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Molecules, Volume 15, Issue 1 (January 2010), Pages 1-605

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Open AccessArticle Upgrading SELEX Technology by Using Lambda Exonuclease Digestion for Single-Stranded DNA Generation
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 1-11; doi:10.3390/molecules15010001
Received: 19 November 2009 / Revised: 23 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 December 2009 / Published: 24 December 2009
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (153 KB)
Abstract
The generation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules plays a key role in the SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) combinatorial chemistry process and numerous molecular biology techniques and applications, such as DNA sequencing, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, DNA chips, DNA [...] Read more.
The generation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules plays a key role in the SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) combinatorial chemistry process and numerous molecular biology techniques and applications, such as DNA sequencing, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, DNA chips, DNA single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and many other techniques. The purity and yield of ssDNA can affect the success of each application. This study compares the two ssDNA production methods, the strand separation by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and alkaline denaturation and the lambda exonuclease digestion, in regard to the purity of generated ssDNA and the efficiency. Here, we demonstrate the considerable benefits of ssDNA production by lambda exonuclease digestion for in vitro selection of DNA aptamers. We believe that the generation of ssDNA aptamers using this method will greatly improve the success rate of SELEX experiments concerning the recovery of target-specific aptamers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combinatorial Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and in Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds with Pro-Apoptotic Potential
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 12-26; doi:10.3390/molecules15010012
Received: 24 November 2009 / Revised: 12 December 2009 / Accepted: 18 December 2009 / Published: 24 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (389 KB)
Abstract
In our search for new anticancer therapies, some compounds synthesized in our lab were selected and their potential cytotoxic activity was evaluated in vitro against two cancer cells lines including a solid tumor (UACC-62, melanoma) and a human lymphoma (JURKAT). Compounds showing [...] Read more.
In our search for new anticancer therapies, some compounds synthesized in our lab were selected and their potential cytotoxic activity was evaluated in vitro against two cancer cells lines including a solid tumor (UACC-62, melanoma) and a human lymphoma (JURKAT). Compounds showing cytotoxic activity were subjected to an apoptosis assay. Two compounds showed promising results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synergistic Chondroprotective Effect of α-Tocopherol, Ascorbic Acid, and Selenium as well as Glucosamine and Chondroitin on Oxidant Induced Cell Death and Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3—Studies in Cultured Chondrocytes
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 27-39; doi:10.3390/molecules15010027
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 December 2009 / Published: 24 December 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (665 KB)
Abstract
Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant defence accompanied by chronic inflammatory processes may impair joint health. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulate the expression of metalloproteinases which degrade the extracellular matrix. Little is [...] Read more.
Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant defence accompanied by chronic inflammatory processes may impair joint health. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulate the expression of metalloproteinases which degrade the extracellular matrix. Little is known regarding the potential synergistic effects of natural compounds such as α-tocopherol (α-toc), ascorbic acid (AA) and selenium (Se) on oxidant induced cell death. Furthermore studies regarding the metalloproteinase-3 inhibitory activity of glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are scarce. Therefore we have studied the effect of α-toc (0.1–2.5 µmol/L), AA (10–50 µmol/L) and Se (1–50 nmol/L) on t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP, 100–500 µmol/L)-induced cell death in SW1353 chondrocytes. Furthermore we have determined the effect of GS and CS alone (100–500 µmol/L each) and in combination on MMP3 mRNA levels and MMP3 secretion in IL-1β stimulated chondrocytes. A combination of α-toc, AA, and Se was more potent in counteracting t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity as compared to the single compounds. Similarly a combination of CS and GS was more effective in inhibiting MMP3 gene expression and secretion than the single components. The inhibition of MMP3 secretion due to GS plus CS was accompanied by a decrease in TNF-α production. Combining natural compounds such as α-toc, AA, and Se as well as GS and CS seems to be a promising strategy to combat oxidative stress and cytokine induced matrix degradation in chondrocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins)
Open AccessArticle Enaminones in Heterocyclic Synthesis: A Novel Route to Tetrahydropyrimidines, Dihydropyridines, Triacylbenzenes and Naphthofurans under Microwave Irradiation
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 58-67; doi:10.3390/molecules15010058
Received: 27 October 2009 / Revised: 18 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 December 2009 / Published: 25 December 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (140 KB)
Abstract
Condensation of phthalimidoacetone (1) with DMFDMA (N,N-Dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal) has afforded enaminone 2. Refluxing 2 with equimolecular amounts of benzaldehyde and urea in acetic acid afforded a mixture of tetrahydropyrimidine 5 and the dihydropyridine 6. Compound [...] Read more.
Condensation of phthalimidoacetone (1) with DMFDMA (N,N-Dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal) has afforded enaminone 2. Refluxing 2 with equimolecular amounts of benzaldehyde and urea in acetic acid afforded a mixture of tetrahydropyrimidine 5 and the dihydropyridine 6. Compound 2 undergoes self-condensation on heating in acetic acid or under microwave irradiation in presence of acidic zeolite to give 1,3,5-triacylbenzene 9. Reacting enaminone 11a with naphthoquinone 15 afforded the naphthofuran 18. The possible formation of the aldehyde 19 was excluded based on an HMQC experiment, which revealed that the carbonyl carbon is not linked to any hydrogen. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient, Mild and Solvent-Free Synthesis of Benzene Ring Acylated Harmalines
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 68-82; doi:10.3390/molecules15010068
Received: 19 October 2009 / Revised: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 28 December 2009
PDF Full-text (188 KB)
Abstract
A facile synthesis of a series of benzene ring acylated analogues of harmaline has been achieved by Friedel-Crafts acylation under solvent-free conditions at room temperature using acyl halides/acid anhydrides and AlCl3. The reaction afforded 10- and 12-acyl analogues of harmaline [...] Read more.
A facile synthesis of a series of benzene ring acylated analogues of harmaline has been achieved by Friedel-Crafts acylation under solvent-free conditions at room temperature using acyl halides/acid anhydrides and AlCl3. The reaction afforded 10- and 12-acyl analogues of harmaline in good yield, along with minor quantities of N-acyl-tryptamines and 8-acyl analogues of N-acyltryptamines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transition-Metal-Free Highly Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Sulfides to Sulfoxides under Mild Conditions
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 83-92; doi:10.3390/molecules15010083
Received: 30 November 2009 / Revised: 17 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 December 2009 / Published: 28 December 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (240 KB)
Abstract
A highly efficient transition-metal-free catalytic system Br2/NaNO2/H2O has been developed for a robust and economic acid-free aerobic oxidation of sulfides. It is noteworthy that the sulfide function reacts under mild conditions without over-oxidation to sulfone. The [...] Read more.
