E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Marine Compounds and Cancer"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Friedemann Honecker (Website)

Tumor and Breast Center ZeTuP St. Gallen, Rorschacherstr. 150, CH-9006 St. Gallen, Switzerland
Fax: +41 71 2430 044
Interests: medical oncology; drug resistance; marine anti-cancer compounds; drug development; tumor biology; proteomics
Guest Editor
Dr. Sergey A. Dyshlovoy

1 Laboratory of Marine Natural Products Chemistry, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry FEB RAS, Prospekt 100-let Vladivostoku 159 (room 312), 690022 Vladivostok, Russia
2 Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine II and Clinic (Oncology Center), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52 (N27, room 4.082), 20246 Hamburg, Germany
Fax: +7 423 2314050; +49 40 7410 55896 (Germany)
Interests: bioactive marine natural products; molecular mechanism of anticancer activity; carcinogenesis; drug target identification and validation; proteomics; drug combination studies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In Western countries, cancer is among the most frequent causes of death. Despite striking advances in cancer therapy, especially by the so called “targeted agents”, there is still an urgent need for new drugs in oncology. Hope comes from the marine environment, which is a rich source of natural compounds showing anti-cancer activity. To date, three marine cytotoxic substances, namely cytarabine, trabectidine, and eribulin, have made it into clinical routine. Many more are in all phases of clinical testing, and a plethora of substances has already been examined for in vitro and in vivo activity.

Interestingly, more and more precise research tools allow the dissection of the molecular mode of action of these cytotoxic substances, thereby uncovering the specific drug targets in cancer cells. This development will blur the edges between “targeted” and “untargeted” therapy, and will hopefully lead to a more directed use of cancer medicine (based on a molecular rationale of activity) in the future.

This special issue in Marine Drugs will cover the whole scope from agents with cancer-preventive activity, to novel and previously characterized compounds with anti-cancer activity, both in vitro and in vivo, and the latest status of clinical development from drug trials. In addition, focus will be placed on current shortfalls and possible strategies in the area of marine anti-cancer drug development.

Dr. Friedemann Honecker
Dr. Sergey A. Dyshlovoy
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • cancer
  • marine natural compounds and their derivatives
  • marine toxins
  • drug discovery
  • cancer-preventive activity
  • molecular effects
  • molecular targets
  • toxicology
  • xenograft models

Published Papers (40 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-40
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Marine Compounds and Cancer: Where Do We Stand?
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5657-5665; doi:10.3390/md13095657
Received: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Western countries, cancer is among the most frequent causes of death. Despite striking advances in cancer therapy, there is still an urgent need for new drugs in oncology. Current development favors so called “targeted agents” or drugs that target the immune [...] Read more.
In Western countries, cancer is among the most frequent causes of death. Despite striking advances in cancer therapy, there is still an urgent need for new drugs in oncology. Current development favors so called “targeted agents” or drugs that target the immune system, i.e., therapeutic antibodies that enhance or facilitate an immune response against tumor cells (also referred to as “checkpoint inhibitors”). However, until recently, roughly 60% of drugs used in hematology and oncology were originally derived from natural sources, and one third of the top-selling agents are either natural agents or derivatives [1]. There is justified hope for the discovery and development of new anticancer agents from the marine environment. Historically, this habitat has proven to be a rich source of potent natural compounds such as alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, macrolides, peptides, and polyketides, among others. Interestingly, marine agents and cancer treatment have had a special relationship from the beginning. One of the first marine-derived compounds, discovered in 1945 that was later developed into a clinically used drug, was spongothymidine [2–4], which was the lead compound for the discovery of cytarabine [5]. Until today, cytarabine remains one of the most widely used agents in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and relapsed aggressive lymphomas. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Functional and Structural Characterization of FAU Gene/Protein from Marine Sponge Suberites domuncula
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4179-4196; doi:10.3390/md13074179
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV) ubiquitously expressed (FAU) gene is down-regulated in human prostate, breast and ovarian cancers. Moreover, its dysregulation is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Sponges (Porifera) are animals without tissues which branched off first from [...] Read more.
Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV) ubiquitously expressed (FAU) gene is down-regulated in human prostate, breast and ovarian cancers. Moreover, its dysregulation is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Sponges (Porifera) are animals without tissues which branched off first from the common ancestor of all metazoans. A large majority of genes implicated in human cancers have their homologues in the sponge genome. Our study suggests that FAU gene from the sponge Suberites domuncula reflects characteristics of the FAU gene from the metazoan ancestor, which have changed only slightly during the course of animal evolution. We found pro-apoptotic activity of sponge FAU protein. The same as its human homologue, sponge FAU increases apoptosis in human HEK293T cells. This indicates that the biological functions of FAU, usually associated with “higher” metazoans, particularly in cancer etiology, possess a biochemical background established early in metazoan evolution. The ancestor of all animals possibly possessed FAU protein with the structure and function similar to evolutionarily more recent versions of the protein, even before the appearance of true tissues and the origin of tumors and metastasis. It provides an opportunity to use pre-bilaterian animals as a simpler model for studying complex interactions in human cancerogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Xyloketal B Suppresses Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Migration in Vitro through Inhibiting TRPM7-Regulated PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK Signaling Pathways
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2505-2525; doi:10.3390/md13042505
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 3 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive type of brain tumors, has devastatingly proliferative and invasive characteristics. The need for finding a novel and specific drug target is urgent as the current approaches have limited therapeutic effects in treating glioblastoma. Xyloketal B is [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive type of brain tumors, has devastatingly proliferative and invasive characteristics. The need for finding a novel and specific drug target is urgent as the current approaches have limited therapeutic effects in treating glioblastoma. Xyloketal B is a marine compound obtained from mangrove fungus Xylaria sp. (No. 2508) from the South China Sea, and has displayed antioxidant activity and protective effects on endothelial and neuronal oxidative injuries. In this study, we used a glioblastoma U251 cell line to (1) explore the effects of xyloketal B on cell viability, proliferation, and migration; and (2) investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways. MTT assay, colony formation, wound healing, western blot, and patch clamp techniques were employed. We found that xyloketal B reduced cell viability, proliferation, and migration of U251 cells. In addition, xyloketal B decreased p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 protein expressions. Furthermore, xyloketal B blocked TRPM7 currents in HEK-293 cells overexpressing TRPM7. These effects were confirmed by using a TRPM7 inhibitor, carvacrol, in a parallel experiment. Our findings indicate that TRPM7-regulated PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling is involved in anti-proliferation and migration effects of xyloketal B on U251 cells, providing in vitro evidence for the marine compound xyloketal B to be a potential drug for treating glioblastoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Esters of the Marine-Derived Triterpene Sipholenol A Reverse P-GP-Mediated Drug Resistance
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 2267-2286; doi:10.3390/md13042267
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2015 / Accepted: 25 March 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1071 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Our previous studies showed that several sipholane triterpenes, sipholenol A, sipholenone E, sipholenol L and siphonellinol D, have potent reversal effect for multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells that overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1). Through comparison of cytotoxicity towards sensitive and multi-drug resistant cell [...] Read more.
