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Special Issue "Prebiotics and Probiotics"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Flavia Indrio

Department of Pediatric, University of Bari, Italy
E-Mail
Phone: +39 0805593624
Fax: +39 0805593624
Interests: pediatric gastroenterology with a special focus on probiotic and prebiotic

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The purpose of this Special Issue, “Prebiotics and Probiotics”, is to focus on the importance of intestinal microbiota for human health and disease and the possibilities of influencing its composition and function with probiotics and prebiotics.

The goal of this Special Issue is to clarify that the microbiome in the maternal fetal and pediatric age unit, as well as the immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care.

Finally, the idea will be to provide health professionals with comprehensive, understandable and friendly readable update information on the intestinal microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics.

Dr. Flavia Indrio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microbiota
  • prebiotics
  • probiotics
  • health
  • disease

Published Papers (32 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Physiological Translocation of Lactic Acid Bacteria during Pregnancy Contributes to the Composition of the Milk Microbiota in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010014
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The human milk microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that seems to play a relevant role in the mother-to-infant transmission of microorganisms during early life. Bacteria present in human milk may arise from different sources, and recent studies suggest that at least
[...] Read more.
The human milk microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that seems to play a relevant role in the mother-to-infant transmission of microorganisms during early life. Bacteria present in human milk may arise from different sources, and recent studies suggest that at least some of them may be originally present in the maternal digestive tract and may reach the mammary gland through an endogenous route during pregnancy and lactation. The objective of this work was to elucidate whether some lactic acid bacteria are able to translocate and colonize the mammary gland and milk. For this purpose, two lactic acid bacteria strains (Lactococcus lactis MG1614 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS2) were transformed with a plasmid containing the lux genes; subsequently, the transformed strains were orally administered to pregnant mice. The murine model allowed the visualization, isolation, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-detection of the transformed bacteria in different body locations, including mammary tissue and milk, reinforcing the hypothesis that physiological translocation of maternal bacteria during pregnancy and lactation may contribute to the composition of the mammary and milk microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Does Not Enhance Epithelial Barrier Integrity in an Apical Anaerobic Co-Culture Model of the Large Intestine
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121349
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2
[...] Read more.
Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is linked to enhanced tight junction formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that F. prausnitzii enhances barrier integrity, an important factor in appropriate intestinal barrier maturation. In order to test metabolically active bacteria, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system that allows the survival of both obligate anaerobic bacteria and oxygen-requiring intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). The first aim was to optimize the culture medium to enable growth and active metabolism of F. prausnitzii while maintaining the viability and barrier integrity, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), of the Caco-2 cells. This was achieved by supplementing the apical cell culture medium with bacterial culture medium. The second aim was to test the effect of F. prausnitzii on TEER across Caco-2 cell layers. Live F. prausnitzii did not improve TEER, which indicates that its benefits are not via altering tight junction integrity. The optimization of the novel dual-environment co-culturing system performed in this research will enable the investigation of new probiotics originating from indigenous beneficial bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Metagenomic and in Silico Functional Prediction of Gut Microbiota Profiles May Concur in Discovering New Cystic Fibrosis Patient-Targeted Probiotics
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121342
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting hereditary disorder that results in aberrant mucosa in the lungs and digestive tract, chronic respiratory infections, chronic inflammation, and the need for repeated antibiotic treatments. Probiotics have been demonstrated to improve the quality of life of CF
[...] Read more.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting hereditary disorder that results in aberrant mucosa in the lungs and digestive tract, chronic respiratory infections, chronic inflammation, and the need for repeated antibiotic treatments. Probiotics have been demonstrated to improve the quality of life of CF patients. We investigated the distribution of gut microbiota (GM) bacteria to identify new potential probiotics for CF patients on the basis of GM patterns. Fecal samples of 28 CF patients and 31 healthy controls (HC) were collected and analyzed by 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis of GM, to produce CF-HC paired maps of the distribution of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and by Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biomarker prediction. The maps were scanned to highlight the distribution of bacteria commonly claimed as probiotics, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, and of butyrate-producing colon bacteria, such as Eubacterium spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. The analyses highlighted 24 OTUs eligible as putative probiotics. Eleven and nine species were prevalently associated with the GM of CF and HC subjects, respectively. Their KEGG prediction provided differential CF and HC pathways, indeed associated with health-promoting biochemical activities in the latter case. GM profiling and KEGG biomarkers concurred in the evaluation of nine bacterial species as novel putative probiotics that could be investigated for the nutritional management of CF patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Meta-Analysis of Fecal Microbiota and Metabolites in Experimental Colitic Mice during the Inflammatory and Healing Phases
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121329
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The imbalance of gut microbiota is known to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but it remains unknown whether dysbiosis is a cause or consequence of chronic gut inflammation. In order to investigate the effects of gut inflammation on microbiota and metabolome, the
[...] Read more.
