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Impact of Local High Doses of Radiation by Neutron Activated Mn Dioxide Powder in Rat Lungs: Protracted Pathologic Damage Initiated by Internal Exposure

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Department of Tumor and Diagnostic Pathology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
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Faculty of Environmental Studies, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo 1-14, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
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Dерartmеnt оf Рathоlоgical Anatоmy and Fоrеnsic Mеdicinе, Semey State Medical University, Republic of Kazakhstan, Abay Str., 103, Semey 071400, Kazakhstan
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Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
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A.Tsyb Medical Radiological Research Center—National Medical Research Center of Radiology, Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, 249036 Obninsk, Russia
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National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan 071100, Kazakhstan
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The Center for Peace, Hiroshima University, Higashi-senda-machi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0053, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8060171
Received: 16 May 2020 / Revised: 17 June 2020 / Accepted: 21 June 2020 / Published: 23 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Therapeutic Strategies in Different Diseases)
Internal radiation exposure from neutron-induced radioisotopes environmentally activated following atomic bombing or nuclear accidents should be considered for a complete picture of pathologic effects on survivors. Inhaled hot particles expose neighboring tissues to locally ultra-high doses of β-rays and can cause pathologic damage. 55MnO2 powder was activated by a nuclear reactor to make 56MnO2 which emits β-rays. Internal exposures were compared with external γ-rays. Male Wistar rats were administered activated powder by inhalation. Lung samples were observed by histological staining at six hours, three days, 14 days, two months, six months and eight months after the exposure. Synchrotron radiation—X-ray fluorescence—X-ray absorption near-edge structure (SR–XRF–XANES) was utilized for the chemical analysis of the activated 56Mn embedded in lung tissues. 56Mn beta energy spectrum around the particles was calculated to assess the local dose rate and accumulated dose. Hot particles located in the bronchiole and in damaged alveolar tissue were identified as accumulations of Mn and iron. Histological changes showed evidence of emphysema, hemorrhage and severe inflammation from six hours through eight months. Apoptosis was observed in the bronchiole epithelium. Our study shows early event damage from the locally ultra-high internal dose leads to pathogenesis. The trigger of emphysema and hemorrhage was likely early event damage to blood vessels integral to alveolar walls. View Full-Text
Keywords: internal radiation exposure; 56Mn; micro-dosimetry; lung; A-bombing; elemental imaging; apoptosis; elastin; SR-XRF; X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) internal radiation exposure; 56Mn; micro-dosimetry; lung; A-bombing; elemental imaging; apoptosis; elastin; SR-XRF; X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES)
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Shichijo, K.; Takatsuji, T.; Abishev, Z.; Uzbekov, D.; Chaizhunusova, N.; Shabdarbaeva, D.; Niino, D.; Kurisu, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Stepanenko, V.; Azhimkhanov, A.; Hoshi, M. Impact of Local High Doses of Radiation by Neutron Activated Mn Dioxide Powder in Rat Lungs: Protracted Pathologic Damage Initiated by Internal Exposure. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 171.

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