Our previous studies showed that several sipholane triterpenes, sipholenol A, sipholenone E, sipholenol L and siphonellinol D, have potent reversal effect for multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells that overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1). Through comparison of cytotoxicity towards sensitive and multi-drug resistant cell lines, we identified that the semisynthetic esters sipholenol A-4-O-acetate and sipholenol A-4-O-isonicotinate potently reversed P-gp-mediated MDR but had no effect on MRP1/ABCC1 and BCRP/ABCG2-mediated MDR. The results from [3H]-paclitaxel accumulation and efflux studies suggested that these two triterpenoids were able to increase the intracellular accumulation of paclitaxel by inhibiting its active efflux. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that these two compounds did not alter the expression levels of P-gp when treated up to 72 h. These sipholenol derivatives also stimulated the ATPase activity of P-gp membranes, which suggested that they might be substrates of P-gp. Moreover, in silico molecular docking studies revealed the virtual binding modes of these two compounds into human homology model of P-gp. In conclusion, sipholenol A-4-O-acetate and sipholenol A-4-O-isonicotinate efficiently inhibit the P-gp and may represent potential reversal agents for the treatment of multidrug resistant cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle First Evidence that Ecklonia cava-Derived Dieckol Attenuates MCF-7 Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Migration
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 1785-1797; doi:10.3390/md13041785
Received: 1 February 2015 / Revised: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 March 2015 / Published: 30 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the effect of Ecklonia cava (E. cava)-derived dieckol on movement behavior and the expression of migration-related genes in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Phlorotannins (e.g., dieckol, 6,6′-biecko, and 2,7″-phloroglucinol-6,6′-bieckol) were purified from E. cava by using centrifugal partition chromatography. [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of Ecklonia cava (E. cava)-derived dieckol on movement behavior and the expression of migration-related genes in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Phlorotannins (e.g., dieckol, 6,6′-biecko, and 2,7″-phloroglucinol-6,6′-bieckol) were purified from E. cava by using centrifugal partition chromatography. Among the phlorotannins, we found that dieckol inhibited breast cancer cell the most and was selected for further study. Radius™-well was used to assess cell migration, and dieckol (1–100 µM) was found to suppress breast cancer cell movement. Metastasis-related gene expressions were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, dieckol inhibited the expression of migration-related genes such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the other hand, it stimulated the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2. These results suggest that dieckol exerts anti-breast cancer activity via the regulation of the expressions of metastasis-related genes, and this is the first report on the anti-breast cancer effect of dieckol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle The Marine Metabolite SZ-685C Induces Apoptosis in Primary Human Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Cells by Inhibition of the Akt Pathway in Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1569-1580; doi:10.3390/md13031569
Received: 7 January 2015 / Revised: 8 March 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. The marine anthraquinone derivative SZ-685C has been isolated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403) which is found in the South China [...] Read more.
Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. The marine anthraquinone derivative SZ-685C has been isolated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403) which is found in the South China Sea. Recent research has shown that SZ-685C possesses anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) to investigate the different effect of the marine compound SZ-685C on the proliferation of primary human NFPA cells, rat normal pituitary cells (RPCs) and rat prolactinoma MMQ cell lines. Hoechst 33342 dye/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V/PI (Annexin V-FITC/PI) apoptosis assays detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis in cells treated with SZ-685C. Enhanced expression levels of caspase 3 and phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN) were determined by Western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of Akt were decreased when the primary human NFPA cells were treated with SZ-685C. Here, we show that SZ-685C induces apoptosis of human NFPA cells through inhibition of the Akt pathway in vitro. The understanding of apoptosis has provided the basis for novel targeted therapies that can induce death in cancer cells or sensitize them to established cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Kalkitoxin Inhibits Angiogenesis, Disrupts Cellular Hypoxic Signaling, and Blocks Mitochondrial Electron Transport in Tumor Cells
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1552-1568; doi:10.3390/md13031552
Received: 29 January 2015 / Revised: 7 March 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biologically active lipopeptide kalkitoxin was previously isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (Lyngbya majuscula). Kalkitoxin exhibited N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated neurotoxicity and acted as an inhibitory ligand for voltage-sensitive sodium channels in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. Subsequent studies [...] Read more.
The biologically active lipopeptide kalkitoxin was previously isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (Lyngbya majuscula). Kalkitoxin exhibited N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated neurotoxicity and acted as an inhibitory ligand for voltage-sensitive sodium channels in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. Subsequent studies revealed that kalkitoxin generated a delayed form of colon tumor cell cytotoxicity in 7-day clonogenic cell survival assays. Cell line- and exposure time-dependent cytostatic/cytotoxic effects were previously observed with mitochondria-targeted inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). The transcription factor HIF-1 functions as a key regulator of oxygen homeostasis. Therefore, we investigated the ability of kalkitoxin to inhibit hypoxic signaling in human tumor cell lines. Kalkitoxin potently and selectively inhibited hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1 in T47D breast tumor cells (IC50 5.6 nM). Mechanistic studies revealed that kalkitoxin inhibits HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondrial oxygen consumption at electron transport chain (ETC) complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Further studies indicate that kalkitoxin targets tumor angiogenesis by blocking the induction of angiogenic factors (i.e., VEGF) in tumor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Angucycline- and Prodigiosin- Analogues from the Deep-Sea Derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 11594
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1304-1316; doi:10.3390/md13031304
Received: 17 January 2015 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 17 February 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new C-glycoside angucyclines, marangucycline A (1) and marangucycline B (2), along with three known compounds, dehydroxyaquayamycin (3), undecylprodigiosin (4) and metacycloprodigiosin (5), have been identified as products of the deep-sea sediment [...] Read more.