The imbalance of gut microbiota is known to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but it remains unknown whether dysbiosis is a cause or consequence of chronic gut inflammation. In order to investigate the effects of gut inflammation on microbiota and metabolome, the sequential changes in gut microbiota and metabolites from the onset of colitis to the recovery in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitic mice were characterized by using meta 16S rRNA sequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis. Mice in the colitis progression phase showed the transient expansions of two bacterial families including Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae and the depletion of major gut commensal bacteria belonging to the uncultured Bacteroidales family S24-7, Rikenellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. After the initiation of the recovery, commensal Lactobacillus members promptly predominated in gut while other normally abundant bacteria excluding the Erysipelotrichaceae remained diminished. Furthermore, 1H-NMR analysis revealed characteristic fluctuations in fecal levels of organic acids (lactate and succinate) associated with the disease states. In conclusion, acute intestinal inflammation is a perturbation factor of gut microbiota but alters the intestinal environments suitable for Lactobacillus members. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Impact of Food on the Gut Ecosystem Based on the Combination of Machine Learning and Network Visualization
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121307
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Prebiotics and probiotics strongly impact the gut ecosystem by changing the composition and/or metabolism of the microbiota to improve the health of the host. However, the composition of the microbiota constantly changes due to the intake of daily diet. This shift in the
[...] Read more.
Prebiotics and probiotics strongly impact the gut ecosystem by changing the composition and/or metabolism of the microbiota to improve the health of the host. However, the composition of the microbiota constantly changes due to the intake of daily diet. This shift in the microbiota composition has a considerable impact; however, non-pre/probiotic foods that have a low impact are ignored because of the lack of a highly sensitive evaluation method. We performed comprehensive acquisition of data using existing measurements (nuclear magnetic resonance, next-generation DNA sequencing, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy) and analyses based on a combination of machine learning and network visualization, which extracted important factors by the Random Forest approach, and applied these factors to a network module. We used two pteridophytes, Pteridium aquilinum and Matteuccia struthiopteris, for the representative daily diet. This novel analytical method could detect the impact of a small but significant shift associated with Matteuccia struthiopteris but not Pteridium aquilinum intake, using the functional network module. In this study, we proposed a novel method that is useful to explore a new valuable food to improve the health of the host as pre/probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Bacteriological and Immunological Profiling of Meconium and Fecal Samples from Preterm Infants: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121293
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract
An abnormal colonization pattern of the preterm gut may affect immune maturation and exert a long-term influence on the intestinal bacterial composition and host health. However, follow-up studies assessing the evolution of the fecal microbiota of infants that were born preterm are very
[...] Read more.