A highly efficient transition-metal-free catalytic system Br2/NaNO2/H2O has been developed for a robust and economic acid-free aerobic oxidation of sulfides. It is noteworthy that the sulfide function reacts under mild conditions without over-oxidation to sulfone. The role of NaNO2as an efficient NO equivalent for the activation of molecular oxygen was identified. Under the optimal conditions, a broad range of sulfide substrates were converted into their corresponding sulfoxides in high yields by molecular oxygen. The present catalytic system utilizes cheap and readily available agents as the catalysts, exhibits high selectivity for sulfoxide products and releases only innocuous water as the by-products. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Solvent Free, Microwave Assisted Conversion of Aldehydes into Nitriles and Oximes in the Presence of NH2OH·HCl and TiO2
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 94-99; doi:10.3390/molecules15010094
Received: 27 October 2009 / Revised: 22 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 December 2009 / Published: 29 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (240 KB)
Abstract Aromatic aldehydes bearing electron-donating groups are easily converted into their respective nitriles using NH2OH·HCl and TiO2 under microwave irradiation, while those bearing an electron-withdrawing group give the corresponding oximes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Determination of Coenzyme A (CoASH) in the Presence of Different Thiols by Using Flow-Injection with a UV/Vis Spectrophotometric Detector and Potentiometric Determination of CoASH Using an Iodide ISE
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 100-113; doi:10.3390/molecules15010100
Received: 10 December 2009 / Revised: 23 December 2009 / Accepted: 24 December 2009 / Published: 29 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (558 KB)
Abstract
Coenzyme A (CoA or CoASH) is one of the most important biologically active compounds, and for this reason a reliable, fast and simple determination of CoASH is needed. Here we are described a simple and fast way of determinating CoASH using potentiometric [...] Read more.
Coenzyme A (CoA or CoASH) is one of the most important biologically active compounds, and for this reason a reliable, fast and simple determination of CoASH is needed. Here we are described a simple and fast way of determinating CoASH using potentiometric flow-injection analysis and spectrophotometric kinetic determination. The described methods are suitable for use over a wide concentration range (1 × 10-6–1 × 10-4 M) of CoASH. Full article
Open AccessArticle JNK Contributes to Hif-1α Regulation in Hypoxic Neurons
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 114-127; doi:10.3390/molecules15010114
Received: 5 November 2009 / Revised: 18 December 2009 / Accepted: 28 December 2009 / Published: 30 December 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1340 KB)
Abstract
Hypoxia is an established factor of neurodegeneration. Nowadays, attention is directed at understanding how alterations in the expression of stress-related signaling proteins contribute to age dependent neuronal vulnerability to injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Hif-1α, a major [...] Read more.
Hypoxia is an established factor of neurodegeneration. Nowadays, attention is directed at understanding how alterations in the expression of stress-related signaling proteins contribute to age dependent neuronal vulnerability to injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Hif-1α, a major neuroprotective factor, and JNK signaling, a key pathway in neurodegeneration, relate to hypoxic injury in young (6DIV) and adult (12DIV) neurons. We could show that in young neurons as compared to mature ones, the protective factor Hif-1α is more induced while the stress protein phospho-JNK displays lower basal levels. Indeed, changes in the expression levels of these proteins correlated with increased vulnerability of adult neurons to hypoxic injury. Furthermore, we describe for the first time that treatment with the D-JNKI1, a JNK-inhibiting peptide, rescues adult hypoxic neurons from death and contributes to Hif-1α upregulation, probably via a direct interaction with the Hif-1α protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of New Imidazolidin-2,4-dione and 2-Thioxoimidazolidin-4-ones via C-Phenylglycine Derivatives
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 128-137; doi:10.3390/molecules15010128
Received: 13 October 2009 / Revised: 1 December 2009 / Accepted: 2 December 2009 / Published: 30 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (223 KB)
Abstract
Hydantoins and their derivatives constitute a group of pharmaceutical compounds with anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic properties, and are also used against diabetes. N-3 and C-5 substituted imidazolidines are examples of such products. As such, we have developed a synthesis of 2,4-dione and 2-thioxo-4-one [...] Read more.
Hydantoins and their derivatives constitute a group of pharmaceutical compounds with anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic properties, and are also used against diabetes. N-3 and C-5 substituted imidazolidines are examples of such products. As such, we have developed a synthesis of 2,4-dione and 2-thioxo-4-one imidazolidinic derivatives by reaction of amino acids with C-phenylglycine, phenyl isocyanate and phenyl isothiocyanate. Four amino-derivatives IG(1-4) and eight imidazolidinic derivatives, IM(1-8), were obtained in yields of 70–74%. The mass, infrared, 1H and 13C-NMR spectra of representative products are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Anti-HIV Actions of 7- and 10-Substituted Camptothecins
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 138-148; doi:10.3390/molecules15010138
Received: 22 November 2009 / Revised: 18 December 2009 / Accepted: 21 December 2009 / Published: 31 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Camptothecin (CPT), a traditional anti-tumor drug, has been shown to possess anti-HIV-1 activity. To increase the antiviral potency, the anti-HIV activities of two CPT derivatives, 10-hydroxy-CPT and 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT, were evaluated in vitro. The therapy index (TI) of CPT, 10-hydroxy-CPT and 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT [...] Read more.
Camptothecin (CPT), a traditional anti-tumor drug, has been shown to possess anti-HIV-1 activity. To increase the antiviral potency, the anti-HIV activities of two CPT derivatives, 10-hydroxy-CPT and 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT, were evaluated in vitro. The therapy index (TI) of CPT, 10-hydroxy-CPT and 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT against HIV-1IIIB in C8166 were 24.2, 4.2 and 198.1, and against clinical isolated strain HIV-1KM018 in PBMC were 10.3, 3.5 and 66.0, respectively. While the TI of CPT, 10-hydroxy-CPT and 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT against HIV-2CBL-20 were 34.5, 10.7 and 317.0, respectively, and the TI of the three compounds against HIV-2ROD showed the similar values. However, when the antiviral mechanisms were considered, we found there was no inhibition of 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT on viral cell-to-cell transmission, and was no inhibition on reverse transcriptase, protease or integrase in cell-free systems. 7-Hydroxymethyl-CPT showed no selective killing of chronically infected cells after 3 days of incubation. In conclusion, 7-hydroxymethyl-CPT showed more potent anti-HIV activity, while 10-hydroxy-CPT had less efficient activity, compared with the parent CPT. Though the antiviral mechanisms remain to be further elucidated; the modification of -OH residues at C-7 of CPT could enhance the antiviral activity, while of -OH residues at C-10 of CPT had decreased the antiviral activity, which provides the preliminary modification strategy for anti-viral activities enhancement of this compound. Full article
Open AccessArticle Thioacetyl-Terminated Ferrocene-Anthraquinone Conjugates: Synthesis, Photo- and Electrochemical Properties Triggered by Protonation-Induced Intramolecular Electron Transfer
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 150-163; doi:10.3390/molecules15010150
Received: 4 September 2009 / Revised: 21 December 2009 / Accepted: 30 December 2009 / Published: 4 January 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (295 KB)
Abstract
Two thioacetyl-terminated ferrocene-anthraquinone donor-acceptor molecules with different π-electron conjugative units have been synthesized via a series of Stille and Sonagashira reactions. Their photochemical and electrochemical properties before and after addition of an organic acid are investigated, indicating that these complexes are sensitive [...] Read more.
