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Molecules 2017, 22(1), 122; doi:10.3390/molecules22010122

Ginsenoside Rg3 Improves Recovery from Spinal Cord Injury in Rats via Suppression of Neuronal Apoptosis, Pro-Inflammatory Mediators, and Microglial Activation

Department of East-West Medical Science, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17404, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anusha Chaparala
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
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Abstract

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most devastating medical conditions; however, currently, there are no effective pharmacological interventions for SCI. Ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) is one of the protopanaxadiols that show anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of GRg3 following SCI in rats. SCI was induced using a static compression model at vertebral thoracic level 10 for 5 min. GRg3 was administrated orally at a dose of 10 or 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days after the SCI. GRg3 (30 mg/kg) treatment markedly improved behavioral motor functions, restored lesion size, preserved motor neurons in the spinal tissue, reduced Bax expression and number of TUNEL-positive cells, and suppressed mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. GRg3 also attenuated the over-production of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase after SCI. Moreover, GRg3 markedly suppressed microglial activation in the spinal tissue. In conclusion, GRg3 treatment led to a remarkable recovery of motor function and a reduction in spinal tissue damage by suppressing neuronal apoptosis and inflammatory responses after SCI. These results suggest that GRg3 may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of SCI. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginsenoside Rg3; spinal cord injury; motor function; apoptosis; pro-inflammatory cytokines; microglial activation ginsenoside Rg3; spinal cord injury; motor function; apoptosis; pro-inflammatory cytokines; microglial activation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, D.-K.; Kweon, K.-J.; Kim, P.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, S.-S.; Sohn, N.-W.; Maeng, S.; Shin, J.-W. Ginsenoside Rg3 Improves Recovery from Spinal Cord Injury in Rats via Suppression of Neuronal Apoptosis, Pro-Inflammatory Mediators, and Microglial Activation. Molecules 2017, 22, 122.

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