An abnormal colonization pattern of the preterm gut may affect immune maturation and exert a long-term influence on the intestinal bacterial composition and host health. However, follow-up studies assessing the evolution of the fecal microbiota of infants that were born preterm are very scarce. In this work, the bacterial compositions of fecal samples, obtained from sixteen 2-year-old infants were evaluated using a phylogenetic microarray; subsequently, the results were compared with those obtained in a previous study from samples of meconium and feces collected from the same infants while they stayed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In parallel, the concentration of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and immunoglobulins were determined in meconium and fecal samples. Globally, a higher bacterial diversity and a lower interindividual variability were observed in 2-year-olds’ feces, when compared to the samples obtained during their first days of life. Hospital-associated fecal bacteria, that were dominant during the NICU stay, seemed to be replaced, two years later, by genera, which are usually predominant in the healthy adult microbiome. The immune profile of the meconium and fecal samples differed, depending on the sampling time, showing different immune maturation statuses of the gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Impact of High-Dose Multi-Strain Probiotic Supplementation on Neurocognitive Performance and Central Nervous System Immune Activation of HIV-1 Infected Individuals
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111269
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the
[...] Read more.
Background: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects. Methods: Thirty-five HIV-1 infected individuals were included in this study. At baseline (T0) a battery of tests was administered, to evaluate neurocognitive function and a lumbar puncture was performed to determine neopterin concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a marker of Central Nervous System (CNS) immune activation. Subsequently, a subgroup of participants underwent a 6-month course of multi-strain probiotics supplementation; this intervention group was evaluated, after probiotic treatment, with a second lumbar puncture and with repeated neurocognitive tests. Results: At T0, all participants showed impaired results in at least one neurocognitive test and elevated neopterin concentrations in CSF. After supplementation with probiotics (T6), the interventional group presented a significant decrease in neopterin concentration and a significant improvement in several neurocognitive tests. In contrast, no significant modifications were observed in the neurocognitive performance of controls between T0 and T6. The CNS Penetration Effectiveness Score of antiretroviral therapy did not show an influence from any of the investigated variables. Conclusions: Multi-strain probiotic supplementation seems to exert a positive effect on neuroinflammation and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 infected subjects, but large trials are needed to support the concept that modulation of the gut microbiota can provide specific neurological benefits in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effect of a Lactobacillus Salivarius Probiotic on a Double-Species Streptococcus Mutans and Candida Albicans Caries Biofilm
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111242
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (37173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-cariogenic effects of Lactobacillus salivarius by reducing pathogenic species and biofilm mass in a double-species biofilm model. Coexistence of S. mutans with C. albicans can cause dental caries progression or recurrence of the disease
[...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-cariogenic effects of Lactobacillus salivarius by reducing pathogenic species and biofilm mass in a double-species biofilm model. Coexistence of S. mutans with C. albicans can cause dental caries progression or recurrence of the disease in the future. Fifty-nine children with diagnosed early childhood caries (ECC) were recruited onto the study. The condition of the children’s dentition was defined according to the World Health Organization guidelines. The participants were divided into children with initial enamel demineralization and children showing dentin damage. The study was performed on the S. mutans and C. albicans clinical strains, isolated from dental plaque of patients with ECC. The effect of a probiotic containing Lactobacillus salivarius on the ability of S. mutans and C. albicans to produce a double-species biofilm was investigated in an in vitro model. The biomass of the formed/non-degraded biofilm was analyzed on the basis of its crystal violet staining. The number of colonies of S. mutans and C. albicans (CFU/mL, colony forming units/mL) forming the biofilm was determined. Microorganism morphology in the biofilm was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In vitro analysis demonstrated that the presence of S. mutans increased the number of C. albicans colonies (CFU/mL); the double-species biofilm mass and hyphal forms produced in it by the yeast. L. salivarius inhibited the cariogenic biofilm formation of C. albicans and S. mutans. Under the influence of the probiotic; the biofilm mass and the number of S. mutans; C. albicans and S. mutans with C. albicans colonies in the biofilm was decreased. Moreover; it can be noted that after the addition of the probiotic; fungi did not form hyphae or germ tubes of pathogenic potential. These results suggest that L. salivarius can secrete intermediates capable of inhibiting the formation of cariogenic S. mutans and C. albicans biofilm; and may inhibit fungal morphological transformation and thereby reduce the pathogenicity of C. albicans; weakening its pathogenic potential. Further research is required to prove or disprove the long-term effects of the preparation and to achieve preventive methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Fermentation Patterns of Rice Bran Components by Human Gut Microbiota
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111237
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized
[...] Read more.