Two thioacetyl-terminated ferrocene-anthraquinone donor-acceptor molecules with different π-electron conjugative units have been synthesized via a series of Stille and Sonagashira reactions. Their photochemical and electrochemical properties before and after addition of an organic acid are investigated, indicating that these complexes are sensitive to external perturbation of protonation, leading the structural change to an expansion of π-conjugated system by cyclocondensation reaction and promoting intramolecular electron transfer from donor to acceptor. They would be good candidates for studies of novel SAMs, and the properties triggered by protonation-induced intramolecular electron transfer will make the SAMs be useful in designing new functional molecular devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ferrocenes)
Open AccessArticle Immunoassay Development for the Class-Specific Assay for Types I and II Pyrethroid Insecticides in Water Samples
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 164-177; doi:10.3390/molecules15010164
Received: 28 October 2009 / Revised: 10 December 2009 / Accepted: 29 December 2009 / Published: 4 January 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (236 KB)
Abstract
Five generic haptens of pyrethoid insecticides, which were classified as three types, were designed and synthesized: the first (hapten 1) is for type I pyrethroids without a cyano group, the second (hapten 2 and XQ) for type II pyrethroids with a cyano [...] Read more.
Five generic haptens of pyrethoid insecticides, which were classified as three types, were designed and synthesized: the first (hapten 1) is for type I pyrethroids without a cyano group, the second (hapten 2 and XQ) for type II pyrethroids with a cyano group, and the third (hapten 4 and 5) for both types of pyrethroids with loss of the ester group. The hapten structures were confirmed by MS and 1H-NMR. Hapten 1 and 2 were conjugated with BSA respectively and haptens 1-5 were conjugated with OVA. Four polyclonal antisera were raised against BSA conjugates including a mixture conjugate, and twenty antibody/coating conjugate combinations were selected for studies of assay sensitivity and specificity for pyrethroids. The study revealed the best combination, which showed equal high sensitivities (I50 is around 0.02 μg mL-1) to both types of pyrethroids. The immunity results suggest that, with a mixture conjugates, a polyclonal antibody against a group of insecticides can be prepared for multi-residue assays. Full article
Open AccessArticle Elucidating the Structure-Activity Relationships of the Vasorelaxation and Antioxidation Properties of Thionicotinic Acid Derivatives
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 198-214; doi:10.3390/molecules15010198
Received: 11 November 2009 / Revised: 29 December 2009 / Accepted: 4 January 2010 / Published: 6 January 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (215 KB)
Abstract
Nicotinic acid, known as vitamin B3, is an effective lipid lowering drug and intense cutaneous vasodilator. This study reports the effect of 2-(1-adamantylthio)nicotinic acid (6) and its amide 7 and nitrile analog 8 on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat [...] Read more.
Nicotinic acid, known as vitamin B3, is an effective lipid lowering drug and intense cutaneous vasodilator. This study reports the effect of 2-(1-adamantylthio)nicotinic acid (6) and its amide 7 and nitrile analog 8 on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as antioxidative activity. It was found that the tested thionicotinic acid analogs 6-8 exerted maximal vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects were less than acetylcholine (ACh)-induced nitric oxide (NO) vasorelaxation. The vasorelaxations were reduced, apparently, in both NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO). Synergistic effects were observed in the presence of L-NAME plus INDO, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both the ACh and the tested nicotinic acids. Complete loss of the vasorelaxation was noted under removal of endothelial cells. This infers that the vasorelaxations are mediated partially by endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin. The thionicotinic acid analogs all exhibited antioxidant properties in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays. Significantly, the thionicotinic acid 6 is the most potent vasorelaxant with ED50 of 21.3 nM and is the most potent antioxidant (as discerned from DPPH assay). Molecular modeling was also used to provide mechanistic insights into the vasorelaxant and antioxidative activities. The findings reveal that the thionicotinic acid analogs are a novel class of vasorelaxant and antioxidant compounds which have potential to be further developed as promising therapeutics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Screening and Improvement of an Anti-VEGF DNA Aptamer
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 215-225; doi:10.3390/molecules15010215
Received: 6 November 2009 / Revised: 17 December 2009 / Accepted: 31 December 2009 / Published: 7 January 2010
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (595 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To obtain an aptamer with a high affinity for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), we focused on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of VEGF as a target epitope. Three rounds of screening gave Vap7, which bound to the VEGF isoforms VEGF121 and [...] Read more.
To obtain an aptamer with a high affinity for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), we focused on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of VEGF as a target epitope. Three rounds of screening gave Vap7, which bound to the VEGF isoforms VEGF121 and VEGF165 with KD values of 1.0 nM and 20 nM, respectively. Moreover, Vap7 showed specificity within the VEGF family. Secondary structure predictions and circular dicrhoism suggested that Vap7 folds into a G-quadruplex structure. We obtained a mutant aptamer that contains only this region of the aptamer sequence. This truncated mutant (V7t1) bound to both VEGF121 and VEGF165 with KD values of 1.1 nM and 1.4 nM, respectively. Its sequence was 5'-TGTGGGGGTGGACGGGCCGGGTAGA-3', and it appeared to form a G-quadruplex structure. We also produced an aptamer heterodimer consisting of our previously derived aptamer (del5-1), which binds to the heparin-binding domain of VEGF, linked to V7t1. The resulting heterodimer bound strongly to VEGF165 with a KD value of 4.7 × 102 pM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-throughput Screening)
Open AccessCommunication Synthesis and Structure of D3h-Symmetric Triptycene Trimaleimide
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 226-232; doi:10.3390/molecules15010226
Received: 16 December 2009 / Revised: 24 December 2009 / Accepted: 30 December 2009 / Published: 7 January 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (414 KB)
Abstract
A new D3h symmetric triptycene derivative has been synthesized with the aim of obtaining molecules that are able to assemble into porous structures, and can be used in the development of new ligands. The synthesis involves a Diels-Alder reaction as the [...] Read more.
A new D3h symmetric triptycene derivative has been synthesized with the aim of obtaining molecules that are able to assemble into porous structures, and can be used in the development of new ligands. The synthesis involves a Diels-Alder reaction as the key step, followed by an oxidation and the formation of a maleimide ring. Triptycene trimaleimide furnished single crystals which have been analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Assembly)
Open AccessArticle Determination of the Volatile Composition in Essential Oil of Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl (Flixweed) by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 233-240; doi:10.3390/molecules15010233
Received: 3 December 2009 / Revised: 6 January 2010 / Accepted: 7 January 2010 / Published: 8 January 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (193 KB)
Abstract
Exhaustive hydro-distillation of Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl (flixweed) collected from two different locations (Cangzhou city-Sample 1 and Beijing city-Sample 2) gave in both cases yellowish colored oils in 0.31 and 0.26% yield, respectively. Detailed chemical composition of the essential oils [...] Read more.
