Special Issue "Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jordi Sort

Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
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Phone: +34 93 581 2085
Fax: +34 93 581 2155
Interests: porous and continuous films; lithographed systems; amorphous alloys; nanocomposites; nanomagnetism; nanomechanics
Guest Editor
Dr. Eva Pellicer

Ramon y Cajal Researcher, Gnm3 group, Physics Department, Cc (C3/210) building, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electrodeposition; metallic micro- and nanostructures; ordered mesoporous metal oxides; nanocasting; magnetic properties; electrocatalytic properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This issue is a continuation of the previous, successful Special Issue "Ordered Mesoporous Nanomaterials" (link: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/nanomaterials/special_issues/ordered_mesoporous_nano).

Interest in mesoporous materials is fostered by their widespread technological application in diverse areas, such as heterogeneous catalysis, gas sensors, solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors or optoelectronic and magnetic devices, amongst others. With a pore size of 2–50 nm, tunable pore topologies, and extremely large surface areas, mesoporous materials hold a privileged position between zeolites and macroporous materials. Ordered mesoporous powders can be synthesized using two different approaches: soft-templating and hard-templating methods, whereas ordered mesoporous thin films are typically synthesized by the evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method.

This Special Issue is aimed at providing selected contributions on advances in the synthesis, characterization, and application of non-siliceous mesoporous materials in several arrangements: bulk (monoliths), 2D (thin films), powders, 1D (nanowires, nanorods), etc. The range of materials includes metal oxides, metals, semiconductors, carbons, nitrides, and composites. Special emphasis is laid on their potential uses in electrocatalysis, energy storage, gas-sensing, absorbents for water purification, magnetism, and spintronics.

Prof. Dr. Jordi Sort
Dr. Eva Pellicer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • ordered mesoporous materials
  • mesoporous particles
  • mesoporous films, wires and rods
  • templating, evaporation induced self assembly
  • magnetic properties, spintronics
  • gas-sensing, electrocatalysis, fuel cells, batteries

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(1), 15; doi:10.3390/nano6010015
Received: 4 January 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 11 January 2016
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Abstract
The Special Issue of Nanomaterials “Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials” gathers four reviews, one communication and eight regular papers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Morphological, Chemical Surface, and Diffusive Transport Characterizations of a Nanoporous Alumina Membrane
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 2192-2202; doi:10.3390/nano5042192
Received: 27 September 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 5 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Synthesis of a nanoporous alumina membrane (NPAM) by the two-step anodization method and its morphological and chemical surface characterization by analyzing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) spectra is reported. Influence of electrical and diffusive effects on the NaCl
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Synthesis of a nanoporous alumina membrane (NPAM) by the two-step anodization method and its morphological and chemical surface characterization by analyzing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) spectra is reported. Influence of electrical and diffusive effects on the NaCl transport across the membrane nanopores is determined from salt diffusion measurements performed with a wide range of NaCl concentrations, which allows the estimation of characteristic electrochemical membrane parameters such as the NaCl diffusion coefficient and the concentration of fixed charges in the membrane, by using an appropriated model and the membrane geometrical parameters (porosity and pore length). These results indicate a reduction of ~70% in the value of the NaCl diffusion coefficient through the membrane pores with respect to solution. The transport number of ions in the membrane pores (Na+ and Cl, respectively) were determined from concentration potential measurements, and the effect of concentration-polarization at the membrane surfaces was also considered by comparing concentration potential values obtained with stirred solutions (550 rpm) and without stirring. From both kinds of results, a value higher than 0.05 M NaCl for the feed solution seems to be necessary to neglect the contribution of electrical interactions in the diffusive transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Utilization of Enzyme-Immobilized Mesoporous Silica Nanocontainers (IBN-4) in Prodrug-Activated Cancer Theranostics
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 2169-2191; doi:10.3390/nano5042169
Received: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To develop a carrier for use in enzyme prodrug therapy, Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles (IBN-4: Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology), where the nanoparticle surfaces were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and further conjugated with glutaraldehyde. Consequently, the enzymes could be
[...] Read more.
