MDPI Reference List and Citations Style Guide

MDPI recommends that references be prepared with a bibliography software package such as EndNote or ReferenceManager, if a manuscript is prepared in MS Word. Alternatively, the free software Zotero can be used. Zotero is a tool that helps you to collect, organize and cite your references. For LaTeX users we strongly recommend to prepare references with BibTeX. If references are prepared manually, the authors should check them for completeness and correctness. For this purpose authors may use Web of Scienceexternal_link, PubMed/MEDLINEexternal_link or Google Scholarexternal_link.

EndNote Users: download the MDPI.ens references style file from the EndNote website at

Full Reference Formatting Guides

Download the full MDPI Reference List and Citations Style Guide (PDF, 520KB).

Download the full Chicago Reference List and Citations Style Guide (PDF, 1100KB).

Note: An EndNote template file for the MDPI Chicago Style can be obtained here.

Quick Reference Formatting Guide

  • Journal references must cite the full title of the paper, page range or article number, and digital object identifier (DOI) where available. Cited journals should be abbreviated according to ISO 4 rules, see the ISSN Center's List of Title Word Abbreviations or CAS's Core Journals List. Note: If you are not sure how to abbreviate a particular journal title, please leave the entire title. The Editorial Office will abbreviate those journal titles appropriately.
  • 8. Bowman, C.M.; Landee, F.A.; Reslock, M.A. Chemically Oriented Storage and Retrieval System. 1. Storage and Verification of Structural Information. J. Chem. Doc. 1967, 7, 43-47; DOI:10.1021/c160024a013.
  • References to books should cite the author(s), title, publisher, publisher location (city and country), publication year, and page:
  • 9. Smith, A.B. Textbook of Organic Chemistry; D. C. Jones: New York, NY, USA, 1961; pp 123-126.
  • In referring to a book written by various contributors, cite author(s) first:
  • 10. Winstein, S.; Henderson, R.B. In Heterocyclic Compounds; Elderfield, R.C., Ed.; Wiley: New York, NY, USA, 1950; Vol. 1, Chapter 1, p 60.
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