Exhaustive hydro-distillation of Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl (flixweed) collected from two different locations (Cangzhou city-Sample 1 and Beijing city-Sample 2) gave in both cases yellowish colored oils in 0.31 and 0.26% yield, respectively. Detailed chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and forty and thirty-eight compounds were identified. The results indicated that the most abundant component of Sample 1were cis-β-ocimene (20.1%), menthol (11.27%), neoisomenthyl acetate (3.5%), alloaromadendrene (2.28%) and longicyclene (2.25%). Compared with the constituents of Sample 1, several chemical compounds such as 1,8-cineole, α-eudesmol, cis, trans-farnesol and β-pinene were not detected in Sample 2 although it was similarly dominated by cis-β-ocimene (17.12%), menthol (10.7%) and neoisomenthyl acetate (2.96%). Final analysis of the chemical constituents in the essential oils of the two samples showed similarity in their chemical composition, but the relative content of all shared chemical constituents in Sample 2 was lower than that in Sample 1. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Volatile Components and Ethanolic Extract from Eclipta prostrata on Proliferation and Differentiation of Primary Osteoblasts
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 241-250; doi:10.3390/molecules15010241
Received: 5 November 2009 / Revised: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 22 December 2009 / Published: 8 January 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (135 KB)
Abstract
Eclipta prostrata, an aromatic plant, is known in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various kidney diseases. In the present study, the volatile components were isolated from the aerial parts of this plant by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC–MS. A total of 55 compounds, which were the major part (91.7%) of the volatiles, were identified by matching mass spectra with a mass spectrum library (NIST 05.L). The main components were as follows: heptadecane (14.78%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (12.80%), n-hexadecanoic acid (8.98%), pentadecane (8.68%), eudesma-4(14),11-diene (5.86%), phytol (3.77%), octadec-9-enoic acid (3.35%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester (2.74%), (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (2.36%), (Z)-7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene (2.08%) and (Z,Z,Z)-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (2.07%). The effects of volatile components and ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of this plant on the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts were evaluated by the MTT method and measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity). Both volatile components and ethanolic extract (1 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL) significantly (p < 0.01) stimulated the proliferation and increased the ALP activity of primary osteoblasts. These results propose that E. prostrata can play an important role in osteoblastic bone formation, and may possibly lead to the development of bone-forming drugs. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Inhibition of Oxidation of Aqueous Emulsions of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fish Oil by Phloretin and Phloridzin
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 251-257; doi:10.3390/molecules15010251
Received: 7 December 2009 / Revised: 24 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 January 2010 / Published: 11 January 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (136 KB)
Abstract
The antioxidant properties of two apple dihydrochalcones, namely phloretin and phloridzin, were evaluated and compared with those of α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The effects were studied in an oil-in-water emulsion system containing methyl linolenate (ML), methyl eicosapentaenoate (MEPA), and methyl docosahexaenoate [...] Read more.
The antioxidant properties of two apple dihydrochalcones, namely phloretin and phloridzin, were evaluated and compared with those of α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The effects were studied in an oil-in-water emulsion system containing methyl linolenate (ML), methyl eicosapentaenoate (MEPA), and methyl docosahexaenoate (MDHA) in which oxidation was initiated by the peroxyl radical generator 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and in fish oil where oxidation was initiated thermally. In the emulsion system, phloretin (1 and 5 mM) completely inhibited the oxidation of ML tested as evidenced by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Under the same conditions, phloridzin was less effective than phloretin, but still more effective than α-tocopherol. Both phloretin and phloridzin molecules had a marginal inhibitory effect against oxidation of fish oil induced by heating at 70 °C for 3 hours, when compared to BHT. These results indicate that phloretin and phloridzin have the potential to suppress lipid oxidation in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) containing foods. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Dissolution and Surface Reactions Between Calcite and Aragonite in L-Glutamic and L-Aspartic Acid Solutions
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 258-269; doi:10.3390/molecules15010258
Received: 17 November 2009 / Revised: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 11 January 2010 / Published: 11 January 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (551 KB)
Abstract
We have investigated dissolution and surface reaction of calcite and aragonite in amino acid solutions of L-glutamic (L-glu) and L-aspartic acid (L-asp) at weak acidity of above pH 3. The surface reactions of calcite and aragonite were related with the dissolution. Calcite [...] Read more.
We have investigated dissolution and surface reaction of calcite and aragonite in amino acid solutions of L-glutamic (L-glu) and L-aspartic acid (L-asp) at weak acidity of above pH 3. The surface reactions of calcite and aragonite were related with the dissolution. Calcite was dissolved in both solutions but the dissolution was limited by an adsorption of Ca-carboxylate salt. Aragonite was neither dissolved nor reacted in amino acid solutions because the crystal surface consisted of a hard to dissolve structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Vasorelaxant and Platelet Antiaggregatory Activities of a New Series of 6-Halo-3-phenylcoumarins
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 270-279; doi:10.3390/molecules15010270
Received: 4 December 2009 / Revised: 21 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 December 2009 / Published: 12 January 2010
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (174 KB)
Abstract
A series of 6-halo-3-hydroxyphenylcoumarins (resveratrol-coumarins hybrid derivatives) was synthesized in good yields by a Perkin reaction followed by hydrolysis. The new compounds were evaluated for their vasorelaxant activity in intact rat aorta rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE), as well as for their [...] Read more.
A series of 6-halo-3-hydroxyphenylcoumarins (resveratrol-coumarins hybrid derivatives) was synthesized in good yields by a Perkin reaction followed by hydrolysis. The new compounds were evaluated for their vasorelaxant activity in intact rat aorta rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE), as well as for their inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation induced by thrombin in washed human platelets. These compounds concentration-dependently relaxed vascular smooth muscle and some of them showed a platelet antiaggregatory activity that was up to thirty times higher than that shown by trans-resveratrol and some other previously synthesized derivatives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasonic Method for the Preparation of Organic Porphyrin Nanoparticles
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 280-287; doi:10.3390/molecules15010280
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 22 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 December 2009 / Published: 12 January 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (414 KB)
Abstract
We report the synthesis and optical properties of organic porphyrin nanoparticles with narrow size distribution and good dispersibility. Nanoparticles were produced by a combination of precipitation and sonication, termed the “ultrasonic method”. The resulting [tetrakis(para-chlorophenyl)porphyrin]TClPP nanoparticles were stable in solution [...] Read more.
We report the synthesis and optical properties of organic porphyrin nanoparticles with narrow size distribution and good dispersibility. Nanoparticles were produced by a combination of precipitation and sonication, termed the “ultrasonic method”. The resulting [tetrakis(para-chlorophenyl)porphyrin]TClPP nanoparticles were stable in solution without precipitation for at least 30 days. No self aggregation of the constituent porphyrin chromophores was observed. The TClPP nanoparticles exhibited interesting optical properties, particulalrly a large bathochromic shift in the absorption spectra. Full article
Open AccessArticle Investigating the Activity Spectrum for Ring-Substituted 8-Hydroxyquinolines
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 288-304; doi:10.3390/molecules15010288
Received: 9 November 2009 / Revised: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 January 2010 / Published: 12 January 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (213 KB)
Abstract
In this study, a series of fourteen ring-substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives were prepared. The synthesis procedures are presented. The compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their activity related to inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach [...] Read more.
In this study, a series of fourteen ring-substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives were prepared. The synthesis procedures are presented. The compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their activity related to inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against four mycobacterial strains and against eight fungal strains. Several compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than the standards isoniazid or fluconazole. For all the compounds, the relationships between the lipophilicity and the chemical structure of the studied compounds are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Main Nucleosides in Cordyceps Sinensis by LC/ESI-MS
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 305-314; doi:10.3390/molecules15010305
Received: 10 November 2009 / Revised: 11 December 2009 / Accepted: 7 January 2010 / Published: 13 January 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (163 KB)
Abstract
A sensitive, selective and reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization interface method for simultaneous separation and determination of thymine, adenine, adenosine and cordycepin in Cordyceps sinensis has been established. The optimum separation for these analytes was achieved using a gradient [...] Read more.
A sensitive, selective and reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization interface method for simultaneous separation and determination of thymine, adenine, adenosine and cordycepin in Cordyceps sinensis has been established. The optimum separation for these analytes was achieved using a gradient elution system and a 2.0 × 150 mm Shimadzu VP-ODS column. 2-Chloroadenosine was used as internal standard for this assay. [M+H]+ions at m/z 127, 136, 268, 252 and 302 were chosen and selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantitative analysis of the four main nucleosides. The regression equations were linear in the range of 1.0–117.5 μg·mL-1 for thymine, 1.8-127.0 μg·mL-1 for adenine, 0.6-114.0 μg·mL-1 for adenosine and 0.5-107.5 μg·mL-1 for cordycepin. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) and detection (LOD) were 1.0 and 0.2 μg·mL-1 for thymine, 1.8 and 0.6 μg·mL-1 for adenine, 0.6 and 0.1 μg·mL-1 for adenosine and 0.5 and 0.1 μg·mL-1 for cordycepin, respectively. The recoveries of the four nucleosides ranged from 98.47 to 99.32%. The developed method was successfully used to determine nucleosides in Cordyceps sinensis from different sources. Full article
Open AccessArticle Palladium(II)/Cationic 2,2’-Bipyridyl System as a Highly Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck Reaction in Water
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 315-330; doi:10.3390/molecules15010315
Received: 18 December 2009 / Revised: 8 January 2009 / Accepted: 12 January 2010 / Published: 12 January 2010
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (178 KB)
Abstract
A water-soluble and air-stable Pd(NH3)2Cl2/cationic 2,2’-bipyridyl system was found to be a highly-efficient and reusable catalyst for the coupling of aryl iodides and alkenes in neat water using Bu3N as a base. The reaction [...] Read more.
A water-soluble and air-stable Pd(NH3)2Cl2/cationic 2,2’-bipyridyl system was found to be a highly-efficient and reusable catalyst for the coupling of aryl iodides and alkenes in neat water using Bu3N as a base. The reaction was conducted at 140 °C in a sealed tube in air with a catalyst loading as low as 0.0001 mol % for the coupling of activated aryl iodides with butyl and ethyl acrylates, providing the corresponding products in good to excellent yields with very high turnover numbers. In the case of styrene, Mizoroki-Heck coupling products were obtained in good to high yields by using a greater catalyst loading (1 mol %) and TBAB as a phase-transfer agent. After extraction, the residual aqueous solution could be reused several times with only a slight decrease in its activity, making the Mizoroki-Heck reaction “greener”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heck Coupling)
Open AccessArticle Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides as Abiotic Elicitors of Flavolignan Production in Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn Cultures in Vitro
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 331-340; doi:10.3390/molecules15010331
Received: 27 November 2009 / Revised: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 12 January 2010 / Published: 14 January 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (184 KB)
Abstract
Substituted pyrazinecarboxamides markedly influenced production of flavonolignans in Silybum marianum callus and suspension cultures. In this study the effect of two compounds, N-(3-iodo-4-methylphenyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (1) and N-(3-iodo-4-methylphenyl)-5-tert-butyl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (2), as abiotic elicitors on flavono-lignan production in [...] Read more.
Substituted pyrazinecarboxamides markedly influenced production of flavonolignans in Silybum marianum callus and suspension cultures. In this study the effect of two compounds, N-(3-iodo-4-methylphenyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (1) and N-(3-iodo-4-methylphenyl)-5-tert-butyl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (2), as abiotic elicitors on flavono-lignan production in callus culture of S. marianum was investigated. Silymarin complex compounds have hepatoprotective, anticancer and also hypocholesterolemic activity. In vitro flavonolignan concentration in cells is very low and the elicitation is one of the methods to increase production. Elicitors were tested at three concentrations and at different culture times. In the case of elicitation with 1, the greatest increase of flavonolignan and taxifoline production was observed at concentration c1a after 6-hours of elicitation and after 24 and 72-hours at concentration c1b. However, increased production of silychristin, one of the compounds in the silymarin complex, was achieved after only 6-hours elicitation with c1a (2.95 × 10-4 mol/L). The content of silychristin was 2-times higher compared to the control sample. An increased production of silychristin was reached with compound 2 at the concentration c2 (2.53 × 10-3 mol/L) after 72 h of elicitation. The production of silychristin in this case was increased 12-times compared to control. Full article
Open AccessArticle Identification and Comparative Quantification of Bio-Active Phthalides in Essential Oils from Si-Wu-Tang, Fo-Shou-San, Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 341-351; doi:10.3390/molecules15010341
Received: 7 December 2009 / Revised: 10 January 2010 / Accepted: 8 January 2010 / Published: 15 January 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (98 KB)
Abstract
Phthalides are important bio-active constituents in Si-Wu-Tang and Fo-Shou-San, two commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) combined prescriptions mainly derived from Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. In this paper, the contents of eight phthalides, including Z-ligustilide, E-ligustilide, Z-butylenephthalide, E [...] Read more.
Phthalides are important bio-active constituents in Si-Wu-Tang and Fo-Shou-San, two commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) combined prescriptions mainly derived from Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. In this paper, the contents of eight phthalides, including Z-ligustilide, E-ligustilide, Z-butylenephthalide, E-butylene-phthalide, 3-butylphthalide, neocnidilide and senkyunolide A were determined or estimated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed GC-MS was a simple, rapid, and high sensitive method for analyzing phthalides in Si-Wu-Tang, Fo-Shou-San, Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong, and the extractable contents of each phthalides including Z-ligustilide, E-ligustilide, Z-butylenephthalide, etc. varied after Radix Angelica, Rhizoma Chuanxiong were combined into a formulation, such as Si-Wu-Tang and Fo-Shou-San. Furthermore, inhibition activity of essential oils from Si-Wu-Tang, Fo-Shou-San, Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong on uterine contraction was tested in an in vitro assay, and the results showed that the activity of the essential oil is higher as the content of the phthalides increase, which demonstrated that phthalides are possibly main active components inhibiting mice uterine contraction in vitro. All of the results suggested that comparative analysis of chemical components and pharmacological activities of each herb and formula is possibly helpful to elucidate the active components in traditional Chinese medicine, and to reveal the compatibility mechanism of TCM formulae. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Simple Preparation of 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acyl-Gluco-, Galacto- and Mannopyranoses and Relevant Theoretical Study
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 374-384; doi:10.3390/molecules15010374
Received: 12 November 2009 / Revised: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 22 December 2009 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (138 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The deacylation of glucose, galactose and mannose pentaacetates, galactose and mannose penta(3-bromo)benzoates, as well as the dealkylation of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-(3-bromo)benzoyl methyl α-D-glucopyranosides have been studied. In addition, a computational study on the deacylation of β- [...] Read more.
The deacylation of glucose, galactose and mannose pentaacetates, galactose and mannose penta(3-bromo)benzoates, as well as the dealkylation of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-(3-bromo)benzoyl methyl α-D-glucopyranosides have been studied. In addition, a computational study on the deacylation of β-D-glucose pentaacetate has been carried out with density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31G*). The anomeric effect during deacetylation and dealkylation has been clearly demonstrated in both experimental and computational results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Luteolin Isolated from the Flowers of Lonicera japonica Suppresses Inflammatory Mediator Release by Blocking NF-κB and MAPKs Activation Pathways in HMC-1 Cells
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 385-398; doi:10.3390/molecules15010385
Received: 30 November 2009 / Revised: 7 January 2010 / Accepted: 12 January 2010 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (1214 KB)
Abstract
Luteolin (3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxylflavone) is a plant flavonoid and pharmacologically active agent that has been isolated from several plant species. In the present study, the effect of luteolin from the flowers of Lonicera japonica on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-induced mast cell activation [...] Read more.