Two new C-glycoside angucyclines, marangucycline A (1) and marangucycline B (2), along with three known compounds, dehydroxyaquayamycin (3), undecylprodigiosin (4) and metacycloprodigiosin (5), have been identified as products of the deep-sea sediment strain Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 11594. New structures were elucidated on the basis of HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses and comparisons to previously reported datasets. Compounds 2 and 4 displayed in vitro cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines A594, CNE2, HepG2, MCF-7 superior to those obtained with cisplatin, the positive control. Notably, compound 2 bearing a keto-sugar displayed significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.24 to 0.56 μM; An IC50 value of 3.67 μM was found when using non-cancerous hepatic cell line HL7702, demonstrating the cancer cell selectivity of 2. Compounds 13 were proved to have weak antibacterial activities against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC29212 with an MIC value of 64.0 μg/mL. Moreover, 3 displayed selective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis shhs-E1 with an MIC value of 16.0 μg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle The Anticancer Effect of (1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11, 15-Cembratetraen-17,2-olide(LS-1) through the Activation of TGF-β Signaling in SNU-C5/5-FU, Fluorouracil-Resistant Human Colon Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1340-1359; doi:10.3390/md13031340
Received: 25 November 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The anticancer effect of (1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11,15-cembratetraen-17,2-olide (LS-1) from Lobophytum sp. has been already reported in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effect of LS-1 on the apoptosis induction [...] Read more.
The anticancer effect of (1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11,15-cembratetraen-17,2-olide (LS-1) from Lobophytum sp. has been already reported in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effect of LS-1 on the apoptosis induction of SNU-C5/5-FU, fluorouracil-resistant human colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we investigated whether the apoptosis-induction effect of LS-1 could arise from the activation of the TGF-β pathway. In SNU-C5/5-FU treated with LS-1 of 7.1 μM (IC50), we could observe the various apoptotic characteristics, such as the increase of apoptotic bodies, the increase of the sub-G1 hypodiploid cell population, the decrease of the Bcl-2 level, the increase of procaspase-9 cleavage, the increase of procaspase-3 cleavage and the increase of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Interestingly, the apoptosis-induction effect of LS-1 was also accompanied by the increase of Smad-3 phosphorylation and the downregulation of c-Myc in SNU-C5/5-FU. LS-1 also increased the nuclear localization of phospho-Smad-3 and Smad-4. We examined whether LS-1 could downregulate the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a direct inhibitor of TGF-β signaling. LS-1 decreased the CEA level, as well as the direct interaction between CEA and TGF-βR1 in the apoptosis-induction condition of SNU-C5/5-FU. To examine whether LS-1 can induce apoptosis via the activation of TGF-β signaling, the SNU-C5/5-FU cells were treated with LS-1 in the presence or absence of SB525334, a TGF-βRI kinase inhibitor. SB525334 inhibited the effect of LS-1 on the apoptosis induction. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the apoptosis-induction effect of LS-1 results from the activation of the TGF-β pathway via the downregulation of CEA in SNU-C5/5-FU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Marine Bromophenol Bis (2,3-Dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane Inhibits the Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Modulating β1-Integrin/FAK Signaling
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 1010-1025; doi:10.3390/md13021010
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 30 January 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bis (2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a natural bromophenol compound derived from marine algae. Previous reports have shown that BDDPM possesses antimicrobial activity. In the present study, we found that BDDPM has cytotoxic activity on a wide range of tumor cells, including BEL-7402 cells [...] Read more.
Bis (2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a natural bromophenol compound derived from marine algae. Previous reports have shown that BDDPM possesses antimicrobial activity. In the present study, we found that BDDPM has cytotoxic activity on a wide range of tumor cells, including BEL-7402 cells (IC50 = 8.7 μg/mL). Further studies have shown that prior to the onset of apoptosis, the BDDPM induces BEL-7402 cell detachment by decreasing the adherence of cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Detachment experiments have shown that the treatment of BEL-7402 cells with low concentrations of BDDPM (5.0 μg/mL) significantly inhibits cell adhesion to fibronectin and collagen IV as well as cell migration and invasion. High doses of BDDPM (10.0 μg/mL) completely inhibit the migration of BEL-7402 cells, and the expression level of MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) is significantly decreased. Moreover, the expression of β1-integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is found to be down-regulated by BDDPM. This study suggests that BDDPM has a potential to be developed as a novel anticancer therapeutic agent due to its anti-metastatic activity and also indicates that BDDPM, which has a unique chemical structure, could serve as a lead compound for rational drug design and for future development of anticancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Carbocyclic Analogues of Pachastrissamine
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 824-837; doi:10.3390/md13020824
Received: 8 January 2015 / Revised: 20 January 2015 / Accepted: 26 January 2015 / Published: 3 February 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of carbocyclic analogues of naturally-occurring marine sphingolipid pachastrissamine were prepared and biologically evaluated. The analogues were efficiently synthesized via a tandem enyne/diene-ene metathesis reaction as a key step. We found that the analogue 4b exhibited comparable cytotoxicity and more potent [...] Read more.
A series of carbocyclic analogues of naturally-occurring marine sphingolipid pachastrissamine were prepared and biologically evaluated. The analogues were efficiently synthesized via a tandem enyne/diene-ene metathesis reaction as a key step. We found that the analogue 4b exhibited comparable cytotoxicity and more potent inhibitory activity against sphingosine kinases, compared to pachastrissamine. Molecular modeling studies were conducted to provide more detailed insight into the binding mode of 4b in sphingosine kinase. In our docking model, pachastrissamine and 4b were able to effectively bind to the binding pocket of sphingosine kinase 1 as co-crystalized sphingosine. However, 4b showed a hydrophobic interaction with Phe192, which suggests that it contributes to its increased inhibitory activity against sphingosine kinase 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Combination of Trabectedin and Gemcitabine for Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Results of a Phase I Dose Escalating Trial of the German Interdisciplinary Sarcoma Group (GISG)
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 379-388; doi:10.3390/md13010379
Received: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 December 2014 / Published: 13 January 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Evaluation of the potential efficacy and safety of combination therapies for advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) has increased substantially after approval of trabectedin and pazopanib. Trabectedin's introduction in Europe in 2007 depended mainly on its activity in so-called L-sarcomas (liposarcoma and [...] Read more.
