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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) To a better understanding of the factors most relevantly involved in the variability of the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Improves Learning and Memory by Enhancing Synaptogenesis in Mice Hippocampus
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070794
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 23 July 2017
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Abstract
Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A.DC. (PG) has long been used as an ingredient of foods and is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive functions as well. The present study examined the effect of each PG extract (PGE) from root, aerial part, and seeds
[...] Read more.
Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A.DC. (PG) has long been used as an ingredient of foods and is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive functions as well. The present study examined the effect of each PG extract (PGE) from root, aerial part, and seeds on cognitive functions in mice. Changes in spatial learning and memory using a Y-maze test, and markers of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis were examined. Moreover, changes in neuritogenesis and activation of the ERK1/2 pathway were investigated. Results indicated that mice administered PGE (root) showed increased spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze test and synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. In addition, PGE (root) and platycodin D, the major bioactive compound from the PG root, significantly stimulated neuritic outgrowth by phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in vitro. These results indicate that the PGE (root), containing platycodin D, enhances cognitive function through synaptogenesis via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Canadian Potential Healthcare and Societal Cost Savings from Consumption of Pulses: A Cost-Of-Illness Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070793
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Consumption of dietary pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, is recommended by health authorities across jurisdictions for their nutritional value and effectiveness in helping to prevent and manage major diet-related illnesses of significant socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to estimate
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Consumption of dietary pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, is recommended by health authorities across jurisdictions for their nutritional value and effectiveness in helping to prevent and manage major diet-related illnesses of significant socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential annual healthcare and societal cost savings relevant to rates of reduction in complications from type 2 diabetes (T2D) and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) following a low glycemic index (GI) or high fiber diet that includes pulses, or 100 g/day pulse intake in Canada, respectively. A four-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to: (1) estimate the proportions of individuals who are likely to consume pulses; (2) evaluate the reductions in established risk factors for T2D and CVD; (3) assess the percent reduction in incidences or complications of the diseases of interest; and (4) calculate the potential annual savings in relevant healthcare and related costs. A low GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses and 100 g/day pulse intake were shown to potentially yield Can$6.2 (95% CI $2.6–$9.9) to Can$62.4 (95% CI $26–$98.8) and Can$31.6 (95% CI $11.1–$52) to Can$315.5 (95% CI $110.6–$520.4) million in savings on annual healthcare and related costs of T2D and CVD, respectively. Specific provincial/territorial analyses suggested annual T2D and CVD related cost savings that ranged from up to Can$0.2 million in some provinces to up to Can$135 million in others. In conclusion, with regular consumption of pulse crops, there is a potential opportunity to facilitate T2D and CVD related socioeconomic cost savings that could be applied to Canadian healthcare or re-assigned to other priority domains. Whether these potential cost savings will be offset by other healthcare costs associated with longevity and diseases of the elderly is to be investigated over the long term. Full article
Open AccessArticle Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070791
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market
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Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015). Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. Conclusion. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups, potato crisps, and processed legumes and vegetables have been reduced over the period 2011–2016. However, median salt intake in 2006 and 2015 remained well above the recommended intake of 6 g. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prenatal Vitamin D Intake, Cord Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, and Offspring Body Composition: The Healthy Start Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070790
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring adiposity, but evidence from human studies is inconclusive. We examined associations between prenatal vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in cord blood, and offspring size and body composition at birth and 5
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Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring adiposity, but evidence from human studies is inconclusive. We examined associations between prenatal vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in cord blood, and offspring size and body composition at birth and 5 months. Participants included 605 mother-offspring dyads from the Healthy Start study, an ongoing, pre-birth prospective cohort study in Denver, Colorado, USA. Prenatal vitamin D intake was assessed with diet recalls and questionnaires, and offspring body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography at birth and 5 months. General linear univariate models were used for analysis, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), offspring sex, and gestational age at birth. Non-Hispanic white race, lower pre-pregnancy BMI, higher prenatal vitamin D intake, and summer births were associated with higher cord blood 25(OH)D. Higher 25(OH)D was associated with lower birthweight (β = –6.22, p = 0.02), but as maternal BMI increased, this association became increasingly positive in direction and magnitude (β = 1.05, p = 0.04). Higher 25(OH)D was also associated with lower neonatal adiposity (β = –0.02, p < 0.05) but not after adjustment for maternal BMI (β = –0.01, p = 0.25). Cord blood 25(OH)D was not associated with offspring size or body composition at 5 months. Our data confirm the hypothesis that vitamin D exposure in early life is associated with neonatal body size and composition. Future research is needed to understand the implications of these associations as infants grow. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Role of AOPP in Age-Related Bone Loss and the Potential Benefits of Berry Anthocyanins
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070789
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Age-related bone loss is a major factor in osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures among the elderly. Because bone homeostasis involves a balance between bone formation and resorption, multiple mechanisms may induce age-dependent changes in bone. Oxidative stress is one such factor that contributes to
[...] Read more.
