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Special Issue "Current Trends in Ginseng Research"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Anusha Chaparala

College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA
E-Mail
Interests: inflammatory diseases; ulcerative colitis; complementary and alternative medicine (CAM); American ginseng; panaxynol; macrophages; antioxidant; epigenetics
Guest Editor
Prof. Lorne Hofseth

College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ulcerative colitis; colorectal cancer; American ginseng; inflammation; carcinogenesis; complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Woo-Sik Jeong

Department of Food and Life Sciences, Inje University, Gimhae 50834, South Korea
E-Mail
Phone: +82-55-320-3238
Interests: skin health; hair growth; phytochemicals; nutraceuticals; nutricosmetics; chemoprevention; antioxidant; detoxifying enzyme; inflammation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ginseng (Panax genus) has been a widely used herb for centuries in Eastern Asia and has been gaining popularity in the Western world over the last decade for its therapeutic potential. Panax is derived from panacea, which means “all healing”, and this claim has been demonstrated by a number of previous and current investigations.
There are multiple known species of ginseng, and they differ in the composition of their active constituents (ginsenosides, polysaccharides, peptides, polyacetylenic alcohols, and fatty acids). There is compelling evidence to show that ginseng and its various individual components display anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties, among others. Consequently, they have been shown to be effective in the treatment of multiple types of cancer, diabetes, and various inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases.
Although ginseng is currently placed in the category of “complementary and alternative medicine”, ongoing studies are investigating its pharmacological properties, revealing new and promising uses for ginseng and paving way for its use in mainstream medicine. This Special Issue on ginseng will focus on the past and present developments in the study of ginseng and its future prospects as a conventional therapeutic drug.

Prof. Woo-Sik Jeong
Prof. Lorne Hofseth
Dr. Anusha Chaparala
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

•    cancer chemoprevention and treatment
•    inflammation
•    epigenetics
•    complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
•    drug discovery/development
•    anti-oxidants
•    active ingredients
•    cellular pathways/mechanism of action
•    ginsenosides
•    polyacetylenes

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1505; doi:10.3390/molecules22091505
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6
[...] Read more.
Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA), 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS), or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0)tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO) once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Cloning and Characterization of PnbHLH1 Transcription Factor in Panax notoginseng
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1268; doi:10.3390/molecules22081268
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
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Abstract
Panax notoginseng has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In the current study, molecular cloning and characterization of PnbHLH1 transcription factor were explored in Panax notoginseng. The full length of the PnbHLH1 gene obtained by splicing was 1430 bp, encoding
[...] Read more.
Panax notoginseng has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In the current study, molecular cloning and characterization of PnbHLH1 transcription factor were explored in Panax notoginseng. The full length of the PnbHLH1 gene obtained by splicing was 1430 bp, encoding 321 amino acids. Prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a-PnbHLH1 was constructed and transferred into the BL21 prokaryotic expression strain. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay of PnbHLH1 protein binding to E-box cis-acting elements verified that PnbHLH1 belonged to the bHLH class transcription factor which could interact with the promoter region of the E-box core sequence. The expression levels of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in PnbHLH1 transgenic cells were higher than those in the wild cells. Similarly, the total saponin contents were increased in the PnbHLH1 transgenic cell lines compared with the wild cell lines. Such results suggest that the PnbHLH1 transcription factor is a positive regulator in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in Panax notoginseng. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Yeast Extract Stimulates Ginsenoside Production in Hairy Root Cultures of American Ginseng Cultivated in Shake Flasks and Nutrient Sprinkle Bioreactors
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 880; doi:10.3390/molecules22060880
Received: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
One of the most effective strategies to enhance metabolite biosynthesis and accumulation in biotechnological systems is the use of elicitation processes. This study assesses the influence of different concentrations of yeast extract (YE) on ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) hairy roots
[...] Read more.
One of the most effective strategies to enhance metabolite biosynthesis and accumulation in biotechnological systems is the use of elicitation processes. This study assesses the influence of different concentrations of yeast extract (YE) on ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks and in a nutrient sprinkle bioreactor after 3 and 7 days of elicitation. The saponin content was determined using HPLC. The maximum yield (20 mg g−1 d.w.) of the sum of six examined ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1) in hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks was achieved after application of YE at 50 mg L−1 concentration and 3 day exposure time. The ginsenoside level was 1.57 times higher than that attained in control medium. The same conditions of elicitation (3 day time of exposure and 50 mg L−1 of YE) also favourably influenced the biosynthesis of studied saponins in bioreactor cultures. The total ginsenoside content was 32.25 mg g−1 d.w. and was higher than that achieved in control medium and in shake flasks cultures. Obtained results indicated that yeast extract can be used to increase ginsenoside production in hairy root cultures of P. quinquefolium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 837; doi:10.3390/molecules22060837
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious
[...] Read more.
Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng. Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g−1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng adventitious root growth and ginsenoside production. The genomic DNA of strain LB 5-3 was sequenced, and was found to be most closely related to Bacillus altitudinis (KX230132.1). The challenged ginseng adventitious root extracts exerted inhibitory effect against the HepG2 cells, which IC50 value was 0.94 mg mL−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Changes in Neutral and Acidic Ginsenosides with Different Cultivation Ages and Harvest Seasons: Identification of Chemical Characteristics for Panax ginseng Quality Control
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 734; doi:10.3390/molecules22050734
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, dynamic changes in ginsenoside content and ratios in the Panax ginseng root were investigated with different cultivation ages and different collection months, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our data indicate that changes in ginsenoside Ro and malonyl ginsenosides content were
[...] Read more.
In this study, dynamic changes in ginsenoside content and ratios in the Panax ginseng root were investigated with different cultivation ages and different collection months, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our data indicate that changes in ginsenoside Ro and malonyl ginsenosides content were dependent on the ginseng cultivation age (p < 0.05); especially, the Ro content varied from 0.16 to 4.91 mg/g, with a difference about 30-fold. Further, we found that the samples of 5 and 6-year-old P. ginseng had high Ro/Re ratio, whereas two and three-year-old P. ginseng possessed low Ro/Re ratio. Thus, the Ro/Re ratio can be used as a characteristic marker for differentiating the age of the root. The relative content of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re were affected by the ginseng’s harvest season. The Re content was higher than the Rg1 content in May and June, but lower than the Rg1 content from August to October. Thus, the Rg1/Re ratio can be used as a characteristic marker for differentiating the ginseng’s harvest seasons. These results indicate that the chemical characteristics of P. ginseng at different cultivation ages and harvest seasons are clearly different, which may cause differences in pharmacological activities and therapeutic effects. In addition, we developed HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods to identify the cultivation age and harvest season of P. ginseng using characteristic ginsenosides. Our results showed that this method can be used to discriminate the cultivation age and harvest season of P. ginseng. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Comparison of Two Drying Methods of Mountain Cultivated Ginseng by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and Multivariate Statistical Analysis
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 717; doi:10.3390/molecules22050717
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 30 April 2017
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Abstract
In traditional Chinese medicine practice, drying method is an essential factor to influence the components of Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based approach was used to compare the content of chemical compounds of
[...] Read more.
In traditional Chinese medicine practice, drying method is an essential factor to influence the components of Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based approach was used to compare the content of chemical compounds of mountain cultivated ginseng that had been natural air dried (LX-P) and vacuum freeze-dried (LX-L). Multivariate statistical analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to select the influential components of different samples. There were 41 ginsenosides unambiguously identified and tentatively assigned in both LX-L and LX-P. The results showed that the characteristic components in LX-P were ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rc, ginsenoside Rg6, dendrolasin, and ginsenoside Rb2. The characteristic components in LX-L were malonyl-ginsenoside Re, malonyl-ginsenoside Rb1, malonyl-ginsenoside Rc, malonyl-ginsenoside Rb1 isomer, malonyl-ginsenoside Rb2, malonyl-ginsenoside Rb3, malonyl-ginsenoside Rd isomer, gypenoside XVII, and notoginsenoside Fe. This is the first time that the differences between LX-L and LX-P have been observed systematically at the chemistry level. It was indicated that vacuum freeze-drying method can improve the content of malonyl-ginsensides in mountain cultivated ginseng. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of Triterpenoids from Panax ginseng on Coagulation Factor X
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 649; doi:10.3390/molecules22040649
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
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Abstract
Enzymes involved in the coagulation process have received great attention as potential targets for the development of oral anti-coagulants. Among these enzymes, coagulation factor Xa (FXa) has remained the center of attention in the last decade. In this study, 16 ginsenosides and two
[...] Read more.
Enzymes involved in the coagulation process have received great attention as potential targets for the development of oral anti-coagulants. Among these enzymes, coagulation factor Xa (FXa) has remained the center of attention in the last decade. In this study, 16 ginsenosides and two sapogenins were isolated, identified and quantified. To determine the inhibitory potential on FXa, the chromogenic substrates method was used. The assay suggested that compounds 5, 13 and 18 were mainly responsible for the anti-coagulant effect. Furthermore, these three compounds also possessed high thrombin selectivity in the thrombin inhibition assay. Furthermore, Glide XP from Schrödinger was employed for molecular docking to clarify the interaction between the bioactive compounds and FXa. Therefore, the chemical and biological results indicate that compounds 5 (ginsenoside Rg2), 13 (ginsenoside Rg3) and 18 (protopanaxtriol, PPT) are potential natural inhibitors against FXa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Ameliorative Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Action of Black Ginseng (Panax ginseng) on Acetaminophen-Mediated Liver Injury
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 664; doi:10.3390/molecules22040664
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Frequent overdosing of acetaminophen (APAP) has become the major cause of acute liver injury (ALI). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of black ginseng (BG) on APAP-induced mice liver injuries and the underlying mechanisms of action were
[...] Read more.
Background: Frequent overdosing of acetaminophen (APAP) has become the major cause of acute liver injury (ALI). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of black ginseng (BG) on APAP-induced mice liver injuries and the underlying mechanisms of action were further investigated for the first time. Methods: Mice were treated with BG (300, 600 mg/kg) by oral gavage once a day for seven days. On the 7th day, all mice were treated with 250 mg/kg APAP which caused severe liver injury after 24 h and hepatotoxicity was assessed. Results: Our results showed that pretreatment with BG significantly decreased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) compared with the APAP group. Meanwhile, hepatic antioxidant including glutathione (GSH) was elevated compared with the APAP group. In contrast, a significant decrease of the levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the BG-treated groups compared with the APAP group. These effects were associated with significant increases of cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels in liver tissues. Moreover, BG supplementation suppressed activation of apoptotic pathways through increasing Bcl-2 and decreasing Bax protein expression levels according to western blotting analysis. Histopathological examination revealed that BG pretreatment significantly inhibited APAP-induced necrosis and inflammatory infiltration in liver tissues. Biological indicators of nitrative stress like 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) were also inhibited after pretreatment with BG, compared with the APAP group. Conclusions: The results clearly suggest that the underlying molecular mechanisms of action of BG-mediated alleviation of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nitrative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Ginsenoside PPD’s Antitumor Effect via Down-Regulation of mTOR Revealed by Super-Resolution Imaging
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 486; doi:10.3390/molecules22030486
Received: 5 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Derived from Panax ginseng, the natural product 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) has been reported for its cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism is, however, not well understood. Here we show that PPD significantly inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and causes
[...] Read more.
Derived from Panax ginseng, the natural product 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) has been reported for its cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism is, however, not well understood. Here we show that PPD significantly inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in human laryngeal carcinoma cells (Hep-2 cells). PPD also decreases the levels of proteins related to cell proliferation. Moreover, PPD-induced apoptosis is characterized by a dose-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax, and is accompanied by the activation of Caspase-3 as well. Further molecular mechanism is revealed by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM)—a novel high-precision localization microscopy which enables effective resolution down to the order of 10 nm. It shows the expression and spatial arrangement of mTOR and its downstream effectors, demonstrating that this ginsenoside exerts its excellent anticancer effects via down-regulation of mTOR signaling pathway in Hep-2 cells. Taken together, our findings elucidate that the antitumor effect of PPD is associated with its regulation of mTOR expression and distribution, which encourages further studies of PPD as a promising therapeutic agent against laryngeal carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle A Metabolomic Approach for the Discrimination of Red Ginseng Root Parts and Targeted Validation
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 471; doi:10.3390/molecules22030471
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ginsenosides are used as existing markers of red ginseng (RG) quality, and ginsenoside ratios are also indicative of the different components of red ginseng. For the analysis and classification of ginsenoside content, red ginseng was separated into three parts, namely, main roots, lateral
[...] Read more.
Ginsenosides are used as existing markers of red ginseng (RG) quality, and ginsenoside ratios are also indicative of the different components of red ginseng. For the analysis and classification of ginsenoside content, red ginseng was separated into three parts, namely, main roots, lateral roots, and fine roots, and each extract was subjected to ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between the extracts of main roots and fine roots and suggested discrimination markers (four for the main roots and five for the fine roots). The fine root markers were identified as ginsenoside. We identified two markers for the main roots of red ginseng in this study. Moreover, the contents of 22 ginsenosides were analyzed in all three components of red ginseng. Fine roots have the highest protopanaxadiol (PPD)/protopanaxatriol (PPT) ratio. The PPD group of ginsenosides, which is quantitatively dominant in fine roots, clearly distinguishes the main roots from the other parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle A Strategy for Simultaneous Isolation of Less Polar Ginsenosides, Including a Pair of New 20-Methoxyl Isomers, from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 442; doi:10.3390/molecules22030442
Received: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
The present study was designed to simultaneously isolate the less polar ginsenosides from the flower buds of Panax ginseng (FBPG). Five ginsenosides, including a pair of new 20-methoxyl isomers, were extracted from FBPG and purified through a five-step integrated strategy, by combining ultrasonic
[...] Read more.
The present study was designed to simultaneously isolate the less polar ginsenosides from the flower buds of Panax ginseng (FBPG). Five ginsenosides, including a pair of new 20-methoxyl isomers, were extracted from FBPG and purified through a five-step integrated strategy, by combining ultrasonic extraction, Diaion Hp-20 macroporous resin column enrichment, solid phase extraction (SPE), reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis and preparation, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The quantification of the five ginsenosides was also discussed by a developed method with validations within acceptable limits. Ginsenoside Rg5 showed content of about 1% in FBPG. The results indicated that FBPG might have many different ginsenosides with diverse chemical structures, and the less polar ginsenosides were also important to the quality control and standardization of FBPG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization, Molecular Docking, and In Vitro Dissolution Studies of Solid Dispersions of 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 274; doi:10.3390/molecules22020274
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 11 February 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we prepared solid dispersions (SDs) of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) using a melting-solvent method with different polymers, in order to improve the solubility and dissolution performance of drugs with poor water solubility. The SDs were characterized via differential scanning calorimetry
[...] Read more.
In this study, we prepared solid dispersions (SDs) of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) using a melting-solvent method with different polymers, in order to improve the solubility and dissolution performance of drugs with poor water solubility. The SDs were characterized via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and molecular docking and dynamics study. DSC and PXRD results indicated that PPD crystallinity in SDs was significantly reduced, and that the majority of PPD is amorphous. No interaction was observed between PPD and polymers on FTIR and NMR spectra. Molecular docking and dynamic calculations indicated that the PPD molecule localized to the interpolated charged surface, rather than within the amorphous polymer chain network, which might help prevent PPD crystallization, consequently enhancing the PPD dispersion in polymers. An in vitro dissolution study revealed that the SDs considerably improved the PPD dissolution performance in distilled water containing 0.35% Tween-80 (T-80). Furthermore, among three PPD-SDs formulations, Poloxamer188 (F68) was the most effective in improving the PPD solubility and was even superior to the mixed polymers. Therefore, the SD prepared with F68 as a hydrophilic polymer carrier might be a promising strategy for improving solubility and in vitro dissolution performance. F68-based SD, containing PPD with a melting-solvent preparation method, can be used as a promising, nontoxic, quick-release, and effective intermediate for other pharmaceutical formulations, in order to achieve a more effective drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Changbai Mountain Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) Extract Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Energy Utilization and Decreases Fatigue-Associated Parameters in Mice
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 237; doi:10.3390/molecules22020237
Received: 11 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 5 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a “buried treasure medicine”, is priced higher than
[...] Read more.
Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a “buried treasure medicine”, is priced higher than other types of ginseng. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of CMG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and the biochemical profile. The major compound of CMG extract was characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Male ICR mice were divided into 3 groups, the vehicle, CMG-1X and CMG-5X groups (n = 8 per group), and respectively administered 0, 5, or 25 mg/kg/day of CMG extract orally for four weeks. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed that the major compound in CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro. CMG extract significantly increased muscle weight and relative muscle weight (%). CMG extract supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time, decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (CK, p = 0.0002), and blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.0001), and economized glucose levels (p < 0.0001) after acute exercise challenge. The glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly increased with CMG extract treatment. Biochemical profile results showed that creatinine and triacylglycerol significantly decreased and total protein and glucose increased with CMG treatment. This is the first report that CMG extract supplementation increases muscle mass, improves exercise performance and energy utilization, and decreases fatigue-associated parameters in vivo. The major component of CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro, which could be a potential bioactive compound for use as an ergogenic aid ingredient by the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Ginsenoside Rg3 Improves Recovery from Spinal Cord Injury in Rats via Suppression of Neuronal Apoptosis, Pro-Inflammatory Mediators, and Microglial Activation
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 122; doi:10.3390/molecules22010122
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
PDF Full-text (3989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most devastating medical conditions; however, currently, there are no effective pharmacological interventions for SCI. Ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) is one of the protopanaxadiols that show anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most devastating medical conditions; however, currently, there are no effective pharmacological interventions for SCI. Ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) is one of the protopanaxadiols that show anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of GRg3 following SCI in rats. SCI was induced using a static compression model at vertebral thoracic level 10 for 5 min. GRg3 was administrated orally at a dose of 10 or 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days after the SCI. GRg3 (30 mg/kg) treatment markedly improved behavioral motor functions, restored lesion size, preserved motor neurons in the spinal tissue, reduced Bax expression and number of TUNEL-positive cells, and suppressed mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. GRg3 also attenuated the over-production of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase after SCI. Moreover, GRg3 markedly suppressed microglial activation in the spinal tissue. In conclusion, GRg3 treatment led to a remarkable recovery of motor function and a reduction in spinal tissue damage by suppressing neuronal apoptosis and inflammatory responses after SCI. These results suggest that GRg3 may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of SCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessArticle Ginsenoside Re Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation in Mouse Osteoblast Precursor MC3T3-E1 Cells and a Zebrafish Model
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 42; doi:10.3390/molecules22010042
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
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Abstract
Bone homeostasis is tightly regulated to balance bone formation and bone resorption. Many anabolic drugs are used as bone-targeted therapeutic agents for the promotion of osteoblast-mediated bone formation or inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Previous studies showed that ginsenoside Re has the effect
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Bone homeostasis is tightly regulated to balance bone formation and bone resorption. Many anabolic drugs are used as bone-targeted therapeutic agents for the promotion of osteoblast-mediated bone formation or inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Previous studies showed that ginsenoside Re has the effect of the suppression of osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone-marrow derived macrophages and zebrafish. Herein, we investigated whether ginsenoside Re affects osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in in vitro and in vivo models. Mouse osteoblast precursor MC3T3-E1 cells were used to investigate cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization. In addition, we examined osteoblastic signaling pathways. Ginsenoside Re affected ALP activity without cytotoxicity, and we also observed the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation through the activation of osteoblast markers including runt-related transcription factor 2, type 1 collagen, ALP, and osteocalcin in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, Alizarin red S staining indicated that ginsenoside Re increased osteoblast mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells and zebrafish scales compared to controls. These results suggest that ginsenoside Re promotes osteoblast differentiation as well as inhibits osteoclast differentiation, and it could be a potential therapeutic agent for bone diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Open AccessReview State of Panax ginseng Research: A Global Analysis
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1518; doi:10.3390/molecules22091518
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
This article aims to understand the global and longitudinal trends of research on Panax ginseng. We used bibliometrics to analyze 3974 papers collected from the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection database during 1959–2016. The number of publications showed a steady growth
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This article aims to understand the global and longitudinal trends of research on Panax ginseng. We used bibliometrics to analyze 3974 papers collected from the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection database during 1959–2016. The number of publications showed a steady growth before 2000 and exponentially increased in stage III (2000–2016, about 86% of the papers were published). Research on P. ginseng was conducted in 64 countries, mainly in Asia; in particular, 41% and 28% of the publications were from South Korea and China, respectively. The institutions from South Korea and China had high publication output and close cooperation and provided the majority of financial support. All top 10 authors and four of the top 20 journals in terms of number of publications originated from South Korea. The leading research subjects were pharmacology (39%), plant science (26%), and integrative complementary medicine (19%). The hotspot of P. ginseng research transformed from basic science to application, and multidisciplinary sciences will play a substantial role in the future. This study provides a comprehensive analysis to elucidate the global distribution, collaboration patterns, and research trends in the P. ginseng domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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