Background: Evaluation of the potential efficacy and safety of combination therapies for advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) has increased substantially after approval of trabectedin and pazopanib. Trabectedin's introduction in Europe in 2007 depended mainly on its activity in so-called L-sarcomas (liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma); combination of trabectedin with other chemotherapies used in STS seems of particular interest. Methods: We initiated within the German Interdisciplinary Sarcoma Group (GISG) a phase I dose escalating trial evaluating the combination of trabectedin and gemcitabine in patients with advanced and/or metastatic L-sarcomas (GISG-02; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01426633). Patients were treated with increasing doses of trabectedin and gemcitabine. The primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerated dose. Results: Five patients were included in the study. Two patients were treated on dose level 1 comprising trabectedin 0.9 mg/m2 on day 1 and gemcitabine 700 mg/m2 on days 1 + 8, every 3 weeks. Due to dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in both patients (elevated transaminases and thrombocytopenia), an additional three patients were treated on dose level −1 with trabectedin 0.7 mg/m2 plus gemcitabine 700 mg/m2. Of these three patients, two demonstrated another DLT; therefore, the trial was stopped and none of the dose levels could be recommended for phase II testing. Conclusion: The GISG-02 phase I study was stopped with the conclusion that the combination of gemcitabine and trabectedin is generally not recommended for the treatment of patients with advanced and/or metastatic leiomyosarcoma or liposarcoma. Also, this phase I study strongly supports the necessity for careful evaluation of combination therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Araguspongine C Induces Autophagic Death in Breast Cancer Cells through Suppression of c-Met and HER2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 288-311; doi:10.3390/md13010288
Received: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 8 January 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Receptor tyrosine kinases are key regulators of cellular growth and proliferation. Dysregulations of receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer cells may promote tumorigenesis by multiple mechanisms including enhanced cell survival and inhibition of cell death. Araguspongines represent a group of macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloids [...] Read more.
Receptor tyrosine kinases are key regulators of cellular growth and proliferation. Dysregulations of receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer cells may promote tumorigenesis by multiple mechanisms including enhanced cell survival and inhibition of cell death. Araguspongines represent a group of macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloids isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia species. This study evaluated the anticancer activity of the known oxaquinolizidine alkaloids araguspongines A, C, K and L, and xestospongin B against breast cancer cells. Araguspongine C inhibited the proliferation of multiple breast cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, araguspongine C-induced autophagic cell death in HER2-overexpressing BT-474 breast cancer cells was characterized by vacuole formation and upregulation of autophagy markers including LC3A/B, Atg3, Atg7, and Atg16L. Araguspongine C-induced autophagy was associated with suppression of c-Met and HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Further in-silico docking studies and cell-free Z-LYTE assays indicated the potential of direct interaction between araguspongine C and the receptor tyrosine kinases c-Met and HER2 at their kinase domains. Remarkably, araguspongine C treatment resulted in the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade in breast cancer cells undergoing autophagy. Induction of autophagic death in BT-474 cells was also associated with decreased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor upon treatment with effective concentration of araguspongine C. In conclusion, results of this study are the first to reveal the potential of araguspongine C as an inhibitor to receptor tyrosine kinases resulting in the induction of autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Programmed Cell Death Induced by (−)-8,9-Dehydroneopeltolide in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL-60 Cells under Energy Stress Conditions
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(11), 5576-5589; doi:10.3390/md12115576
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(+)-Neopeltolide is a marine macrolide natural product that exhibits potent antiproliferative activity against several human cancer cell lines. Previous study has established that this natural product primarily targets the complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the biochemical mode-of-actions of [...] Read more.
(+)-Neopeltolide is a marine macrolide natural product that exhibits potent antiproliferative activity against several human cancer cell lines. Previous study has established that this natural product primarily targets the complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the biochemical mode-of-actions of neopeltolide have not been investigated in detail. Here we report that (−)-8,9-dehydroneopeltolide (8,9-DNP), a more accessible synthetic analogue, shows potent cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells preferentially under energy stress conditions. Nuclear morphology analysis, as well as DNA ladder assay, indicated that 8,9-DNP induced significant nuclear condensation/fragmentation and DNA fragmentation, and these events could be suppressed by preincubating the cells with a pan-caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and the cleavage of full-length caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These results indicated that 8,9-DNP induced caspase-dependent apoptotic programmed cell death under energy stress conditions. It was also found that 8,9-DNP induced non-apoptotic cell death in the presence/absence of zVAD under energy stress conditions. Immunoblot analysis showed the intracytosolic release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), although it did not further translocate to the nucleus. It appears most likely that, in the presence of zVAD, 8,9-DNP triggered necrotic cell death as a result of severe intracellular ATP depletion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Effects of Fascaplysin against Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1377-1389; doi:10.3390/md12031377
Received: 1 November 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a [...] Read more.
Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a panel of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and putative synergism with chemotherapeutics was investigated. SCLC responds to first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based drugs/etoposide, but relapses early with topotecan remaining as the single approved therapeutic agent. Fascaplysin was found to show high cytotoxicity against SCLC cells and to induce cell cycle arrest in G1/0 at lower and S-phase at higher concentrations, respectively. The compound generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced apoptotic cell death in the chemoresistant NCI-H417 SCLC cell line. Furthermore, fascaplysin revealed marked synergism with the topoisomerase I-directed camptothecin and 10-hydroxy-camptothecin. The Poly(ADP-ribose)-Polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor BYK 204165 antagonized the cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin, pointing to the involvement of DNA repair in response to the anticancer activity of the drug. In conclusion, fascaplysin seems to be suitable for treatment of SCLC, based on high cytotoxic activity through multiple routes of action, affecting topoisomerase I, integrity of DNA and generation of ROS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle The Marine Fungal Metabolite, AD0157, Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting the Akt Signaling Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 279-299; doi:10.3390/md12010279
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 26 December 2013 / Accepted: 27 December 2013 / Published: 16 January 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the course of a screening program for the inhibitors of angiogenesis from marine sources, AD0157, a pyrrolidinedione fungal metabolite, was selected for its angiosupressive properties. AD0157 inhibited the growth of endothelial and tumor cells in culture in the micromolar range. Our [...] Read more.
In the course of a screening program for the inhibitors of angiogenesis from marine sources, AD0157, a pyrrolidinedione fungal metabolite, was selected for its angiosupressive properties. AD0157 inhibited the growth of endothelial and tumor cells in culture in the micromolar range. Our results show that subtoxic doses of this compound inhibit certain functions of endothelial cells, namely, differentiation, migration and proteolytic capability. Inhibition of the mentioned essential steps of in vitro angiogenesis is in agreement with the observed antiangiogenic activity, substantiated by using two in vivo angiogenesis models, the chorioallantoic membrane and the zebrafish embryo neovascularization assays, and by the ex vivo mouse aortic ring assay. Our data indicate that AD0157 induces apoptosis in endothelial cells through chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, increases in the subG1 peak and caspase activation. The data shown here altogether indicate for the first time that AD0157 displays antiangiogenic effects, both in vitro and in vivo, that are exerted partly by targeting the Akt signaling pathway in activated endothelial cells. The fact that these effects are carried out at lower concentrations than those required for other inhibitors of angiogenesis makes AD0157 a new promising drug candidate for further evaluation in the treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle 6-Bromoisatin Found in Muricid Mollusc Extracts Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis, Preventing Early Stage Tumor Formation in a Colorectal Cancer Rodent Model
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 17-35; doi:10.3390/md12010017
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 30 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Muricid molluscs are a natural source of brominated isatin with anticancer activity. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of synthetic 6-bromoisatin for reducing the risk of early stage colorectal tumor formation. The purity of 6-bromoisatin was [...] Read more.
Muricid molluscs are a natural source of brominated isatin with anticancer activity. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of synthetic 6-bromoisatin for reducing the risk of early stage colorectal tumor formation. The purity of 6-bromoisatin was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy, then tested for in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. A mouse model for colorectal cancer was utilized whereby colonic apoptosis and cell proliferation was measured 6 h after azoxymethane treatment by hematoxylin and immunohistochemical staining. Liver enzymes and other biochemistry parameters were measured in plasma and haematological assessment of the blood was conducted to assess potential toxic side-effects. 6-Bromoisatin inhibited proliferation of HT29 cells at IC50 223 μM (0.05 mg/mL) and induced apoptosis without increasing caspase 3/7 activity. In vivo 6-bromoisatin (0.05 mg/g) was found to significantly enhance the apoptotic index (p ≤ 0.001) and reduced cell proliferation (p ≤ 0.01) in the distal colon. There were no significant effects on mouse body weight, liver enzymes, biochemical factors or blood cells. However, 6-bromoisatin caused a decrease in the plasma level of potassium, suggesting a diuretic effect. In conclusion this study supports 6-bromoisatin in Muricidae extracts as a promising lead for prevention of colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Palmitic Acid and Ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol Contribute to the Apoptotic Effect and Cell Cycle Arrest of an Extract from Marthasterias glacialis L. in Neuroblastoma Cells
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 54-68; doi:10.3390/md12010054
Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe the effect of a chemically characterized lipophilic extract obtained from Marthasterias glacialis L. against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines. Evaluation of DNA synthesis revealed that both cell lines were markedly affected in a concentration-dependent way, [...] Read more.
We describe the effect of a chemically characterized lipophilic extract obtained from Marthasterias glacialis L. against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines. Evaluation of DNA synthesis revealed that both cell lines were markedly affected in a concentration-dependent way, the SH-SY5Y cell line being more susceptible. Cell cycle arrest was observed, an effect induced by the sterol, ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol, present in the extract. Morphological evaluation of treated cells showed the advent of lipid droplets and chromatin condensation compatible with apoptosis, which was confirmed by the evaluation of caspase-3 and -9 activities. Palmitic acid was the main compound responsible for this apoptotic effect by a ceramide-independent mechanism that involved endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress with upregulation of CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Fumigaclavine C from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus Fumigatus Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 5063-5086; doi:10.3390/md11125063
Received: 1 October 2013 / Revised: 30 November 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, much attention has been given to discovering natural compounds as potent anti-cancer candidates. In the present study, the anti-cancer effects of fumigaclavine C, isolated from a marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus, was evaluated in vitro. In order to investigate the [...] Read more.
Recently, much attention has been given to discovering natural compounds as potent anti-cancer candidates. In the present study, the anti-cancer effects of fumigaclavine C, isolated from a marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus, was evaluated in vitro. In order to investigate the impact of fumigaclavine C on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in breast cancer, MCF-7 cells were treated with various concentrations of fumigaclavine C, and fumigaclavine C showed significant cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 cells. Anti-proliferation was analyzed via cell mobility and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In addition, fumigaclavine C showed potent inhibition on the protein and gene level expressions of MMP-2, -9 in MCF-7 cells which were manifested in Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results. The apoptosis induction abilities of the fumigaclvine C was studied by analyzing the expression of apoptosis related proteins, cell cycle analysis, DNA fragmentation and molecular docking studies. It was found that fumigaclavine C fragmented the MCF-7 cell DNA and arrested the cell cycle by modulating the apoptotic protein expressions. Moreover, fumigaclavine C significantly down-regulated the NF-kappa-B cell survival pathway. Collectively, data suggest that fumigaclavine C has a potential to be developed as a therapeutic candidate for breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Hypoxia Reduces the Efficiency of Elisidepsin by Inhibiting Hydroxylation and Altering the Structure of Lipid Rafts
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 4858-4875; doi:10.3390/md11124858
Received: 30 August 2013 / Revised: 26 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 2 December 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The mechanism of action of elisidepsin (PM02734, Irvalec®) is assumed to involve membrane permeabilization via attacking lipid rafts and hydroxylated lipids. Here we investigate the role of hypoxia in the mechanism of action of elisidepsin. Culturing under hypoxic conditions increased [...] Read more.
The mechanism of action of elisidepsin (PM02734, Irvalec®) is assumed to involve membrane permeabilization via attacking lipid rafts and hydroxylated lipids. Here we investigate the role of hypoxia in the mechanism of action of elisidepsin. Culturing under hypoxic conditions increased the half-maximal inhibitory concentration and decreased the drug’s binding to almost all cell lines which was reversed by incubation of cells with 2-hydroxy palmitic acid. The expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase was strongly correlated with the efficiency of the drug and inversely correlated with the effect of hypoxia. Number and brightness analysis and fluorescence anisotropy experiments showed that hypoxia decreased the clustering of lipid rafts and altered the structure of the plasma membrane. Although the binding of elisidepsin to the membrane is non-cooperative, its membrane permeabilizing effect is characterized by a Hill coefficient of ~3.3. The latter finding is in agreement with elisidepsin-induced clusters of lipid raft-anchored GFP visualized by confocal microscopy. We propose that the concentration of elisidepsin needs to reach a critical level in the membrane above which elisidepsin induces the disruption of the cell membrane. Testing for tumor hypoxia or the density of hydroxylated lipids could be an interesting strategy to increase the efficiency of elisidepsin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Effects of Fucoidan Nanoparticles against Osteosarcoma
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4267-4278; doi:10.3390/md11114267
Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we analyzed the size-dependent bioactivities of fucoidan by comparing the cytotoxic effects of native fucoidan and fucoidan lipid nanoparticles on osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments indicated that nanoparticle fucoidan induced apoptosis of an osteosarcoma [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyzed the size-dependent bioactivities of fucoidan by comparing the cytotoxic effects of native fucoidan and fucoidan lipid nanoparticles on osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments indicated that nanoparticle fucoidan induced apoptosis of an osteosarcoma cell line more efficiently than native fucoidan. The more potent effects of nanoparticle fucoidan, relative to native fucoidan, were confirmed in vivo using a xenograft osteosarcoma model. Caco-2 cell transport studies showed that permeation of nanoparticle fucoidan was higher than native fucoidan. The higher bioactivity and superior bioavailability of nanoparticle fucoidan could potentially be utilized to develop novel therapies for osteosarcoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Purified Brominated Indole Derivatives from Dicathais orbita Induce Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3802-3822; doi:10.3390/md11103802
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (740 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dicathais orbita is a large Australian marine gastropod known to produce bioactive compounds with anticancer properties. In this research, we used bioassay guided fractionation from the egg mass extract of D. orbita using flash column chromatography and identified fractions containing tyrindoleninone and [...] Read more.