Luteolin (3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxylflavone) is a plant flavonoid and pharmacologically active agent that has been isolated from several plant species. In the present study, the effect of luteolin from the flowers of Lonicera japonica on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-induced mast cell activation was examined. Luteolin significantly inhibited the induction of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by PMA plus A23187. Moreover, luteolin attenuated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and intracellular Ca2+ levels. In activated HMC-1 cells, the phosphorylation of extra-signal response kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK 1/2), but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were decreased by treatment of the cells with luteolin. Luteolin inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, IκB degradation, and luciferase activity. Furthermore, luteolin suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, GM-CSF, and COX-2 through a decrease in the intracellular Ca2+ levels, and also showed a suppression of the ERK 1/2, JNK 1/2, and NF-κB activation. These results indicated that luteolin from the flowers of Lonicera japonica exerted a regulatory effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as RA, allergy disease and IBD. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation, Synthesis and Structures of Ginsenoside Derivatives and Their Anti-Tumor Bioactivity
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 399-406; doi:10.3390/molecules15010399
Received: 4 December 2009 / Revised: 8 January 2010 / Accepted: 11 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (422 KB)
Abstract
Protopanaxatriol saponins obtained with AB-8 macroporous resin mainly consisted of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re. A novel mono-ester of ginsenoside-Rh1 (ginsenoside-ORh1) was synthesized through further enzymatic hydrolysis and octanoyl chloride modifications. A 53% yield was obtained by a facile [...] Read more.
Protopanaxatriol saponins obtained with AB-8 macroporous resin mainly consisted of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re. A novel mono-ester of ginsenoside-Rh1 (ginsenoside-ORh1) was synthesized through further enzymatic hydrolysis and octanoyl chloride modifications. A 53% yield was obtained by a facile synthetic method. The structures were identified on the basis of 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR, as well as ESI-TOF-MS mass spectroscopic analyses. The isolated and synthetic compounds were applied in an anti-tumor bioassay, in which ginsenoside ORh1 showed moderate effects on Murine H22 Hepatoma Cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gas-Phase Pyrolytic Reaction of 4-Aryl-3-buten-2-ols and Allyl Benzyl Ethers: Kinetic and Mechanistic Study
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 407-419; doi:10.3390/molecules15010407
Received: 22 November 2009 / Revised: 28 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 January 2010 / Published: 20 January 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (174 KB)
Abstract
Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of 4-aryl-3-buten-2-ols [ArCH=CH-CH(CH3)OH, where Ar is phenyl, p-MeO, p-Me, p-Cl, p-NO2] gave the corresponding buta-1,3-dien-1-ylbenzene (ArCH=CH-CH=CH2, where Ar is Ph, p-MeO, p-Me, p-Cl, p-NO [...] Read more.
Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of 4-aryl-3-buten-2-ols [ArCH=CH-CH(CH3)OH, where Ar is phenyl, p-MeO, p-Me, p-Cl, p-NO2] gave the corresponding buta-1,3-dien-1-ylbenzene (ArCH=CH-CH=CH2, where Ar is Ph, p-MeO, p-Me, p-Cl, p-NO2) and 7-X-1,2-dihydronaphthalene derivatives (where X is H, MeO); FVP of 1-aryl-3-benzyloxy1-1-butenes and benzyl cinnamyl ethers [ArCH=CHCH(X)OCH2Ph, where Ar is phenyl, p-MeO, p-Me, p-Cl, X is H, Me, Ph] gave the corresponding but-2-en-1-ylbenzene derivatives (ArCH2CH=CH-X, where X is H, Me, Ph) together with benzaldehyde. The proposed mechanism of these pyrolytic transformations was supported by kinetic and product analysis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Condensed Tannins from Mangrove Species Kandelia candel and Rhizophora mangle and Their Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 420-431; doi:10.3390/molecules15010420
Received: 12 December 2009 / Revised: 12 January 2010 / Accepted: 17 January 2010 / Published: 20 January 2010
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (305 KB)
Abstract
The structures of condensed tannins isolated from two mangrove species, Kandelia candel and Rhizophora mangle, were characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses. Results demonstrate that large heterogeneity occurs [...] Read more.
The structures of condensed tannins isolated from two mangrove species, Kandelia candel and Rhizophora mangle, were characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses. Results demonstrate that large heterogeneity occurs in degree of polymerization, pattern of hydroxylation, and substitution with monosaccharides in the structures of the condensed tannins. Condensed tannin oligomers from K. candel and R. mangle were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with the former dominating. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra contained masses corresponding to a distinct oligomeric series of glycosylated heteropolyflavan units. In addition, condensed tannins from two mangrove plants were screened for their potential antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) model systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle In Vitro and in Vivo Effects of Three Different Mitragyna speciosa Korth Leaf Extracts on Phase II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes—Glutathione Transferases (GSTs)
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 432-441; doi:10.3390/molecules15010432
Received: 30 November 2009 / Revised: 2 January 2010 / Accepted: 7 January 2010 / Published: 20 January 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (125 KB)
Abstract
In the present study, we investigate the effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa extracts, namely methanolic, aqueous and total alkaloid extracts, on glutathione transferase-specific activity in male Sprague Dawley rat liver cytosol in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro [...] Read more.
In the present study, we investigate the effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa extracts, namely methanolic, aqueous and total alkaloid extracts, on glutathione transferase-specific activity in male Sprague Dawley rat liver cytosol in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, the effect of Mitragyna speciosa extracts (0.01 to 750 µg/mL) against the specific activity of glutathione transferases was examined in rat liver cytosolic fraction from untreated rats. Our data show concentration dependent inhibition of cytosolic GSTs when Mitragyna speciosa extract was added into the reaction mixture. At the highest concentration used, the methanolic extract showed the highest GSTs specific activity inhibition (61%), followed by aqueous (50%) and total alkaloid extract (43%), respectively. In in vivo study, three different dosages; 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for methanolic and aqueous extracts and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg for total alkaloid extract were given orally for 14 days. An increase in GST specific activity was generally observed. However, only Mitragyna speciosa aqueous extract with a dosage of 100 mg/kg showed significant results: 129% compared to control. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of New 5-(2-Thienyl)-1,2,4-triazoles and 5-(2-Thienyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles and Related Derivatives
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 502-514; doi:10.3390/molecules15010502
Received: 14 December 2009 / Revised: 5 January 2010 / Accepted: 11 January 2010 / Published: 22 January 2010
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (133 KB)
Abstract
New 5-(2-thienyl)-1,2,4-triazoles and 5-(2-thienyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles namely, N-[3-mercapto-5-(2-thienyl)-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]-N'-arylthioureas 4a–e, 2-arylamino-5-(2-thienyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles 5a–e, 3-arylaminomethyl-5-(2-thienyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-2-thiones 7a–e, 3-(N-substituted anilinomethyl)-5-(2-thienyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-2-thiones 8a, b and 3-(4-substituted-1-piperazinylmethyl)-5-(2-thienyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-2-thiones 9a–f, were prepared. The synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro activities against certain [...] Read more.
