Its Effect on Osteoblast Markers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 292-305; doi:10.3390/ijms10010292
Received: 31 August 2008 / Revised: 30 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 January 2009 / Published: 12 January 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds are used as a folk medicine to enhance bone formation or to prevent osteoporosis in Korea. Therefore, the methanolic extract of safflower seeds (MESS) containing high mineral content, such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and phosphorous (P),
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Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds are used as a folk medicine to enhance bone formation or to prevent osteoporosis in Korea. Therefore, the methanolic extract of safflower seeds (MESS) containing high mineral content, such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and phosphorous (P), was evaluated for the role on osteoblast (Ob) markers of Sprague-Dawley rats. In serum of 3 to 11 weeks (wks) old rats, both osteocalcin (OC) content and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) activity increased to their maximum levels in 4-7 wks. Hence, 3 wks old rats were selected for 8 wks oral treatment of MESS, resulted in the significant increase of Ob markers in serum such as OC content (4-8 wks), B-ALP activity (1-2 wks) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) level (1 wk), and the growth parameter such as the length of femur (2-8 wks) and tibia (4 wks). On the basis of Pearson’s correlation coefficient, there were a moderate correlation between OC and B-ALP at 8 wks, a low correlation between OC and IGF-I at 1, 4 and 8 wks, a moderate correlation between OC and femur length at 1, 2 and 8 wks, and a moderate correlations between OC and tibia length at 1 and 8 wks of MESS-treated groups. The result reveals that the changes of OC correlated at low to moderate level with the changes of B-ALP activity, IGF-I content and femur and tibia length in the MESS-treatment period. On the other hand, there were a strong correlation between IGF-I and femur length at 2 wks and moderate correlation between IGF-I and tibia length at 1, 2 and 8 wks of MESS-treated groups. Therefore, the effect of MESS on bone formation likely appears to be mediated by IGF-I at the early stage of treatment. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview The Improvement of Hypertension by Probiotics: Effects on Cholesterol, Diabetes, Renin, and Phytoestrogens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(9), 3755-3775; doi:10.3390/ijms10093755
Received: 28 June 2009 / Revised: 30 July 2009 / Accepted: 10 August 2009 / Published: 27 August 2009
Cited by 97 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probiotics are live organisms that are primarily used to improve gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, lactose intolerance, and to inhibit the excessive proliferation of pathogenic intestinal bacteria. However, recent studies have suggested that probiotics could have beneficial effects beyond
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Probiotics are live organisms that are primarily used to improve gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, lactose intolerance, and to inhibit the excessive proliferation of pathogenic intestinal bacteria. However, recent studies have suggested that probiotics could have beneficial effects beyond gastrointestinal health, as they were found to improve certain metabolic disorders such as hypertension. Hypertension is caused by various factors and the predominant causes include an increase in cholesterol levels, incidence of diabetes, inconsistent modulation of renin and imbalanced sexual hormones. This review discusses the antihypertensive roles of probiotics via the improvement and/or treatment of lipid profiles, modulation of insulin resistance and sensitivity, the modulation of renin levels and also the conversion of bioactive phytoestrogens as an alternative replacement of sexual hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. Full article
Open AccessReview Antihypertensive Properties of Plant-Based Prebiotics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(8), 3517-3530; doi:10.3390/ijms10083517
Received: 25 June 2009 / Revised: 14 July 2009 / Accepted: 28 July 2009 / Published: 10 August 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although various drugs for its treatment have been synthesized, the occurring side effects have generated the need for natural interventions for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. Dietary intervention such as the
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Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although various drugs for its treatment have been synthesized, the occurring side effects have generated the need for natural interventions for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. Dietary intervention such as the administration of prebiotics has been seen as a highly acceptable approach. Prebiotics are indigestible food ingredients that bypass digestion and reach the lower gut as substrates for indigenous microflora. Most of the prebiotics used as food adjuncts, such as inulin, fructooligosaccharides, dietary fiber and gums, are derived from plants. Experimental evidence from recent studies has suggested that prebiotics are capable of reducing and preventing hypertension. This paper will discuss some of the mechanisms involved, the evidence generated from both in-vitro experiments and in-vivo trials and some controversial findings that are raised. Full article
Open AccessReview Contribution of Natural Inhibitors to the Understanding of the PI3K/PDK1/PKB Pathway in the Insulin-mediated Intracellular Signaling Cascade
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(11), 2217-2230; doi:10.3390/ijms9112217
Received: 15 July 2008 / Revised: 8 November 2008 / Accepted: 12 November 2008 / Published: 12 November 2008
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The critical initial steps in insulin action include phosphorylation of adapter proteins and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). One of important components in this process is a protein called Akt/protein kinase B (PKB). The work of numerous different researchers indicates a role of
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The critical initial steps in insulin action include phosphorylation of adapter proteins and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). One of important components in this process is a protein called Akt/protein kinase B (PKB). The work of numerous different researchers indicates a role of PKB in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The crucial role of lipid second messengers in PKB activation has been dissected through the use of the PI3K-specific inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Receptor-activated PI3K synthesizes the lipid second messenger PtdIns[3,4,5]-trisphosphate, leading to the recruitment of PKB to the membrane. Membrane attachment of PKB is mediated by its pleckstrin homology domain binding to PtdIns[3,4,5]-trisphosphate or PtdIns[3,4]-bisphosphate with high affinity. Activation of PKB alpha is then achieved at the plasma membrane by phosphorylation of Thr308 in the activation-loop of the kinase domain and Ser473 in the carboxy-terminal regulatory region, respectively. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is responsible for T308 phosphorylation. The usage of specific inhibitors and natural compound has significantly contributed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PI3K/PDK1/PKB signaling pathway, leading to the putative therapeutics benefits of patients. This review focuses on the contribution of natural inhibitor or compound in our understanding of the mechanism by which insulin induces, especially in PI3K/ PDK1/PKB signaling. Full article
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