Next Article in Journal
HIV-1-Mediated Acceleration of Oncovirus-Related Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers
Previous Article in Journal
Role of Serotonin in the Maintenance of Inflammatory State in Crohn’s Disease
 
 
Review

Bone Cell Exosomes and Emerging Strategies in Bone Engineering

by 1,2,* and 1,2,*
1
Faculdade de Medicina Dentaria, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Manuel Pereira da Silva, 4200-393 Porto, Portugal
2
LAQV/REQUIMTE, University of Porto, 4160-007 Porto, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz
Biomedicines 2022, 10(4), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040767
Received: 16 February 2022 / Revised: 16 March 2022 / Accepted: 21 March 2022 / Published: 24 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Biomedical Engineering in Human Health)
Bone tissue remodeling is a highly regulated process balancing bone formation and resorption through complex cellular crosstalk between resident bone and microenvironment cells. This cellular communication is mediated by direct cell and cell–matrix contact, autocrine, endocrine, and paracrine receptor mediated mechanisms such as local soluble signaling molecules and extracellular vesicles including nanometer sized exosomes. An impairment in this balanced process leads to development of pathological conditions. Bone tissue engineering is an emerging interdisciplinary field with potential to address bone defects and disorders by synthesizing three-dimensional bone substitutes embedded with cells for clinical implantation. However, current cell-based therapeutic approaches have faced hurdles due to safety and ethical concerns, challenging their clinical translation. Recent studies on exosome-regulated bone homeostasis and regeneration have gained interest as prospective cell free therapy in conjugation with tissue engineered bone grafts. However, exosome research is still in its nascent stages of bone tissue engineering. In this review, we specifically describe the role of exosomes secreted by cells within bone microenvironment such as osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, mesenchymal stem cell cells, immune cells, endothelial cells, and even tumor cells during bone homeostasis and crosstalk. We also review exosome-based osteoinductive functionalization strategies for various bone-based biomaterials such as ceramics, polymers, and metals in bone tissue engineering. We further highlight biomaterials as carrier agents for exosome delivery to bone defect sites and, finally, the influence of various biomaterials in modulation of cell exosome secretome. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; osteoclasts; osteoblasts; osteocytes; mesenchymal stem cells; endothelial cells; immune cells; bone tissue engineering exosomes; osteoclasts; osteoblasts; osteocytes; mesenchymal stem cells; endothelial cells; immune cells; bone tissue engineering
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vig, S.; Fernandes, M.H. Bone Cell Exosomes and Emerging Strategies in Bone Engineering. Biomedicines 2022, 10, 767. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040767

AMA Style

Vig S, Fernandes MH. Bone Cell Exosomes and Emerging Strategies in Bone Engineering. Biomedicines. 2022; 10(4):767. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040767

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vig, Sanjana, and Maria Helena Fernandes. 2022. "Bone Cell Exosomes and Emerging Strategies in Bone Engineering" Biomedicines 10, no. 4: 767. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040767

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop