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Special Issue "Phospholipids"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. David Leo Daleke

Medical Sciences Program, Bloomington and- Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology- Indiana University School of Medicine-- Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Phone: +1 812-855-6902
Fax: +1 812-855-4436
Interests: phospholipid metabolism and synthesis, phospholipid transbilayer asymmetry, phospholipid domains, novel phospholipids, phospholipid-protein interactions, phospholipids in signalling, phospholipid biophysics, phospholipid structure and function, vesicular and non-vesicular phospholipid trafficking, transbilayer phospholipid transport, phospholipids in disease

Keywords

  • phospholipid metabolism and synthesis
  • phospholipid transbilayer asymmetry
  • phospholipid domains
  • novel phospholipids
  • phospholipid-protein interactions
  • phospholipids in signalling
  • phospholipid biophysics
  • phospholipid structure and function
  • vesicular and non-vesicular phospholipid trafficking
  • transbilayer phospholipid transport
  • phospholipids in disease

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Biomimetic Silica Microspheres in Biosensing
Molecules 2010, 15(3), 1932-1957; doi:10.3390/molecules15031932
Received: 3 February 2010 / Revised: 16 March 2010 / Accepted: 17 March 2010 / Published: 17 March 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (988 KB)
Abstract
Lipid vesicles spontaneously fuse and assemble into a lipid bilayer on planar or spherical silica surfaces and other substrates. The supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) maintain characteristics of biological membranes, and are thus considered to be biomembrane mimetic systems that are stable because [...] Read more.
Lipid vesicles spontaneously fuse and assemble into a lipid bilayer on planar or spherical silica surfaces and other substrates. The supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) maintain characteristics of biological membranes, and are thus considered to be biomembrane mimetic systems that are stable because of the underlying substrate. Examples of their shared characteristics with biomembranes include lateral fluidity, barrier formation to ions and molecules, and their ability to incorporate membrane proteins into them. Biomimetic silica microspheres consisting of SLBs on solid or porous silica microspheres have been utilized for different biosensing applications. The advantages of such biomimetic microspheres for biosensing include their increased surface area to volume ratio which improves the detection limits of analytes, and their amenability for miniaturization, multiplexing and high throughput screening. This review presents examples and formats of using such biomimetic solid or porous silica microspheres in biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids)
Open AccessReview Synthesis of Lysophospholipids
Molecules 2010, 15(3), 1354-1377; doi:10.3390/molecules15031354
Received: 17 February 2010 / Revised: 4 March 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 8 March 2010
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (202 KB)
Abstract
New synthetic methods for the preparation of biologically active phospholipids and lysophospholipids (LPLs) are very important in solving problems of membrane–chemistry and biochemistry. Traditionally considered just as second-messenger molecules regulating intracellular signalling pathways, LPLs have recently shown to be involved in many [...] Read more.
New synthetic methods for the preparation of biologically active phospholipids and lysophospholipids (LPLs) are very important in solving problems of membrane–chemistry and biochemistry. Traditionally considered just as second-messenger molecules regulating intracellular signalling pathways, LPLs have recently shown to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes such as inflammation, reproduction, angiogenesis, tumorogenesis, atherosclerosis and nervous system regulation. Elucidation of the mechanistic details involved in the enzymological, cell-biological and membrane-biophysical roles of LPLs relies obviously on the availability of structurally diverse compounds. A variety of chemical and enzymatic routes have been reported in the literature for the synthesis of LPLs: the enzymatic transformation of natural glycerophospholipids (GPLs) using regiospecific enzymes such as phospholipases A1 (PLA1), A2 (PLA2) phospholipase D (PLD) and different lipases, the coupling of enzymatic processes with chemical transformations, the complete chemical synthesis of LPLs starting from glycerol or derivatives. In this review, chemo-enzymatic procedures leading to 1- and 2-LPLs will be described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids)
Open AccessReview Interest of Fluorescence Derivatization and Fluorescence Probe Assisted Post-column Detection of Phospholipids: A Short Review
Molecules 2010, 15(1), 352-373; doi:10.3390/molecules15010352
Received: 2 December 2009 / Revised: 9 January 2010 / Accepted: 12 January 2010 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (489 KB)
Abstract
Phospholipids are essential constituents of all living cell membranes. There are many analytical methods available for the quantitative and qualitative determination of phospholipids, but since these molecules lack chromophores, common absorbance based methods are of limited use. Beside mass spectrometry, some less [...] Read more.
Phospholipids are essential constituents of all living cell membranes. There are many analytical methods available for the quantitative and qualitative determination of phospholipids, but since these molecules lack chromophores, common absorbance based methods are of limited use. Beside mass spectrometry, some less specific approaches that are routinely used are evaporative light scattering detection or fluorescence, which exhibit sufficient sensitivity. Here, we focus on fluorescence, which remains an interesting way to quantify phospholipids. Two ways of detecting phospholipids by fluorescence are possible coupled with separation techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE): firstly, pre-column derivatization procedures and secondly, probe assisted post-column detection with suitable fluorescence reagents. In both cases, the common purpose is to increase the detection sensitivity. It is shown that, whereas pre-column derivatization is characterized by selectivity due to the chemical functionality of the analyte involved in the derivatization process, in supramolecular post-column derivatization, the selectivity only proceeds from the capacity of the lipid to involve supramolecular assemblies with a fluorescence probe. The aim of this review is to summarize available experiments concerning fluorescence detection of phospholipids. The interest and limitation of such detection approaches are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids)
Open AccessReview Role of Phosphatidyl-Serine in Bone Repair and Its Technological Exploitation
Molecules 2009, 14(12), 5367-5381; doi:10.3390/molecules14125367
Received: 30 September 2009 / Revised: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 21 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (322 KB)
Abstract
In the 1970s, morphological evidence collected by electron microscopy linked mineral deposition (“calcification” or “mineralization”) in newly-forming bone to membrane-encapsulated particles of a diameter of approximately 100 nm (50–200 nm) that were called “matrix vesiscles”. As the characterisation of these vesicles progressed [...] Read more.
In the 1970s, morphological evidence collected by electron microscopy linked mineral deposition (“calcification” or “mineralization”) in newly-forming bone to membrane-encapsulated particles of a diameter of approximately 100 nm (50–200 nm) that were called “matrix vesiscles”. As the characterisation of these vesicles progressed towards their biochemical composition, the role of lipids in the biomineralization process appeared to be crucial. In particular, a group of cell-membrane phospholipids were identified as major players in the crystal formation process. Indeed, in the 1980s it became clear that phosphatidylserine, together with proteins of the annexin family, was among the most important molecules in binding calcium ions and that this phospholipid was involved in the regulation of the early stages of mineralization in vivo. During the same period of time, the number of surgical implantations of orthopaedic, dental and maxilo-facial devices requiring full integration with the treated bone prompted the study of new functionalisation molecules able to establish a stable bonding with the mineral phase of the host tissue. In the late 1990s studies started that aimed at exploiting the potential of calcium-binding phospholipids and, in particular, of the phosphatidylserine as functionalisation molecules to improve the osteointegration of artificial implants. Later, papers have been published that show the potential of the phophatidylserine and phosphatidylserine-mimicking coating technology to promote calcification both in vitro and in vivo. The promising results support the future clinical application of these novel osteointegrative biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids)
Open AccessReview Phospholipids: Key Players in Apoptosis and Immune Regulation
Molecules 2009, 14(12), 4892-4914; doi:10.3390/molecules14124892
Received: 6 November 2009 / Revised: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (754 KB)
Abstract
Phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid predominantly found in the inner leaflet of eukaryotic cellular membranes, plays important roles in many biological processes. During apoptosis, the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids of the plasma membrane gets lost and PS is translocated to the outer leaflet [...] Read more.
Phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid predominantly found in the inner leaflet of eukaryotic cellular membranes, plays important roles in many biological processes. During apoptosis, the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids of the plasma membrane gets lost and PS is translocated to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. There, PS acts as one major “eat me” signal that ensures efficient recognition and uptake of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. PS recognition of activated phagocytes induces the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-10 and transforming grow factor-beta. Deficiencies in the clearance of apoptotic cells result in the occurrence of secondarily necrotic cells. The latter have lost the membrane integrity and release immune activating danger signals, which may induce inflammatory responses. Accumulation of dead cells containing nuclear autoantigens in sites of immune selection may provide survival signals for autoreactive B-cells. The production of antibodies against nuclear structures determines the initiation of chronic autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Since PS on apoptotic cells is an important modulator of the immune response, natural occurring ligands for PS like annexinA5 have profound effects on immune responses against dead and dying cells, including tumour cells. In this review we will focus on the role of PS exposure in the clearance process of dead cells and its implications in clinical situations where apoptosis plays a relevant role, like in cancer, chronic autoimmunity, and infections. Relevance of other phospholipids during the apoptosis process is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids)
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