Dicathais orbita is a large Australian marine gastropod known to produce bioactive compounds with anticancer properties. In this research, we used bioassay guided fractionation from the egg mass extract of D. orbita using flash column chromatography and identified fractions containing tyrindoleninone and 6-bromoisatin as the most active against colon cancer cells HT29 and Caco-2. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS) and 1H NMR were used to characterize the purity and chemical composition of the isolated compounds. An MTT assay was used to determine effects on cell viability. Necrosis and apoptosis induction using caspase/LDH assay and flow cytometry (PI/Annexin-V) and cell cycle analysis were also investigated. Our results show that semi-purified 6-bromoisatin had the highest anti-cancer activity by inhibiting cell viability (IC50 = ~100 µM) and increasing caspase 3/7 activity in both of the cell lines at low concentration. The fraction containing 6-bromoisatin induced 77.6% apoptosis and arrested 25.7% of the cells in G2/M phase of cell cycle in HT29 cells. Tyrindoleninone was less potent but significantly decreased the viability of HT29 cells at IC50 = 390 µM and induced apoptosis at 195 µM by increasing caspase 3/7 activity in these cells. This research will facilitate the development of these molluscan natural products as novel complementary medicines for colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Hippuristanol Reduces the Viability of Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cells both in Vitro and in Vivo
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3410-3424; doi:10.3390/md11093410
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 6 September 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (also known as human herpesvirus-8) shows serious lymphomatous effusion in body cavities. PEL is difficult to treat and there is no standard treatment strategy. Hippuristanol is extracted from Okinawan coral Isis hippuris, [...] Read more.
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (also known as human herpesvirus-8) shows serious lymphomatous effusion in body cavities. PEL is difficult to treat and there is no standard treatment strategy. Hippuristanol is extracted from Okinawan coral Isis hippuris, and inhibits translational initiation by blocking eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, binding to mRNA. Recently, there has been much interest in targeting translation initiation as an anticancer therapy. Here, we show that treatment of PEL cell lines with hippuristanol resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and induced caspases activation and apoptosis. Hippuristanol also reduced the expression of cyclin D2, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6 and prosurvival XIAP and Mcl-1 proteins. Activation of activator protein-1, signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 3 and Akt pathways plays a critical role in the survival and growth of PEL cells. Hippuristanol suppressed the activities of these three pathways by inhibiting the expression of JunB, JunD, c-Fos, signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 3 and Akt proteins. In a xenograft mouse model that showed ascites and diffused organ invasion of PEL cells, treatment with hippuristanol significantly inhibited the growth and invasion of PEL cells compared with untreated mice. The results of the in vitro and in vivo experiments underline the potential usefulness of hippuristanol in the treatment of PEL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Towards the Small and the Beautiful: A Small Dibromotyrosine Derivative from Pseudoceratina sp. Sponge Exhibits Potent Apoptotic Effect through Targeting IKK/NFκB Signaling Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3168-3185; doi:10.3390/md11093168
Received: 14 May 2013 / Revised: 9 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 August 2013 / Published: 26 August 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A dibromotyrosine derivative, (1′R,5′S,6′S)-2-(3′,5′-dibromo-1′,6′-dihydroxy-4′-oxocyclohex-2′-enyl) acetonitrile (DT), was isolated from the sponge Pseudoceratina sp., and was found to exhibit a significant cytotoxic activity against leukemia K562 cells. Despite the large number of the isolated bromotyrosine derivatives, studies [...] Read more.
A dibromotyrosine derivative, (1′R,5′S,6′S)-2-(3′,5′-dibromo-1′,6′-dihydroxy-4′-oxocyclohex-2′-enyl) acetonitrile (DT), was isolated from the sponge Pseudoceratina sp., and was found to exhibit a significant cytotoxic activity against leukemia K562 cells. Despite the large number of the isolated bromotyrosine derivatives, studies focusing on their biological mechanism of action are scarce. In the current study we designed a set of experiments to reveal the underlying mechanism of DT cytotoxic activity against K562 cells. First, the results of MTT cytotoxic and the annexin V-FITC/PI apoptotic assays, indicated that the DT cytotoxic activity is mediated through induction of apoptosis. This effect was also supported by caspases-3 and -9 activation as well as PARP cleavage. DT induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as indicated by flow cytometric assay. The involvement of ROS generation in the apoptotic activity of DT was further corroborated by the pretreatment of K562 cells with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, which prevented apoptosis and the disruption of MMP induced by DT. Results of cell-free system assay suggested that DT can act as a topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, unlike the clinical anticancer drug, etoposide, which acts as a topoisomerase poison. Additionally, we found that DT treatment can block IKK/NFκB pathway and activate PI3K/Akt pathway. These findings suggest that the cytotoxic effect of DT is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent apoptosis which is mediated through oxidative stress. Therefore, DT represents an interesting reference point for the development of new cytotoxic agent targeting IKK/NFκB pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Epigonal Conditioned Media from Bonnethead Shark, Sphyrna tiburo, Induces Apoptosis in a T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line, Jurkat E6-1
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3224-3257; doi:10.3390/md11093224
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 12 August 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 26 August 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Representatives of Subclass Elasmobranchii are cartilaginous fish whose members include sharks, skates, and rays. Because of their unique phylogenetic position of being the most primitive group of vertebrates to possess all the components necessary for an adaptive immune system, the immune regulatory [...] Read more.
Representatives of Subclass Elasmobranchii are cartilaginous fish whose members include sharks, skates, and rays. Because of their unique phylogenetic position of being the most primitive group of vertebrates to possess all the components necessary for an adaptive immune system, the immune regulatory compounds they possess may represent the earliest evolutionary forms of novel compounds with the potential for innovative therapeutic applications. Conditioned medium, generated from short term culture of cells from the epigonal organ of bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo), has been shown to have potent reproducible cytotoxic activity against a variety of human tumor cell lines in vitro. Existing data suggest that epigonal conditioned medium (ECM) exerts this cytotoxic activity through induction of apoptosis in target cells. This manuscript describes apoptosis induction in a representative tumor cell line, Jurkat E6-1, in response to treatment with ECM at concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/mL. Data indicate that ECM exposure initiates the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through activation of caspase enzymes. Future purification of ECM components may result in the isolation of an immune-regulatory compound with potential therapeutic benefit for treatment of human cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Anthranilic Acid Derivatives from Deep Sea Sediment-Derived Fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(8), 3068-3076; doi:10.3390/md11083068
Received: 4 June 2013 / Revised: 9 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 21 August 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A–E (15), together with one known analogue (6), which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were [...] Read more.
Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A–E (15), together with one known analogue (6), which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against human colon cancer RKO cell line, while compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against Hela cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Proteomic Investigation of the Sinulariolide-Treated Melanoma Cells A375: Effects on the Cell Apoptosis through Mitochondrial-Related Pathway and Activation of Caspase Cascade
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(7), 2625-2642; doi:10.3390/md11072625
Received: 6 June 2013 / Revised: 9 July 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sinulariolide is an active compound isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. In this study, we investigated the effects of sinulariolide on A375 melanoma cell growth and protein expression. Sinulariolide suppressed the proliferation and migration of melanoma cells in a [...] Read more.
Sinulariolide is an active compound isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. In this study, we investigated the effects of sinulariolide on A375 melanoma cell growth and protein expression. Sinulariolide suppressed the proliferation and migration of melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner and was found to induce both early and late apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis. Comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of sinulariolide at the molecular level by comparison between the protein profiles of melanoma cells treated with sinulariolide and those without treatment. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) master maps of control and treated A375 cells were generated by analysis with PDQuest software. Comparison between these maps showed up- and downregulation of 21 proteins, seven of which were upregulated and 14 were downregulated. The proteomics studies described here identify some proteins that are involved in mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis-associated proteins, including heat shock protein 60, heat shock protein beta-1, ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase complex core protein 1, isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD) subunit alpha (down-regulated), and prohibitin (up-regulated), in A375 melanoma cells exposed to sinulariolide. Sinulariolide-induced apoptosis is relevant to mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathways, elucidated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and activation of Bax, Bad and caspase-3/-9, as well as suppression of p-Bad, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results show that sinulariolide-induced apoptosis might be related to activation of the caspase cascade and mitochondria dysfunction pathways. Our results suggest that sinulariolide merits further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for human melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle APS8, a Polymeric Alkylpyridinium Salt Blocks α7 nAChR and Induces Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(7), 2574-2594; doi:10.3390/md11072574
Received: 9 April 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (979 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Naturally occurring 3-alkylpyridinium polymers (poly-APS) from the marine sponge Reniera sarai, consisting of monomers containing polar pyridinium and nonpolar alkyl chain moieties, have been demonstrated to exert a wide range of biological activities, including a selective cytotoxicity against non-small cell lung [...] Read more.
Naturally occurring 3-alkylpyridinium polymers (poly-APS) from the marine sponge Reniera sarai, consisting of monomers containing polar pyridinium and nonpolar alkyl chain moieties, have been demonstrated to exert a wide range of biological activities, including a selective cytotoxicity against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. APS8, an analog of poly-APS with defined alkyl chain length and molecular size, non-competitively inhibits α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at nanomolar concentrations that are too low to be acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory or generally cytotoxic. In the present study we show that APS8 inhibits NSCLC tumor cell growth and activates apoptotic pathways. APS8 was not toxic for normal lung fibroblasts. Furthermore, in NSCLC cells, APS8 reduced the adverse anti-apoptotic, proliferative effects of nicotine. Our results suggest that APS8 or similar compounds might be considered as lead compounds to develop antitumor therapeutic agents for at least certain types of lung cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Fucoidan Derived from Undaria pinnatifida Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells via the ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(6), 1961-1976; doi:10.3390/md11061961
Received: 13 March 2013 / Revised: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 27 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (1163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fucoidans, fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates, have been shown to exert anticancer activity in several types of human cancer, including leukemia and breast cancer and in lung adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, the anticancer activity of [...] Read more.
Fucoidans, fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates, have been shown to exert anticancer activity in several types of human cancer, including leukemia and breast cancer and in lung adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, the anticancer activity of the fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells, and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated. SMMC-7721 cells exposed to fucoidan displayed growth inhibition and several typical features of apoptotic cells, such as chromatin condensation and marginalization, a decrease in the number of mitochondria, and in mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation. Fucoidan-induced cell death was associated with depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), accumulation of high intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and accompanied by damage to the mitochondrial ultrastructure, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm) and caspase activation. Moreover, fucoidan led to altered expression of factors related to apoptosis, including downregulating Livin and XIAP mRNA, which are members of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein (IAP) family, and increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio. These findings suggest that fucoidan isolated from U. pinnatifida induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1202-1223; doi:10.3390/md13031202
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 6 March 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, [...] Read more.
Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Trabectedin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 974-983; doi:10.3390/md13020974
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 27 January 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of rare tumors derived from mesenchymal tissue, accounting for about 1% of adult cancers. There are over 60 different histological subtypes, each with their own unique biological behavior and response to systemic therapy. The outcome for [...] Read more.
Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of rare tumors derived from mesenchymal tissue, accounting for about 1% of adult cancers. There are over 60 different histological subtypes, each with their own unique biological behavior and response to systemic therapy. The outcome for patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is poor with few available systemic treatment options. For decades, the mainstay of management has consisted of doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide. Trabectedin is a synthetic agent derived from the Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata. This drug has a number of potential mechanisms of action, including binding the DNA minor groove, interfering with DNA repair pathways and the cell cycle, as well as interacting with transcription factors. Several phase II trials have shown that trabectedin has activity in anthracycline and alkylating agent-resistant soft tissue sarcoma and suggest use in the second- and third-line setting. More recently, trabectedin has shown similar progression-free survival to doxorubicin in the first-line setting and significant activity in liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma subtypes. Trabectedin has shown a favorable toxicity profile and has been approved in over 70 countries for the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. This manuscript will review the development of trabectedin in soft tissue sarcomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Reactive Oxygen Species and Autophagy Modulation in Non-Marine Drugs and Marine Drugs
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(11), 5408-5424; doi:10.3390/md12115408
Received: 4 September 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is becoming more understandable that an existing challenge for translational research is the development of pharmaceuticals that appropriately target reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated molecular networks in cancer cells. In line with this approach, there is an overwhelmingly increasing list of many [...] Read more.
It is becoming more understandable that an existing challenge for translational research is the development of pharmaceuticals that appropriately target reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated molecular networks in cancer cells. In line with this approach, there is an overwhelmingly increasing list of many non-marine drugs and marine drugs reported to be involved in inhibiting and suppressing cancer progression through ROS-mediated cell death. In this review, we describe the strategy of oxidative stress-based therapy and connect the ROS modulating effect to the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, we focus on exploring the function and mechanism of cancer therapy by the autophagy modulators including inhibitors and inducers from non-marine drugs and marine drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Anticancer Effects of Different Seaweeds on Human Colon and Breast Cancers
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(9), 4898-4911; doi:10.3390/md12094898
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 2 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seafoods and seaweeds represent some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Seaweed has been shown to have several biological activities, including anticancer activity. This review focuses on colorectal and breast cancers, which are major causes of cancer-related [...] Read more.
Seafoods and seaweeds represent some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Seaweed has been shown to have several biological activities, including anticancer activity. This review focuses on colorectal and breast cancers, which are major causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women. It also describes various compounds extracted from a range of seaweeds that have been shown to eradicate or slow the progression of cancer. Fucoidan extracted from the brown algae Fucus spp. has shown activity against both colorectal and breast cancers. Furthermore, we review the mechanisms through which these compounds can induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. By considering the ability of compounds present in seaweeds to act against colorectal and breast cancers, this review highlights the potential use of seaweeds as anticancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessReview Fucoidan as a Marine Anticancer Agent in Preclinical Development
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 851-870; doi:10.3390/md12020851
Received: 15 November 2013 / Revised: 31 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (765 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fucoidan is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds, crude extracts of which are commercially available as nutritional supplements. Recent studies have demonstrated antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties of fucoidan in vitro. Accordingly, the anticancer effects of fucoidan have been [...] Read more.
Fucoidan is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds, crude extracts of which are commercially available as nutritional supplements. Recent studies have demonstrated antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties of fucoidan in vitro. Accordingly, the anticancer effects of fucoidan have been shown to vary depending on its structure, while it can target multiple receptors or signaling molecules in various cell types, including tumor cells and immune cells. Low toxicity and the in vitro effects of fucoidan mentioned above make it a suitable agent for cancer prevention or treatment. However, preclinical development of natural marine products requires in vivo examination of purified compounds in animal tumor models. This review discusses the effects of systemic and local administration of fucoidan on tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immune reaction and whether in vivo and in vitro results are likely applicable to the development of fucoidan as a marine anticancer drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Marine Low Molecular Weight Natural Products as Potential Cancer Preventive Compounds
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 636-671; doi:10.3390/md12020636
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to taxonomic positions and special living environments, marine organisms produce secondary metabolites that possess unique structures and biological activities. This review is devoted to recently isolated and/or earlier described marine compounds with potential or established cancer preventive activities, their biological sources, [...] Read more.
Due to taxonomic positions and special living environments, marine organisms produce secondary metabolites that possess unique structures and biological activities. This review is devoted to recently isolated and/or earlier described marine compounds with potential or established cancer preventive activities, their biological sources, molecular mechanisms of their action, and their associations with human health and nutrition. The review covers literature published in 2003–2013 years and focuses on findings of the last 2 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Trabectedin and Plitidepsin: Drugs from the Sea that Strike the Tumor Microenvironment
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 719-733; doi:10.3390/md12020719
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (649 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevailing paradigm states that cancer cells acquire multiple genetic mutations in oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes whose respective activation/up-regulation or loss of function serve to impart aberrant properties, such as hyperproliferation or inhibition of cell death. However, a tumor is now [...] Read more.
The prevailing paradigm states that cancer cells acquire multiple genetic mutations in oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes whose respective activation/up-regulation or loss of function serve to impart aberrant properties, such as hyperproliferation or inhibition of cell death. However, a tumor is now considered as an organ-like structure, a complex system composed of multiple cell types (e.g., tumor cells, inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, etc.) all embedded in an inflammatory stroma. All these components influence each other in a complex and dynamic cross-talk, leading to tumor cell survival and progression. As the microenvironment has such a crucial role in tumor pathophysiology, it represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the mechanism of action of trabectedin and plitidepsin as an example of how these specific drugs of marine origin elicit their antitumor activity not only by targeting tumor cells but also the tumor microenvironment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 255-278; doi:10.3390/md12010255
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2014 / Published: 14 January 2014
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. [...] Read more.
The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessReview Fucoxanthin: A Marine Carotenoid Exerting Anti-Cancer Effects by Affecting Multiple Mechanisms
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 5130-5147; doi:10.3390/md11125130
Received: 10 October 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 3 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fucoxanthin is a marine carotenoid exhibiting several health benefits. The anti-cancer effect of fucoxanthin and its deacetylated metabolite, fucoxanthinol, is well documented. In view of its potent anti-carcinogenic activity, the need to understand the underlying mechanisms has gained prominence. Towards achieving this [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin is a marine carotenoid exhibiting several health benefits. The anti-cancer effect of fucoxanthin and its deacetylated metabolite, fucoxanthinol, is well documented. In view of its potent anti-carcinogenic activity, the need to understand the underlying mechanisms has gained prominence. Towards achieving this goal, several researchers have carried out studies in various cell lines and in vivo and have deciphered that fucoxanthin exerts its anti-proliferative and cancer preventing influence via different molecules and pathways including the Bcl-2 proteins, MAPK, NFκB, Caspases, GADD45, and several other molecules that are involved in either cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or metastasis. Thus, in addition to decreasing the frequency of occurrence and growth of tumours, fucoxanthin has a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Some studies show that this effect is selective, i.e., fucoxanthin has the capability to target cancer cells only, leaving normal physiological cells unaffected/less affected. Hence, fucoxanthin and its metabolites show great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Anticancer and Cancer Preventive Properties of Marine Polysaccharides: Some Results and Prospects
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 4876-4901; doi:10.3390/md11124876
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 2 December 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many marine-derived polysaccharides and their analogues have been reported as showing anticancer and cancer preventive properties. These compounds demonstrate interesting activities and special modes of action, differing from each other in both structure and toxicity profile. Herein, literature data concerning anticancer and [...] Read more.
Many marine-derived polysaccharides and their analogues have been reported as showing anticancer and cancer preventive properties. These compounds demonstrate interesting activities and special modes of action, differing from each other in both structure and toxicity profile. Herein, literature data concerning anticancer and cancer preventive marine polysaccharides are reviewed. The structural diversity, the biological activities, and the molecular mechanisms of their action are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3926-3950; doi:10.3390/md11103926
Received: 15 August 2013 / Revised: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (568 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported [...] Read more.
Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Marine Drugs Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
marinedrugs@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Marine Drugs
Back to Top