Age-related bone loss is a major factor in osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures among the elderly. Because bone homeostasis involves a balance between bone formation and resorption, multiple mechanisms may induce age-dependent changes in bone. Oxidative stress is one such factor that contributes to the pathology of aging-associated osteoporosis (AAO). Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are a biomarker of oxidant-mediated protein damage, and can also act to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby perpetuating oxidative damage. AOPP is a relatively novel marker of oxidative stress, and its role in bone aging has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, it has been theorized that dietary antioxidants may decrease AOPP levels, thereby reducing AAO risk, but a limited number of studies have been specifically targeted at addressing this hypothesis. Therefore, the objective of this review is to examine the findings of existing research on the role of AOPP in age-related bone loss, and the potential use of dietary antioxidants to mitigate the effects of AAOP on age-related bone loss. Cross-sectional studies have delivered mixed results, showing that AOPP levels are inconsistently associated with bone loss and aging. However, in vitro studies have documented multiple mechanisms by which AOPP may lead to bone loss, including upregulation of the JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways as well as increasing expression of sclerostin and of receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL). Studies also indicate that antioxidants—especially berry anthocyanins—may be an effective dietary agent to prevent aging-associated bone deterioration by inhibiting the formation of AOPP and ROS. However, the understanding of these pathways in AAO has largely been based on in vitro studies, and should be examined in further animal and human studies in order to inform recommendations regarding dietary anthocyanin use for the prevention of AAO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Unfolding Novel Mechanisms of Polyphenol Flavonoids for Better Glycaemic Control: Targeting Pancreatic Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP)
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070788
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defective insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or both. The impact of over-nutrition and reduced physical activity, evidenced by the exponential rise in obesity and the prevalence of T2D, strongly supports the implementation of lifestyle
[...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defective insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or both. The impact of over-nutrition and reduced physical activity, evidenced by the exponential rise in obesity and the prevalence of T2D, strongly supports the implementation of lifestyle modification programs. Accordingly, an increased consumption of fruits and plant-derived foods has been advocated, as their intake is inversely correlated with T2D prevalence; this has been attributed, in part, to their contained polyphenolic compounds. Over the last decade, a body of work has focussed on establishing the mechanisms by which polyphenolic compounds exert beneficial effects to limit carbohydrate digestion, enhance insulin-mediated glucose uptake, down-regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and decrease oxidative stress; the latter anti-oxidative property being the most documented. Novel effects on the inhibition of glucocorticoid action and the suppression of amylin misfolding and aggregation have been identified more recently. Amyloid fibrils form from spontaneously misfolded amylin, depositing in islet cells to elicit apoptosis, beta cell degeneration and decrease insulin secretion, with amyloidosis affecting up to 80% of pancreatic islet cells in T2D. Therefore, intervening with polyphenolic compounds offers a novel approach to suppressing risk or progression to T2D. This review gives an update on the emerging mechanisms related to dietary polyphenol intake for the maintenance of glycaemic control and the prevention of T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Iron Bioavailability Studies of the First Generation of Iron-Biofortified Beans Released in Rwanda
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070787
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
This paper represents a series of in vitro iron (Fe) bioavailability experiments, Fe content analysis and polyphenolic profile of the first generation of Fe biofortified beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) selected for human trials in Rwanda and released to farmers of that region.
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This paper represents a series of in vitro iron (Fe) bioavailability experiments, Fe content analysis and polyphenolic profile of the first generation of Fe biofortified beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) selected for human trials in Rwanda and released to farmers of that region. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate how the Caco-2 cell bioassay for Fe bioavailability can be utilized to assess the nutritional quality of Fe in such varieties and how they may interact with diets and meal plans of experimental studies. Furthermore, experiments were also conducted to directly compare this in vitro approach with specific human absorption studies of these Fe biofortified beans. The results show that other foods consumed with beans, such as rice, can negatively affect Fe bioavailability whereas potato may enhance the Fe absorption when consumed with beans. The results also suggest that the extrinsic labelling approach to measuring human Fe absorption can be flawed and thus provide misleading information. Overall, the results provide evidence that the Caco-2 cell bioassay represents an effective approach to evaluate the nutritional quality of Fe-biofortified beans, both separate from and within a targeted diet or meal plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
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Open AccessReply The Paradox of Ingestion of Dietary Cholesterol in “Vegans”—Reply
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070786
Received: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
In a comment on several articles on the vegan dietary pattern, Antoniazzi & Acosta-Navarro (2017) mentioned the paradox of the presence of dietary cholesterol as a nutritional component in the analysis of the vegan dietary pattern [1]. [...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle Intra-Amniotic Administration (Gallus gallus) of Cicer arietinum and Lens culinaris Prebiotics Extracts and Duck Egg White Peptides Affects Calcium Status and Intestinal Functionality
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070785
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Calcium (Ca) is one of the most abundant inorganic elements in the human body and has many important physiological roles. Prebiotics and bioactive peptides are two important substances used to promote calcium uptake. However, the difference in mechanisms of the calcium uptake from
[...] Read more.