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fresh fecal samples collected from healthy adults (n = 10, 5 males, 5 females) were diluted with anaerobic medium. Each sample received five treatments: CTRL (no substrates), FOS (fructooligosaccharides), FAXO, RBPP, and MIX (FAXO with RBPP). Samples were incubated at 37 °C and an aliquot was withdrawn at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h Results showed that SCFA production was significantly increased with FAXO and was comparable to fermentation with FOS, a well-established prebiotic. RBPP did not increase SCFA productions, and no significant differences in total SCFA production were observed between FAXO and MIX, indicating that RBPP does not modify FAXO fermentation. Changes in microbiota population were found in FAXO treatment, especially in Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Dorea populations, indicating that FAXO might modulate microbiota profiles. RBPP and MIX increased Faecalibacterium, specifically F. prausnitzii. Combined FAXO and RBPP fermentation increased abundance of butyrogenic bacteria, Coprococcus and Roseburia, suggesting some interactive activity. Results from this study support the potential for FAXO and RBPP from rice bran to promote colon health through a prebiotic function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Symptom Severity Following Rifaximin and the Probiotic VSL#3 in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (Due to Inflammatory Prostatitis) Plus Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111208
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
This study investigated the effects of long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 on uro-genital and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) plus diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) compared with patients with D-IBS alone. Eighty-five patients with
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 on uro-genital and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) plus diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) compared with patients with D-IBS alone. Eighty-five patients with CP/CPPS (45 with subtype IIIa and 40 with IIIb) plus D-IBS according to the Rome III criteria and an aged-matched control-group of patients with D-IBS alone (n = 75) received rifaximin and VSL#3. The primary endpoints were the response rates of IBS and CP/CPPS symptoms, assessed respectively through Irritable Bowel Syndrome Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) and The National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and performed at the start of therapy (V0) and three months after (V3). In IIIa prostatitis patients, the total NIH-CPSI scores significantly (p < 0.05) decreased from a baseline mean value of 21.2 to 14.5 at V3 , as did all subscales, and in the IIIb the total NIH-CPSI score also significantly decreased (from 17.4 to 15.1). Patients with IBS alone showed no significant differences in NIH-CPSI score. At V3, significantly greater improvement in the IBS-SSS and responder rate were found in IIIa patients. Our results were explained through a better individual response at V3 in IIIa prostatitis of urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms, while mean leukocyte counts on expressed prostate secretion (EPS) after prostate massage significantly lowered only in IIIa cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Effect of a Partially Hydrolysed Whey Infant Formula Supplemented with Starch and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 on Regurgitation and Gastric Motility
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111181
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Functional regurgitation (FR) is common in early infancy and represents a major drain on healthcare resources. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a formula containing partially hydrolysed, 100% whey protein, starch and Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) on gastric emptying rate
[...] Read more.
Functional regurgitation (FR) is common in early infancy and represents a major drain on healthcare resources. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a formula containing partially hydrolysed, 100% whey protein, starch and Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) on gastric emptying rate (GErate) and regurgitation frequency in infants with FR. Enrolled infants were randomly allocated to receive either the test formula or a standard starter formula for four weeks. Ultrasound GErate assessment was performed at baseline (week 0) and at week 4; the number of regurgitations, feed volumes and potential adverse events were recorded in a daily diary. Eighty infants aged four weeks to five months were enrolled; 72 (test group = 37; control group = 35) completed the study. Compared to controls, the test group showed greater percentage changes in GErate (12.3% vs. 9.1%, p < 0.01). Mean daily regurgitations decreased from 7.4 (0.8) at week 0 to 2.6 (1.0) at week 4 in the test group and from 7.5 (1.0) to 5.3 (1.0) in controls (between-group difference, p < 0.0001). Compared to a standard formula, a starch-thickened partially hydrolysed whey protein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus reuteri is more effective in decreasing the frequency of regurgitation and improving GErate, and can be of benefit to infants with FR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Probiotic Supplementation in Preterm: Feeding Intolerance and Hospital Cost
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090965
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We hypothesized that giving the probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) DSM 17938 to preterm, formula-fed infants would prevent an early traumatic intestinal inflammatory insult modulating intestinal cytokine profile and reducing the onset of feeding intolerance. Newborn were randomly allocated during
[...] Read more.
