Next Article in Journal
The Combined Use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Lachancea thermotolerans—Effect on the Anthocyanin Wine Composition
Next Article in Special Issue
Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture
Previous Article in Journal
Off-Center Rotation of CuPc Molecular Rotor on a Bi(111) Surface and the Chiral Feature
Previous Article in Special Issue
Chemical Comparison of Two Drying Methods of Mountain Cultivated Ginseng by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and Multivariate Statistical Analysis
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 734; doi:10.3390/molecules22050734

Dynamic Changes in Neutral and Acidic Ginsenosides with Different Cultivation Ages and Harvest Seasons: Identification of Chemical Characteristics for Panax ginseng Quality Control

1
Institute of Agricultural Modernization, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China
2
College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China
3
Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research and The Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
4
Jinlin Provincial Sericulture Institute, Jilin 132012, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lorne Hofseth, Anusha Chaparala and Woo-Sik Jeong
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1229 KB, uploaded 4 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

In this study, dynamic changes in ginsenoside content and ratios in the Panax ginseng root were investigated with different cultivation ages and different collection months, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our data indicate that changes in ginsenoside Ro and malonyl ginsenosides content were dependent on the ginseng cultivation age (p < 0.05); especially, the Ro content varied from 0.16 to 4.91 mg/g, with a difference about 30-fold. Further, we found that the samples of 5 and 6-year-old P. ginseng had high Ro/Re ratio, whereas two and three-year-old P. ginseng possessed low Ro/Re ratio. Thus, the Ro/Re ratio can be used as a characteristic marker for differentiating the age of the root. The relative content of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re were affected by the ginseng’s harvest season. The Re content was higher than the Rg1 content in May and June, but lower than the Rg1 content from August to October. Thus, the Rg1/Re ratio can be used as a characteristic marker for differentiating the ginseng’s harvest seasons. These results indicate that the chemical characteristics of P. ginseng at different cultivation ages and harvest seasons are clearly different, which may cause differences in pharmacological activities and therapeutic effects. In addition, we developed HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods to identify the cultivation age and harvest season of P. ginseng using characteristic ginsenosides. Our results showed that this method can be used to discriminate the cultivation age and harvest season of P. ginseng. View Full-Text
Keywords: Panax ginseng; Ro/Re ratio; Rg1/Re ratio; malonyl ginsenoside; cultivation age; harvest season; quality control Panax ginseng; Ro/Re ratio; Rg1/Re ratio; malonyl ginsenoside; cultivation age; harvest season; quality control
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Wang, C.-Z.; Zhu, X.-Y.; Wan, J.-Y.; Zhang, J.; Li, W.; Ruan, C.-C.; Yuan, C.-S. Dynamic Changes in Neutral and Acidic Ginsenosides with Different Cultivation Ages and Harvest Seasons: Identification of Chemical Characteristics for Panax ginseng Quality Control. Molecules 2017, 22, 734.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top