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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 54-68; doi:10.3390/md12010054
Article

Palmitic Acid and Ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol Contribute to the Apoptotic Effect and Cell Cycle Arrest of an Extract from Marthasterias glacialis L. in Neuroblastoma Cells

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2,3
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2,3,*  and 1,*
1 REQUIMTE/Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, nº 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal 2 Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, nº 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal 3 IBMC—Instituto for Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto, Porto 4150-180, Portugal
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
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Abstract

We describe the effect of a chemically characterized lipophilic extract obtained from Marthasterias glacialis L. against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines. Evaluation of DNA synthesis revealed that both cell lines were markedly affected in a concentration-dependent way, the SH-SY5Y cell line being more susceptible. Cell cycle arrest was observed, an effect induced by the sterol, ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol, present in the extract. Morphological evaluation of treated cells showed the advent of lipid droplets and chromatin condensation compatible with apoptosis, which was confirmed by the evaluation of caspase-3 and -9 activities. Palmitic acid was the main compound responsible for this apoptotic effect by a ceramide-independent mechanism that involved endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress with upregulation of CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP).
Keywords: Marthasterias glacialis L.; palmitic acid; ER-stress; CHOP; apoptosis Marthasterias glacialis L.; palmitic acid; ER-stress; CHOP; apoptosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Pereira, D.M.; Correia-da-Silva, G.; Valentão, P.; Teixeira, N.; Andrade, P.B. Palmitic Acid and Ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol Contribute to the Apoptotic Effect and Cell Cycle Arrest of an Extract from Marthasterias glacialis L. in Neuroblastoma Cells. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 54-68.

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