We hypothesized that giving the probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) DSM 17938 to preterm, formula-fed infants would prevent an early traumatic intestinal inflammatory insult modulating intestinal cytokine profile and reducing the onset of feeding intolerance. Newborn were randomly allocated during the first 48 h of life to receive either daily probiotic (108 colony forming units (CFUs) of L. reuteri DSM 17938) or placebo for one month. All the newborns underwent to gastric ultrasound for the measurement of gastric emptying time. Fecal samples were collected for the evaluation of fecal cytokines. Clinical data on feeding intolerance and weight gain were collected. The costs of hospital stays were calculated. The results showed that the newborns receiving L. reuteri DSM 17938 had a significant decrease in the number of days needed to reach full enteral feeding (p < 0.01), days of hospital stay (p < 0.01), and days of antibiotic treatment (p < 0.01). Statistically significant differences were observed in pattern of fecal cytokine profiles. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, was increased in newborns receiving L. reuteri DSM 17938. Pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-17, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels were increased in newborns given placebo. Differences in the gastric emptying and fasting antral area (FAA) were also observed. Our study demonstrates an effective role for L. reuteri DSM 17938 supplementation in preventing feeding intolerance and improving gut motor and immune function development in bottle-fed stable preterm newborns. Another benefit from the use of probiotics is the reducing cost for the Health Care service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Modulation of Gut Microbiota of Overweight Mice by Agavins and Their Association with Body Weight Loss
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090821
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2504 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Agavins consumption has led to accelerated body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated with body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high-fat (HF5) diet for
[...] Read more.
Agavins consumption has led to accelerated body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated with body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high-fat (HF5) diet for five weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST + A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10), for five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t test, p < 0.05), increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced SCFA concentrations (t test, p < 0.05). After diet shifting, HF-ST10 normalized its microbiota, increased its diversity, and SCFA levels, whereas agavins (HF-ST + A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10) led to partial microbiota restoration, with normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio, as well as higher SCFA levels (p < 0.1). Moreover, agavins noticeably enriched Klebsiella and Citrobacter (LDA > 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced the extent of diversity, and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins opens opportunities to explore new probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessShort Note The Efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 Probiotic Treatment in Infants with Rotavirus Infection
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080887
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A total of 57 infants hospitalized with rotavirus disease were included in this study. The children were randomly divided into the study’s two treatment groups: three days of the oral administration of (i) a probiotics formula containing both Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus
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A total of 57 infants hospitalized with rotavirus disease were included in this study. The children were randomly divided into the study’s two treatment groups: three days of the oral administration of (i) a probiotics formula containing both Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 (N = 28); or (ii) a placebo (probiotic-free skim milk, N = 29) and the standard therapy for diarrhea. There were no differences in age, sex, or blood characteristics between the two groups. When the 57 cases completed the protocol, the duration of the patients’ diarrhea was significantly shorter in the probiotics group (4.38 ± 1.29, N = 28) than the placebo group (5.61 ± 1.23, N = 29), with a p-value of 0.001. Symptoms such as duration of fever (p = 0.119), frequency of diarrhea (p = 0.119), and frequency of vomiting (p = 0.331) tended to be ameliorated by the probiotic treatment; however, differences were not statistically significant between the two groups. There were no serious, adverse events and no differences in the frequency of adverse events in both groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 for the Alleviative Effect on Lead Toxicity
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080845
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6066 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lead (Pb) is a toxic contaminating heavy metal that can cause a variety of hazardous effects to both humans and animals. In the present study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 (L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207), which has a remarkable Pb binding capacity and Pb