New 5-(2-thienyl)-1,2,4-triazoles and 5-(2-thienyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles namely, N-[3-mercapto-5-(2-thienyl)-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]-N'-arylthioureas 4a–e, 2-arylamino-5-(2-thienyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles 5a–e, 3-arylaminomethyl-5-(2-thienyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-2-thiones 7a–e, 3-(N-substituted anilinomethyl)-5-(2-thienyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-2-thiones 8a, b and 3-(4-substituted-1-piperazinylmethyl)-5-(2-thienyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-2-thiones 9a–f, were prepared. The synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro activities against certain strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Compound 9a displayed marked broad spectrum antibacterial activity, while compounds 4d, 5e, 7b, 7c, 7d, 9b, 9c and 9d were highly active against the tested Gram-positive bacteria. None of the synthesized compounds were proved to be significantly active against Candida albicans. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Some New Mono- and Bis-Polycyclic Aromatic Spiro and Bis-Nonspiro-β-Lactams
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 515-531; doi:10.3390/molecules15010515
Received: 2 November 2009 / Revised: 3 December 2009 / Accepted: 9 December 2009 / Published: 22 January 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (461 KB)
Abstract
Some new mono-and bis-polycyclic aromatic spiro-β-lactams and bis-non spiro-polycyclic aromatic β-lactams have been synthesized from imines derived from anthracene-9-carbaldehyde, 2-naphtaldehyde and a ketene derived from 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylic acid and phenoxyacetic acid by a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. The cycloadducts were characterized by spectral data, [...] Read more.
Some new mono-and bis-polycyclic aromatic spiro-β-lactams and bis-non spiro-polycyclic aromatic β-lactams have been synthesized from imines derived from anthracene-9-carbaldehyde, 2-naphtaldehyde and a ketene derived from 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylic acid and phenoxyacetic acid by a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. The cycloadducts were characterized by spectral data, including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and elemental analyses. The configurations of some of these mono-spiro-β-lactams were established by X-ray crystal analysis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Catalytic Asymmetric 1,4-Additions of β-Keto Esters to Nitroalkenes Promoted by a Bifunctional Homobimetallic Co2-Schiff Base Complex
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 532-544; doi:10.3390/molecules15010532
Received: 24 December 2009 / Revised: 18 January 2010 / Accepted: 21 January 2010 / Published: 22 January 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (212 KB)
Abstract
Catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition of β-keto esters to nitroalkenes is described. 2.5 mol % of a homobimetallic Lewis acid/Brønsted base bifunctional Co2-Schiff base complex smoothly promoted the reaction in excellent yield (up to 99%), diastereoselectivity, and enantioselectivity (up to >30:1 dr [...] Read more.
Catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition of β-keto esters to nitroalkenes is described. 2.5 mol % of a homobimetallic Lewis acid/Brønsted base bifunctional Co2-Schiff base complex smoothly promoted the reaction in excellent yield (up to 99%), diastereoselectivity, and enantioselectivity (up to >30:1 dr and 98% ee). Catalyst loading was successfully reduced to 0.1 mol %. Mechanistic studies suggested that intramolecular cooperative functions of the two Co-metal centers are important for high catalytic activity and stereoselectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bifunctional Catalysis)
Open AccessArticle Antiproliferative Effect and Ultrastructural Alterations Induced by Psilostachyin on Trypanosoma cruzi
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 545-553; doi:10.3390/molecules15010545
Received: 19 December 2009 / Revised: 13 January 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 25 January 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (536 KB)
Abstract
The effect of psilostachyin, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, on the growth and viability of cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Tulahuen) is reported. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated by counting the parasites in a Neubauer chamber and measuring their viability by using the [...] Read more.
The effect of psilostachyin, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, on the growth and viability of cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Tulahuen) is reported. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated by counting the parasites in a Neubauer chamber and measuring their viability by using the dye exclusion technique. The effect on parasite growth was irreversible at concentrations higher than 1.0 µg/mL and the addition of glutathione only partially blocked the effect of the compound. Moreover, we have studied the effects of this natural compound on parasite ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, psilostachyin induced ultrastructural alterations on the parasites at a concentration of 0.5 µg/mL, with important mitochondrial swelling and deformity of the kinetoplast. Full article
Open AccessArticle Structure, Morphology and Optical Properties of Chiral N-(4-X-phenyl)-N-[1(S)-1-phenylethyl]thiourea, X= Cl, Br, and NO2
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 554-569; doi:10.3390/molecules15010554
Received: 22 December 2009 / Revised: 14 January 2010 / Accepted: 21 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2091 KB)
Abstract
Three new enantiopure aryl-thioureas have been synthesized, N-(4-X-phenyl)-N-[1(S)-1-phenylethyl]thiourea, X= Cl, Br, and NO2 (compounds 1-3, respectively). Large single crystals of up to 0.5 cm3 were grown from methanol/ethanol solutions. Molecular structures were derived from [...] Read more.
Three new enantiopure aryl-thioureas have been synthesized, N-(4-X-phenyl)-N-[1(S)-1-phenylethyl]thiourea, X= Cl, Br, and NO2 (compounds 1-3, respectively). Large single crystals of up to 0.5 cm3 were grown from methanol/ethanol solutions. Molecular structures were derived from X-ray diffraction studies and the crystal morphology was compared to calculations employing the Bravais-Friedel, Donnay-Harker model. Molecular packing was further studied with Hirshfeld surface calculations. Semi-empirical classical model calculations of refractive indices, optical rotation and the electro-optic effect were performed with OPTACT on the basis of experimentally determined refractive indices. Compound 3 (space group P 1 (No. 1)) was estimated to possess a large electro-optic coefficient r333 of approximately 30 pm/V, whereas 1 and 2 (space Group P 21 (No. 4) exhibit much smaller effects. Full article
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Open AccessReview Severe Embryotoxicity of Artemisinin Derivatives in Experimental Animals, but Possibly Safe in Pregnant Women
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 40-57; doi:10.3390/molecules15010040
Received: 16 November 2009 / Revised: 22 December 2009 / Accepted: 24 December 2009 / Published: 25 December 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (180 KB)
Abstract
Preclinical studies in rodents have demonstrated that artemisinins, especially injectable artesunate, can induce fetal death and congenital malformations at a low dose range. The embryotoxicity can be induced in those animals only within a narrow window in early embryogenesis. Evidence was presented [...] Read more.
