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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 255-278; doi:10.3390/md12010255
Review

Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development

*  and
Received: 5 December 2013; in revised form: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2014 / Published: 14 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
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Abstract: The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies.
Keywords: Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs); marine antitumor agents; clinical trials; approved antitumor agents Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs); marine antitumor agents; clinical trials; approved antitumor agents
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Newman, D.J.; Cragg, G.M. Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 255-278.

AMA Style

Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(1):255-278.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M. 2014. "Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 1: 255-278.


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