Molecules 2010, 15(1), 331-340; doi:10.3390/molecules15010331
Article

Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides as Abiotic Elicitors of Flavolignan Production in Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn Cultures in Vitro

1 Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic 2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové, Víta Nejedlého 573, 500 03 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2009; in revised form: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 12 January 2010 / Published: 14 January 2010
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Abstract: Substituted pyrazinecarboxamides markedly influenced production of flavonolignans in Silybum marianum callus and suspension cultures. In this study the effect of two compounds, N-(3-iodo-4-methylphenyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (1) and N-(3-iodo-4-methylphenyl)-5-tert-butyl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (2), as abiotic elicitors on flavono-lignan production in callus culture of S. marianum was investigated. Silymarin complex compounds have hepatoprotective, anticancer and also hypocholesterolemic activity. In vitro flavonolignan concentration in cells is very low and the elicitation is one of the methods to increase production. Elicitors were tested at three concentrations and at different culture times. In the case of elicitation with 1, the greatest increase of flavonolignan and taxifoline production was observed at concentration c1a after 6-hours of elicitation and after 24 and 72-hours at concentration c1b. However, increased production of silychristin, one of the compounds in the silymarin complex, was achieved after only 6-hours elicitation with c1a (2.95 × 10-4 mol/L). The content of silychristin was 2-times higher compared to the control sample. An increased production of silychristin was reached with compound 2 at the concentration c2 (2.53 × 10-3 mol/L) after 72 h of elicitation. The production of silychristin in this case was increased 12-times compared to control.
Keywords: pyrazinecarboxamides; abiotic elicitors; milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.); silymarin; flavonolignan production; callus culture

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tůmová, L.; Tůma, J.; Megušar, K.; Doležal, M. Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides as Abiotic Elicitors of Flavolignan Production in Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn Cultures in Vitro. Molecules 2010, 15, 331-340.

AMA Style

Tůmová L, Tůma J, Megušar K, Doležal M. Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides as Abiotic Elicitors of Flavolignan Production in Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn Cultures in Vitro. Molecules. 2010; 15(1):331-340.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tůmová, Lenka; Tůma, Jiří; Megušar, Klara; Doležal, Martin. 2010. "Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides as Abiotic Elicitors of Flavolignan Production in Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn Cultures in Vitro." Molecules 15, no. 1: 331-340.

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