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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1202-1223; doi:10.3390/md13031202

Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Prospect 100 letya Vladivostoka, 159, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
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Academic Editors: Friedemann Honecker and Sergey A. Dyshlovoy
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 6 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Compounds and Cancer)
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Abstract

Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics. View Full-Text
Keywords: triterpene glycosides; sea cucumbers; antitumor activities; apoptosis; arrest of cell cycle triterpene glycosides; sea cucumbers; antitumor activities; apoptosis; arrest of cell cycle
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aminin, D.L.; Menchinskaya, E.S.; Pisliagin, E.A.; Silchenko, A.S.; Avilov, S.A.; Kalinin, V.I. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 1202-1223.

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