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Molecules 2017, 22(2), 237; doi:10.3390/molecules22020237

Changbai Mountain Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) Extract Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Energy Utilization and Decreases Fatigue-Associated Parameters in Mice

1
Sport Science College, Jilin Sport University, Changchun 130022, Jilin, China
2
Graduate Institute of Health Industry Technology, Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology and Research Center for Chinese Herbal Medicine, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 33303, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Sports Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan 33301, Taiwan
4
Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, Department of Sports Sciences, University of Taipei, Taipei 11153, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anusha Chaparala, Lorne Hofseth and Woo-Sik Jeong
Received: 11 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 5 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3530 KB, uploaded 7 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a “buried treasure medicine”, is priced higher than other types of ginseng. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of CMG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and the biochemical profile. The major compound of CMG extract was characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Male ICR mice were divided into 3 groups, the vehicle, CMG-1X and CMG-5X groups (n = 8 per group), and respectively administered 0, 5, or 25 mg/kg/day of CMG extract orally for four weeks. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed that the major compound in CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro. CMG extract significantly increased muscle weight and relative muscle weight (%). CMG extract supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time, decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (CK, p = 0.0002), and blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.0001), and economized glucose levels (p < 0.0001) after acute exercise challenge. The glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly increased with CMG extract treatment. Biochemical profile results showed that creatinine and triacylglycerol significantly decreased and total protein and glucose increased with CMG treatment. This is the first report that CMG extract supplementation increases muscle mass, improves exercise performance and energy utilization, and decreases fatigue-associated parameters in vivo. The major component of CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro, which could be a potential bioactive compound for use as an ergogenic aid ingredient by the food industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginsenoside; Ro; exercise performance; anti-fatigue; muscle mass ginsenoside; Ro; exercise performance; anti-fatigue; muscle mass
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, G.-D.; Chiu, C.-H.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Hou, C.-W.; Chen, Y.-M.; Huang, C.-C. Changbai Mountain Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) Extract Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Energy Utilization and Decreases Fatigue-Associated Parameters in Mice. Molecules 2017, 22, 237.

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