To develop a carrier for use in enzyme prodrug therapy, Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles (IBN-4: Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology), where the nanoparticle surfaces were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and further conjugated with glutaraldehyde. Consequently, the enzymes could be stabilized in nanochannels through the formation of covalent imine bonds. This strategy was used to protect HRP from immune exclusion, degradation and denaturation under biological conditions. Furthermore, immobilization of HRP in the nanochannels of IBN-4 nanomaterials exhibited good functional stability upon repetitive use and long-term storage (60 days) at 4 °C. The generation of functionalized and HRP-immobilized nanomaterials was further verified using various characterization techniques. The possibility of using HRP-encapsulated IBN-4 materials in prodrug cancer therapy was also demonstrated by evaluating their ability to convert a prodrug (indole-3- acetic acid (IAA)) into cytotoxic radicals, which triggered tumor cell apoptosis in human colon carcinoma (HT-29 cell line) cells. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay revealed that cells could be exposed to the IBN-4 nanocomposites without damaging their membranes, confirming apoptotic cell death. In summary, we demonstrated the potential of utilizing large porous mesoporous silica nanomaterials (IBN-4) as enzyme carriers for prodrug therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous CuO/CeO2 Composite Frameworks as Anode Catalysts for Water Oxidation
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 1971-1984; doi:10.3390/nano5041971
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cerium-rich metal oxide materials have recently emerged as promising candidates for the photocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this article, we report the synthesis of ordered mesoporous CuO/CeO2 composite frameworks with different contents of copper(II) oxide and demonstrate their activity for photocatalytic
[...] Read more.
Cerium-rich metal oxide materials have recently emerged as promising candidates for the photocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this article, we report the synthesis of ordered mesoporous CuO/CeO2 composite frameworks with different contents of copper(II) oxide and demonstrate their activity for photocatalytic O2 production via UV-Vis light-driven oxidation of water. Mesoporous CuO/CeO2 materials have been successfully prepared by a nanocasting route, using mesoporous silica as a rigid template. X-ray diffraction, electron transmission microscopy and N2 porosimetry characterization of the as-prepared products reveal a mesoporous structure composed of parallel arranged nanorods, with a large surface area and a narrow pore size distribution. The molecular structure and optical properties of the composite materials were investigated with Raman and UV-Vis/NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Catalytic results indicated that incorporation of CuO clusters in the CeO2 lattice improved the photochemical properties. As a result, the CuO/CeO2 composite catalyst containing ~38 wt % CuO reaches a high O2 evolution rate of ~19.6 µmol·h−1 (or 392 µmol·h−1·g−1) with an apparent quantum efficiency of 17.6% at λ = 365 ± 10 nm. This OER activity compares favorably with that obtained from the non-porous CuO/CeO2 counterpart (~1.3 µmol·h−1) and pure mesoporous CeO2 (~1 µmol·h−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Control of Partial Coalescence of Self-Assembled Metal Nano-Particles across Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Templates towards Long Range Meso-Porous Metal Frameworks Design
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 1766-1781; doi:10.3390/nano5041766
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The formation of purely metallic meso-porous metal thin films by partial interface coalescence of self-assembled metal nano-particles across aqueous solutions of Pluronics triblock lyotropic liquid crystals is demonstrated for the first time. Small angle X-ray scattering was used to study the influence of
[...] Read more.