Calcium (Ca) is one of the most abundant inorganic elements in the human body and has many important physiological roles. Prebiotics and bioactive peptides are two important substances used to promote calcium uptake. However, the difference in mechanisms of the calcium uptake from these two supplements is not clear. By using the Gallus gallus model and the intra-amniotic administration procedure, the aim of this study was to investigate whether Ca status, intestinal functionality, and health-promoting bacterial populations were affected by prebiotics extracted from chickpea and lentil, and duck egg white peptides (DPs). Eleven groups (non-injected; 18 MΩ H2O; 4 mmol/L CaCl2; 50 mg/mL chickpea + 4 mmol/L CaCl2; 50 mg/mL lentil + 4 mmol/L CaCl2; 40 mg/mL DPs + 4 mmol/L CaCl2; 5 mg/mL Val-Ser-Glu-Glu (VSEE) + 4 mmol/L CaCl2; 50 mg/mL chickpea; 50 mg/mL lentil; 40 mg/mL DPs; 5 mg/mL VSEE) were utilized. Upon hatch, blood, cecum, small intestine, liver and bone were collected for assessment of serum bone alkaline phosphate level (BALP), the relative abundance of intestinal microflora, expression of Ca-related genes, brush border membrane (BBM) functional genes, and liver and bone mineral levels, respectively. The BALP level increased in the presence of lentil, DPs and VSEE (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of probiotics increased significantly (p < 0.05) by VSEE + Ca and chickpea. The expression of CalbindinD9k (Ca transporter) increased (p < 0.05) in Ca, chickpea + Ca and lentil + Ca groups. In addition, the brush border membrane functionality genes expressions increased (p < 0.05) by the chickpea or lentil extracts. Prebiotics and DPs beneficially affected the intestinal microflora and duodenal villus surface area. This research expands the understanding of the prebiotics’ properties of chickpea and lentil extracts, and peptides’ effects on calcium metabolism and gut health. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease?
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070784
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6
[...] Read more.
A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations. Epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants/children of those pregnancies suggest protective associations, but the findings are inconsistent. Fish oil provision to pregnant women is associated with immunologic changes in cord blood. Studies performed to date indicate that provision of fish oil during pregnancy may reduce sensitisation to common food allergens and reduce prevalence and severity of atopic eczema in the first year of life, with a possible persistence until adolescence. A recent study reported that fish oil consumption in pregnancy reduces persistent wheeze and asthma in the offspring at ages 3 to 5 years. Eating oily fish or fish oil supplementation in pregnancy may be a strategy to prevent infant and childhood allergic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCase Report Synergistic Interplay between Curcumin and Polyphenol-Rich Foods in the Mediterranean Diet: Therapeutic Prospects for Neurofibromatosis 1 Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070783
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Neurofibromas are the hallmark lesions in Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1); these tumors are classified as cutaneous, subcutaneous and plexiform. In contrast to cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas can grow quickly and progress to malignancy. Curcumin, a turmeric-derived polyphenol, has been shown to interact
[...] Read more.