Preclinical studies in rodents have demonstrated that artemisinins, especially injectable artesunate, can induce fetal death and congenital malformations at a low dose range. The embryotoxicity can be induced in those animals only within a narrow window in early embryogenesis. Evidence was presented that the mechanism by which embryotoxicity of artemisinins occurs seems to be limited to fetal erythropoiesis and vasculogenesis/ angiogenesison the very earliest developing red blood cells, causing severe anemia in the embryos with higher drug peak concentrations. However, this embryotoxicity has not been convincingly observed in clinical trials from 1,837 pregnant women, including 176 patients in the first trimester exposed to an artemisinin agent or artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) from 1989 to 2009. In the rodent, the sensitive early red cells are produced synchronously over one day with single or multiple exposures to the drug can result in a high proportion of cell deaths. In contrast, primates required a longer period of treatment of 12 days to induce such embryonic loss. In humans only limited information is available about this stage of red cell development; however, it is known to take place over a longer time period, and it may well be that a limited period of treatment of 2 to 3 days for malaria would not produce serious toxic effects. In addition, current oral intake, the most commonly used route of administration in pregnant women with an ACT, results in lower peak concentration and shorter exposure time of artemisinins that demonstrated that such a concentration–course profile is unlikely to induce the embryotoxicity. When relating the animal and human toxicity of artemisinins, the different drug sensitive period and pharmacokinetic profiles as reviewed in the present report may provide a great margin of safety in the pregnant women. Full article
Open AccessReview Click Chemistry for the Synthesis of RGD-Containing Integrin Ligands
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 178-197; doi:10.3390/molecules15010178
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 19 December 2009 / Accepted: 31 December 2009 / Published: 6 January 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (161 KB)
Abstract
In the last few years click chemistry reactions, and in particular coppercatalyzed cycloadditions, have been used intensively for the preparation of new bioconjugate molecules and materials applicable to biomedical and pharmaceutical areas. This review will be focused on conjugates of the tripeptide [...] Read more.
In the last few years click chemistry reactions, and in particular coppercatalyzed cycloadditions, have been used intensively for the preparation of new bioconjugate molecules and materials applicable to biomedical and pharmaceutical areas. This review will be focused on conjugates of the tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp formed by means of click chemistry reactions. This sequence is a well known binding motif for specific transmembrane proteins and is involved in cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix, allowing the selective recognition of the biomolecule or polymer in which it is incorporated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Click Chemistry)
Open AccessReview Interest of Fluorescence Derivatization and Fluorescence Probe Assisted Post-column Detection of Phospholipids: A Short Review
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 352-373; doi:10.3390/molecules15010352
Received: 2 December 2009 / Revised: 9 January 2010 / Accepted: 12 January 2010 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (489 KB)
Abstract
Phospholipids are essential constituents of all living cell membranes. There are many analytical methods available for the quantitative and qualitative determination of phospholipids, but since these molecules lack chromophores, common absorbance based methods are of limited use. Beside mass spectrometry, some less [...] Read more.
Phospholipids are essential constituents of all living cell membranes. There are many analytical methods available for the quantitative and qualitative determination of phospholipids, but since these molecules lack chromophores, common absorbance based methods are of limited use. Beside mass spectrometry, some less specific approaches that are routinely used are evaporative light scattering detection or fluorescence, which exhibit sufficient sensitivity. Here, we focus on fluorescence, which remains an interesting way to quantify phospholipids. Two ways of detecting phospholipids by fluorescence are possible coupled with separation techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE): firstly, pre-column derivatization procedures and secondly, probe assisted post-column detection with suitable fluorescence reagents. In both cases, the common purpose is to increase the detection sensitivity. It is shown that, whereas pre-column derivatization is characterized by selectivity due to the chemical functionality of the analyte involved in the derivatization process, in supramolecular post-column derivatization, the selectivity only proceeds from the capacity of the lipid to involve supramolecular assemblies with a fluorescence probe. The aim of this review is to summarize available experiments concerning fluorescence detection of phospholipids. The interest and limitation of such detection approaches are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids)
Open AccessReview Vitamin B6: A Molecule for Human Health?
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 442-459; doi:10.3390/molecules15010442
Received: 5 November 2009 / Revised: 16 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 January 2010 / Published: 20 January 2010
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (634 KB)
Abstract
Vitamin B6 is an intriguing molecule that is involved in a wide range of metabolic, physiological and developmental processes. Based on its water solubility and high reactivity when phosphorylated, it is a suitable co-factor for many biochemical processes. Furthermore the vitamin [...] Read more.
Vitamin B6 is an intriguing molecule that is involved in a wide range of metabolic, physiological and developmental processes. Based on its water solubility and high reactivity when phosphorylated, it is a suitable co-factor for many biochemical processes. Furthermore the vitamin is a potent antioxidant, rivaling carotenoids or tocopherols in its ability to quench reactive oxygen species. It is therefore not surprising that the vitamin is essential and unquestionably important for the cellular metabolism and well-being of all living organisms. The review briefly summarizes the biosynthetic pathways of vitamin B6 in pro- and eukaryotes and its diverse roles in enzymatic reactions. Finally, because in recent years the vitamin has often been considered beneficial for human health, the review will also sum up and critically reflect on current knowledge how human health can profit from vitamin B6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins)
Open AccessReview Total Synthesis of Annonaceous Acetogenins Belonging to the Non-Adjacent Bis-THF and Non-Adjacent THF-THP Sub-Classes
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 460-501; doi:10.3390/molecules15010460
Received: 14 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 December 2009 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2057 KB)
Abstract The synthesis of the subgroups of acetogenins containing non-adjacent bis-THF and non-adjacent THF-THP core units is reviewed. Specifically, total syntheses of gigantecin, 4-deoxygigantecin, cis-sylvaticin, squamostatin-C, squamostatin-D, sylvaticin and mucocin are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acetogenins: Extraction, Synthesis and Biological Properties)
Open AccessReview Photoresponsive Block Copolymers Containing Azobenzenes and Other Chromophores
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 570-603; doi:10.3390/molecules15010570
Received: 25 December 2009 / Revised: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 25 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (3063 KB)
Abstract
Photoresponsive block copolymers (PRBCs) containing azobenzenes and other chromophores can be easily prepared by controlled polymerization. Their photoresponsive behaviors are generally based on photoisomerization, photocrosslinking, photoalignment and photoinduced cooperative motions. When the photoactive block forms mesogenic phases upon microphase separation of PRBCs, [...] Read more.
Photoresponsive block copolymers (PRBCs) containing azobenzenes and other chromophores can be easily prepared by controlled polymerization. Their photoresponsive behaviors are generally based on photoisomerization, photocrosslinking, photoalignment and photoinduced cooperative motions. When the photoactive block forms mesogenic phases upon microphase separation of PRBCs, supramolecular cooperative motion in liquid-crystalline PRBCs enables them to self-organize into hierarchical structures with photoresponsive features. This offers novel opportunities to photocontrol microphase-separated nanostructures of well-defined PRBCs and extends their diverse applications in holograms, nanotemplates, photodeformed devices and microporous films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photochemistry in Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessCorrection Al-Mousawi, S.M., et al. Azolylacetones as Precursors to Indoles and Naphthofurans Facilitated by Microwave Irradiation with Simultaneous Cooling. Molecules 2009, 14, 2976-2984
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 93; doi:10.3390/molecules15010093
Received: 28 December 2009 / Published: 28 December 2009
PDF Full-text (19 KB)
Abstract We realized that the title was incorrectly listed in our paper published in Molecules recently [1]. The correct title is indicated below: [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection Chen, Zheng, et al. Anti-HIV Actions of 7- and 10-Substituted Camptothecins. Molecules, 2010, 15, 138-148
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 149; doi:10.3390/molecules15010149
Received: 3 January 2010 / Published: 4 January 2010
PDF Full-text (61 KB)
Abstract The author list, affiliations and contact information of this paper [1] are revised. [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection Roy et al. On Two Novel Parameters for Validation of Predictive QSAR Models. Molecules, 2009, 14, 1660-1701
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 604-605; doi:10.3390/molecules15010604
Received: 25 January 2010 / Accepted: 26 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (23 KB)
Abstract The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: [...] Full article

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