The formation of purely metallic meso-porous metal thin films by partial interface coalescence of self-assembled metal nano-particles across aqueous solutions of Pluronics triblock lyotropic liquid crystals is demonstrated for the first time. Small angle X-ray scattering was used to study the influence of the thin film composition and processing conditions on the ordered structures. The structural characteristics of the meso-structures formed demonstrated to primarily rely on the lyotropic liquid crystal properties while the nature of the metal nano-particles used as well as the their diameters were found to affect the ordered structure formation. The impact of the annealing temperature on the nano-particle coalescence and efficiency at removing the templating lyotropic liquid crystals was also analysed. It is demonstrated that the lyotropic liquid crystal is rendered slightly less thermally stable, upon mixing with metal nano-particles and that low annealing temperatures are sufficient to form purely metallic frameworks with average pore size distributions smaller than 500 nm and porosity around 45% with potential application in sensing, catalysis, nanoscale heat exchange, and molecular separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle High Rate Performance Nanocomposite Electrode of Mesoporous Manganese Dioxide/Silver Nanowires in KI Electrolytes
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 1638-1653; doi:10.3390/nano5041638
Received: 7 August 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 13 October 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, manganese dioxide has become a research hotspot as an electrode material because of its low price. However, it has also become an obstacle to industrialization due to its low ratio of capacitance and the low rate performance which is caused
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In recent years, manganese dioxide has become a research hotspot as an electrode material because of its low price. However, it has also become an obstacle to industrialization due to its low ratio of capacitance and the low rate performance which is caused by the poor electrical conductivity. In this study, a KI solution with electrochemical activity was innovatively applied to the electrolyte, and we systematically investigated the rate performance of the mesoporous manganese dioxide and the composite electrode with silver nanowires in supercapacitors. The results showed that when mesoporous manganese dioxide and mesoporous manganese dioxide/silver nanowires composite were used as electrodes, the strength of the current was amplified five times (from 0.1 to 0.5 A/g), the remaining rates of specific capacitance were 95% (from 205.5 down to 197.1 F/g) and 92% (from 208.1 down to 191.7 F/g) in the KI electrolyte, and the rate performance was much higher than which in an Na2SO4 electrolyte with a remaining rate of 25% (from 200.3 down to 49.1 F/g) and 60% (from 187.2 down to 113.1 F/g). The morphology and detail structure were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The electrochemical performance was assessed by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Mesoporous Metal Oxides by Structure Replication: Thermal Analysis of Metal Nitrates in Porous Carbon Matrices
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(3), 1431-1441; doi:10.3390/nano5031431
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A variety of metal nitrates were filled into the pores of an ordered mesoporous CMK-3 carbon matrix by solution-based impregnation. Thermal conversion of the metal nitrates into the respective metal oxides, and subsequent removal of the carbon matrix by thermal combustion, provides a
[...] Read more.
A variety of metal nitrates were filled into the pores of an ordered mesoporous CMK-3 carbon matrix by solution-based impregnation. Thermal conversion of the metal nitrates into the respective metal oxides, and subsequent removal of the carbon matrix by thermal combustion, provides a versatile means to prepare mesoporous metal oxides (so-called nanocasting). This study aims to monitor the thermally induced processes by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), coupled with mass ion detection (MS). The highly dispersed metal nitrates in the pores of the carbon matrix tend to react to the respective metal oxides at lower temperature than reported in the literature for pure, i.e., carbon-free, metal nitrates. The subsequent thermal combustion of the CMK-3 carbon matrix also occurs at lower temperature, which is explained by a catalytic effect of the metal oxides present in the pores. This catalytic effect is particularly strong for oxides of redox active metals, such as transition group VII and VIII metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), Cu, and Ce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrothermal Fabrication of WO3 Hierarchical Architectures: Structure, Growth and Response
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(3), 1250-1255; doi:10.3390/nano5031250
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 16 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently hierarchical architectures, consisting of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, are of great interest for potential applications in energy and environmental. Here, novel rose-like WO3 hierarchical architectures were successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared WO3 hierarchical architectures were in fact
[...] Read more.
Recently hierarchical architectures, consisting of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, are of great interest for potential applications in energy and environmental. Here, novel rose-like WO3 hierarchical architectures were successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared WO3 hierarchical architectures were in fact assembled by numerous nanosheets with an average thickness of ~30 nm. We found that the oxalic acid played a significant role in governing morphologies of WO3 during hydrothermal process. Based on comparative studies, a possible formation mechanism was also proposed in detail. Furthermore, gas-sensing measurement showed that the well-defined 3D WO3 hierarchical architectures exhibited the excellent gas sensing properties towards CO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Hybrid Mesoporous Silicas and Microporous POSS-Based Frameworks Incorporating Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 1087-1101; doi:10.3390/nano5021087
Received: 8 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
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Abstract
We fabricated a series of mesoporous silicas and mesoporous organosilicates with hierarchical porosity through evaporation-induced self-assembly using Pluronic F127 as a template in this study. We could tailor the mesophase of each mesoporous silica sample by varying the weight ratio of its two
[...] Read more.
We fabricated a series of mesoporous silicas and mesoporous organosilicates with hierarchical porosity through evaporation-induced self-assembly using Pluronic F127 as a template in this study. We could tailor the mesophase of each mesoporous silica sample by varying the weight ratio of its two silica sources: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and triethoxysilane hydrosilylated octavinyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (OV-POSS-SILY). The mesophases ranged from an ordered body-centered cubic (bcc) structure (TEOS alone) to ordered face-centered cubic (fcc) structure (10 and 20 wt.% of OV-POSS-SILY) and finally to disordered spherical pores (≥30 wt.% of OV-POSS-SILY). We used small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the transformations of these mesophases, while N2 isotherm sorption curves revealed the porosities of these mesoporous silicate samples. Moreover, 29Si CP/MAS solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy allowed us to analyze the compositions of the POSS-containing silicate frameworks. Such functional mesoporous silica samples incorporating microporous POSS building units have potential applications in various systems, including optical and electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessCommunication Fabrication and Cell Responsive Behavior of Macroporous PLLA/Gelatin Composite Scaffold with Hierarchical Micro-Nano Pore Structure
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(2), 415-424; doi:10.3390/nano5020415
Received: 20 November 2014 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scaffolds providing a 3D environment which can effectively promote the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells are crucial to tissue regeneration. In this study, the poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold with hierarchical pore structural was fabricated via two-step thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). To
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Scaffolds providing a 3D environment which can effectively promote the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells are crucial to tissue regeneration. In this study, the poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold with hierarchical pore structural was fabricated via two-step thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). To mimic both physical architecture and chemical composite of natural bone extracellular matrix (ECM), gelatin fibers were introduced into the pores of PLLA scaffolds and formed 3D network structure via TIPS. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were harvested and seeded into PLLA/gel hybrid scaffolds and cultured in vitro for biocompatibility assay. The surface morphology, porosity and compressive modulus of scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), density analysis and compression test respectively. The results showed that hybrid scaffolds had high porosity (91.62%), a good compressive modulus (2.79 ± 0.20 MPa), nanometer fibers (diameter around 186.39~354.30 nm) and different grades of pore size from 7.41 ± 2.64 nm to 387.94 ± 102.48 nm. The scaffolds with mild hydrolysis by NaOH were modified by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl ami-nopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS). Gelatin was performed onto PLLA scaffold via TIPS aiming at enhancement cell-material interaction. In comparison with PLLA scaffold, the PLLA/gel scaffold had better biological performance and the mechanical properties because the gelatin fibers homogeneously distributed in each pore of PLLA scaffold and formed 3D network structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Electric Field-Responsive Mesoporous Suspensions: A Review
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 2249-2267; doi:10.3390/nano5042249
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 6 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper briefly reviews the fabrication and electrorheological (ER) characteristics of mesoporous materials and their nanocomposites with conducting polymers under an applied electric field when dispersed in an insulating liquid. Smart fluids of electrically-polarizable particles exhibit a reversible and tunable phase transition from
[...] Read more.
This paper briefly reviews the fabrication and electrorheological (ER) characteristics of mesoporous materials and their nanocomposites with conducting polymers under an applied electric field when dispersed in an insulating liquid. Smart fluids of electrically-polarizable particles exhibit a reversible and tunable phase transition from a liquid-like to solid-like state in response to an external electric field of various strengths, and have potential applications in a variety of active control systems. The ER properties of these mesoporous suspensions are explained further according to their dielectric spectra in terms of the flow curve, dynamic moduli, and yield stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessReview Recent Advance on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles-Based Controlled Release System: Intelligent Switches Open up New Horizon
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 2019-2053; doi:10.3390/nano5042019
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 28 October 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN)-based intelligent transport systems have attracted many researchers’ attention due to the characteristics of uniform pore and particle size distribution, good biocompatibility, high surface area, and versatile functionalization, which have led to their widespread application in diverse areas. In the
[...] Read more.
Mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN)-based intelligent transport systems have attracted many researchers’ attention due to the characteristics of uniform pore and particle size distribution, good biocompatibility, high surface area, and versatile functionalization, which have led to their widespread application in diverse areas. In the past two decades, many kinds of smart controlled release systems were prepared with the development of brilliant nano-switches. This article reviews and discusses the advantages of MSN-based controlled release systems. Meanwhile, the switching mechanisms based on different types of stimulus response are systematically analyzed and summarized. Additionally, the application fields of these devices are further discussed. Obviously, the recent evolution of smart nano-switches promoted the upgrading of the controlled release system from the simple “separated” switch to the reversible, multifunctional, complicated logical switches and selective switches. Especially the free-blockage switches, which are based on hydrophobic/hydrophilic conversion, have been proposed and designed in the last two years. The prospects and directions of this research field are also briefly addressed, which could be better used to promote the further development of this field to meet the needs of mankind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessReview Smart Mesoporous Nanomaterials for Antitumor Therapy
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 1906-1937; doi:10.3390/nano5041906
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of nanomaterials for the treatment of solid tumours is receiving increasing attention by the scientific community. Among them, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) exhibit unique features that make them suitable nanocarriers to host, transport and protect drug molecules until the target is
[...] Read more.
The use of nanomaterials for the treatment of solid tumours is receiving increasing attention by the scientific community. Among them, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) exhibit unique features that make them suitable nanocarriers to host, transport and protect drug molecules until the target is reached. It is possible to incorporate different targeting ligands to the outermost surface of MSNs to selectively drive the drugs to the tumour tissues. To prevent the premature release of the cargo entrapped in the mesopores, it is feasible to cap the pore entrances using stimuli-responsive nanogates. Therefore, upon exposure to internal (pH, enzymes, glutathione, etc.) or external (temperature, light, magnetic field, etc.) stimuli, the pore opening takes place and the release of the entrapped cargo occurs. These smart MSNs are capable of selectively reaching and accumulating at the target tissue and releasing the entrapped drug in a specific and controlled fashion, constituting a promising alternative to conventional chemotherapy, which is typically associated with undesired side effects. In this review, we overview the recent advances reported by the scientific community in developing MSNs for antitumor therapy. We highlight the possibility to design multifunctional nanosystems using different therapeutic approaches aimed at increasing the efficacy of the antitumor treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessReview Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors
Nanomaterials 2015, 5(4), 1667-1689; doi:10.3390/nano5041667
Received: 18 August 2015 / Revised: 8 October 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 14 October 2015
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (3355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO2), manganese dioxide (MnO2), nickel oxides (NiO) and cobalt oxide (Co3O4), have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous
[...] Read more.
Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO2), manganese dioxide (MnO2), nickel oxides (NiO) and cobalt oxide (Co3O4), have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are resulted from the effective contacts between electrode materials and electrolytes as well as fast transportation of ions and electrons in the bulk of electrode and at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. During the past decade, many achievements on mesoporous transition metal oxides have been made. In this mini-review, we select several typical nanomaterials, such as RuO2, MnO2, NiO, Co3O4 and nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4), and briefly summarize the recent research progress of these mesoporous transition metal oxides-based electrodes in the field of supercapacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Mesoporous Nanomaterials)
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