Next Article in Journal
Alcoholic Acute Pancreatitis, a Retrospective Study about Clinical Risk Factors and Outcomes—A Seven-Year Experience of a Large Tertiary Center
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of Zinc in the Development of Vascular Dementia and Parkinson’s Disease and the Potential of Carnosine as Their Therapeutic Agent
 
 
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:
Background:
This is an early access version, the complete PDF, HTML, and XML versions will be available soon.
Article

Imiquimod Reverses Chronic Toxoplasmosis-Associated Behavioral and Neurocognitive Anomalies in a Rat Model

1
Department of Experimental Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
2
Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
3
College of Pharmacy, American University of Iraq-Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq
4
Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, ENSCM, Université de Montpellier, 34090 Montpellier, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Current address: Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Biomedicines 2024, 12(6), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12061295
Submission received: 14 May 2024 / Revised: 4 June 2024 / Accepted: 4 June 2024 / Published: 11 June 2024
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology in Human Health and Disease)

Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a highly prevalent parasitosis. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) transits in the brain from acute (AT) to chronic toxoplasmosis (CT), under host immune control. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation of CT is potentially life-threatening. Behavioral and neurological complications have been associated with CT. Furthermore, an effective treatment targeting CT is still lacking. We previously reported the efficacy of imiquimod against CT. Here, we demonstrate the molecular effects of imiquimod or imiquimod followed by the clinically used combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (SDZ + PYR) on CT-associated behavior in a rat model. Imiquimod decreased the number of cysts in the brains of chronically infected rats due to an induced reactivation of bradyzoites into tachyzoites. Importantly, this decrease was more pronounced in rats treated with imiquimod followed by SDZ + PYR. Rats chronically infected with T. gondii exhibited an anxiety-like behavior. Notably, treatment with imiquimod reversed this behavior aberrancy, with even a more pronounced effect with imiquimod followed by SDZ/PYR. Similarly, rats chronically infected with T. gondii exhibited learning deficits, and imiquimod alone or followed by SDZ/PYR reversed this behavior. Our results enhance our knowledge of the implications of CT on behavioral aberrancies and highlight the potency of imiquimod followed by SDZ + PYR on these CT-associated complications.
Keywords: cytokines; imiquimod; immune response toxoplasmosis; toxoplasmosis-associated behavioral disorders cytokines; imiquimod; immune response toxoplasmosis; toxoplasmosis-associated behavioral disorders

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Itani, S.; Hamie, M.; El Jammal, R.; Abdine, W.; Doumit, M.; Charafeddine, A.; El-Sabban, M.; Patinote, C.; Masquefa, C.; Bonnet, P.-A.; et al. Imiquimod Reverses Chronic Toxoplasmosis-Associated Behavioral and Neurocognitive Anomalies in a Rat Model. Biomedicines 2024, 12, 1295. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12061295

AMA Style

Itani S, Hamie M, El Jammal R, Abdine W, Doumit M, Charafeddine A, El-Sabban M, Patinote C, Masquefa C, Bonnet P-A, et al. Imiquimod Reverses Chronic Toxoplasmosis-Associated Behavioral and Neurocognitive Anomalies in a Rat Model. Biomedicines. 2024; 12(6):1295. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12061295

Chicago/Turabian Style

Itani, Shaymaa, Maguy Hamie, Reem El Jammal, Wassim Abdine, Mark Doumit, Adib Charafeddine, Marwan El-Sabban, Cindy Patinote, Carine Masquefa, Pierre-Antoine Bonnet, and et al. 2024. "Imiquimod Reverses Chronic Toxoplasmosis-Associated Behavioral and Neurocognitive Anomalies in a Rat Model" Biomedicines 12, no. 6: 1295. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12061295

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop