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Tempol Preserves Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Male Mice with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

1
Center for Precision Medicine and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
2
Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
3
College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sarah Allegra and Silvia De Francia
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020327
Received: 29 December 2021 / Revised: 25 January 2022 / Accepted: 27 January 2022 / Published: 29 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Medicine and Pharmacology)
Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) exposure associates with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Major sex differences between males and females exist in epidemiology, pathophysiology, and outcome of CVDs. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a vital role in the development and progression of CVDs. PM exposure-induced reduction of EPCs is observed in male, not female, mice with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress. The lung is considered an important source of ROS in mice with PM exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sex differences in pulmonary superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression and ROS production, and to test the effect of SOD mimic Tempol on the populations of EPCs in mice with PM exposure. Both male and female C57BL/6 mice (8–10 weeks) were exposed to intranasal PM or vehicle for 6 weeks. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that PM exposure significantly decreased the levels of EPCs (CD34+/CD133+) in both blood and bone marrow with increased ROS production in males, but not in females. ELISA analysis showed higher levels of serum IL-6 and IL-1βin males than in females. Pulmonary expression of the antioxidant enzyme SOD1 was significantly decreased in males after PM exposure, but not in females. Administration of the SOD mimic Tempol in male mice with PM exposure attenuated the production of ROS and inflammatory cytokines, and preserved EPC levels. These data indicated that PM exposure-induced reduction of EPC population in male mice may be due to decreased expression of pulmonary SOD1 in male mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; endothelial progenitor cells; reactive oxygen species; SOD1; Tempol; sex difference particulate matter; endothelial progenitor cells; reactive oxygen species; SOD1; Tempol; sex difference
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, X.; Wang, A.; Chen, Z.; Cui, Y.; Hao, H.; Domeier, T.L.; Sun, Q.; Liu, Z. Tempol Preserves Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Male Mice with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure. Biomedicines 2022, 10, 327. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020327

AMA Style

Liu X, Wang A, Chen Z, Cui Y, Hao H, Domeier TL, Sun Q, Liu Z. Tempol Preserves Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Male Mice with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure. Biomedicines. 2022; 10(2):327. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020327

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Xuanyou, Aimin Wang, Zhiheng Chen, Yuqi Cui, Hong Hao, Timothy L. Domeier, Qinghua Sun, and Zhenguo Liu. 2022. "Tempol Preserves Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Male Mice with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure" Biomedicines 10, no. 2: 327. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020327

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