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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1505; doi:10.3390/molecules22091505

Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice

1
Department of Food and Life Sciences, College of BNIT, Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
2
Department of Chemical Biology, Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
3
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
4
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Abstract

Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA), 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS), or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0)tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO) once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS. View Full-Text
Keywords: androgenic alopecia; hair re-growth; red ginseng oil; Wnt/β-catenin pathway; Shh/Gli pathway; linoleic acid; sitosterol androgenic alopecia; hair re-growth; red ginseng oil; Wnt/β-catenin pathway; Shh/Gli pathway; linoleic acid; sitosterol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Truong, V.-L.; Bak, M.J.; Lee, C.; Jun, M.; Jeong, W.-S. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice. Molecules 2017, 22, 1505.

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