Neurofibromas are the hallmark lesions in Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1); these tumors are classified as cutaneous, subcutaneous and plexiform. In contrast to cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas can grow quickly and progress to malignancy. Curcumin, a turmeric-derived polyphenol, has been shown to interact with several molecular targets implicated in carcinogenesis. Here, we describe the impact of different dietary patterns, namely Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) compared to the Western diet (WesDiet), both with or without curcumin, on NF1 patients’ health. After six months, patients adopting a traditional MedDiet enriched with 1200 mg curcumin per day (MedDietCurcumin) presented a significant reduction in the number and volume of cutaneous neurofibromas; these results were confirmed in subsequent evaluations. Notably, in one patient, a large cranial plexiform neurofibroma exhibited a reduction in volume (28%) confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Conversely, neither unenriched MedDiet nor WesDiet enriched with curcumin exhibited any significant positive effect. We hypothesize that the combination of a polyphenol-rich Mediterranean diet and curcumin was responsible for the beneficial effect observed on NF1. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first experience with curcumin supplementation in NF1 patients. Our report suggests that an integrated nutritional approach may effectively aid in the management of NF1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Estimated Nutritive Value of Low-Price Model Lunch Sets Provided to Garment Workers in Cambodia
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070782
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods:
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Background: The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods: Exemplary lunch sets were served to female workers through a temporary canteen at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Dish samples were collected repeatedly to examine mean serving sizes of individual ingredients. Food composition tables and NutriSurvey software were used to assess mean amounts and contributions to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fiber, vitamin C (VitC), iron, vitamin A (VitA), folate and vitamin B12 (VitB12). Results: On average, lunch sets provided roughly one third of RDA or adequate intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fiber. Contribution to RDA of protein was high (46% RDA). The sets contained a high mean share of VitC (159% RDA), VitA (66% RDA), and folate (44% RDA), but were low in VitB12 (29% RDA) and iron (20% RDA). Conclusions: Overall, lunches satisfied recommendations of caloric content and macronutrient composition. Sets on average contained a beneficial amount of VitC, VitA and folate. Adjustments are needed for a higher iron content. Alternative iron-rich foods are expected to be better suited, compared to increasing portions of costly meat/fish components. Lunch provision at Cambodian garment factories holds the potential to improve food security of workers, approximately at costs of <1 USD/person/day at large scale. Data on quantitative total dietary intake as well as physical activity among workers are needed to further optimize the concept of staff canteens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fat Taste Sensitivity Is Associated with Short-Term and Habitual Fat Intake
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070781
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT)) may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat
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Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT)) may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat intake, and liking of fatty foods. FTT was assessed in 69 Australian females (mean age 41.3 (15.6) (SD) years and mean body mass index 26.3 (5.7) kg/m2) by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank). Food liking was assessed by hedonic ratings of high-fat and reduced-fat foods, and a 24-h food recall and food frequency questionnaire was completed. Linear mixed regression models were fitted. FT rank was associated with dietary % energy from fat ( β ^ = 0.110 [95% CI: 0.003, 0.216]), % energy from carbohydrate ( β ^ = −0.112 [−0.188, −0.035]), and frequency of consumption of foods per day from food groups: high-fat dairy ( β ^ = 1.091 [0.106, 2.242]), meat & meat alternatives ( β ^ = 0.669 [0.168, 1.170]), and grain & cereals ( β ^ = 0.771 [0.212, 1.329]) (adjusted for energy and age). There were no associations between FT rank and anthropometric measurements or hedonic ratings. Therefore, fat taste sensitivity appears to be associated with short-term fat intake, but not body size in this group of females. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Consumption of Dietary Antioxidant Vitamins Modifies the Risk of Obesity among Korean Men with Short Sleep Duration
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070780
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
Short sleep duration has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sleep duration on the odds of being obese in relation to the consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins among 3941 Korean men between 40 and
[...] Read more.
Short sleep duration has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sleep duration on the odds of being obese in relation to the consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins among 3941 Korean men between 40 and 69 years of age. After adjusting for age, education, household income, marital status, insomnia, smoking and drinking status, participants with short sleep duration (<6 h) had significantly higher body mass index (p = 0.005), body fat mass (p = 0.010), body fat percentage (p = 0.021), waist circumference (p = 0.029), as well as the odds ratio (OR) of risk of obesity [OR (95% CI) = 1.467 (1.282–1.678)], compared to participants with optimal sleep duration (≥7 h). Short sleepers with a low consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins had a higher risk of obesity than those with a high consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins; however, this relationship did not hold among those with optimal sleep duration. Although a causal relationship among sleep-related variables could not be definitively demonstrated because of this study’s cross-sectional design, our results suggested that the increased risk of obesity associated with short sleep duration may be modified by the consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins. Full article
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Open AccessReview Respiratory Tract Infections and the Role of Biologically Active Polysaccharides in Their Management and Prevention
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070779
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the
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Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the healthcare system. They are usually the consequence of immature immunity in children and high exposure to various respiratory pathogens. Their rational management should aim at excluding other severe chronic diseases associated with increased morbidity (e.g., primary immunodeficiency syndromes, cystic fibrosis, and ciliary dyskinesia) and at supporting maturity of the mucosal immune system. However, RRTIs can also be observed in adults (e.g., during exhausting and stressful periods, chronic inflammatory diseases, secondary immunodeficiencies, or in elite athletes) and require greater attention. Biologically active polysaccharides (e.g., β-glucans) are one of the most studied natural immunomodulators with a pluripotent mode of action and biological activity. According to many studies, they possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infectious activities and therefore could be suggested as an effective part of treating and preventing RTIs. Based on published studies, the application of β-glucans was proven as a possible therapeutic and preventive approach in managing and preventing recurrent respiratory tract infections in children (especially β-glucans from Pleurotus ostreatus), adults (mostly the studies with yeast-derived β-glucans), and in elite athletes (studies with β-glucans from Pleurotus ostreatus or yeast). Full article
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