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Lead (Pb) is a toxic contaminating heavy metal that can cause a variety of hazardous effects to both humans and animals. In the present study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 (L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207), which has a remarkable Pb binding capacity and Pb tolerance, was selected for further study. It was observed that the thermodynamic and kinetic model of L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 Pb binding respectively fit with the Langmuir–Freundlich model and the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis disclosed that the cell surfaces were covered with Pb and that carbon and oxygen elements were chiefly involved in Pb binding. Combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, it was revealed that the carboxyl, phosphoryl, hydroxyl, amino and amide groups were the main functional groups involved in the Pb adsorption. The protective effects of L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 against acute Pb toxicity in mice was evaluated by prevention and therapy groups, the results in vivo showed that L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 treatment could reduce mortality rates, effectively increase Pb levels in the feces, alleviate tissue Pb enrichment, improve the antioxidant index in the liver and kidney, and relieve renal pathological damage. Our findings show that L. bulgaricus KLDS1.0207 can be used as a potential probiotic against acute Pb toxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dose-Dependent Prebiotic Effect of Lactulose in a Computer-Controlled In Vitro Model of the Human Large Intestine
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070767
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Lactulose, a disaccharide of galactose and fructose, used as a laxative or ammonia-lowering drug and as a functional food ingredient, enhances growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at clinically relevant dosages. The prebiotic effect of subclinical dosages of Lactulose, however, remains to be elucidated.
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Lactulose, a disaccharide of galactose and fructose, used as a laxative or ammonia-lowering drug and as a functional food ingredient, enhances growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at clinically relevant dosages. The prebiotic effect of subclinical dosages of Lactulose, however, remains to be elucidated. This study analyses changes in the microbiota and their metabolites after a 5 days Lactulose treatment using the TIM-2 system, a computer-controlled model of the proximal large intestine representing a complex, high density, metabolically active, anaerobic microbiota of human origin. Subclinical dosages of 2–5 g Lactulose were used. While 2 g Lactulose already increased the short-chain fatty acid levels of the intestinal content, 5 g Lactulose were required daily for 5 days in this study to exert the full beneficial prebiotic effect consisting of higher bacterial counts of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Anaerostipes, a rise in acetate, butyrate and lactate, as well as a decrease in branched-chain fatty acids, pH (suggested by an increase in NaOH usage), and ammonia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070702
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium
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In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition. In a six-weeks nutritional experiment on growing a significant (p < 0.05) luminal acidification, decrease in ammonia concentration and stimulation of short chain fatty acids formation indicated inulin-mediated beneficial effects on the caecal microbiota. However, the effect of inulin on characteristics of intestinal microbiota and mineral utilization depended on the dietary Ca intake from GFDs. Inulin stimulated bifidobacteria, in particular B. animalis species, only if a recommended amount of Ca was provided. Most benefits to mineral utilization from inulin consumption were seen in rats fed Ca-restricted GFD where it increased the relative Ca absorption. Administration of inulin to a GFDs could be a promising dietary strategy for beneficial modulation of intestinal ecosystem and by that for the improvement the Ca absorption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 Modulates Intestinal Host Defense Peptide Expression in the Model of IPEC-J2 Cells and Neonatal Piglets
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060559
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) by probiotics represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections in human and animals. However, the extent of HDP modulation by probiotics is species dependent and strain
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Modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) by probiotics represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections in human and animals. However, the extent of HDP modulation by probiotics is species dependent and strain specific. In the present study, The porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) cells and neonatal piglets were used as in-vitro and in-vivo models to test whether Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression. Gene expressions of HDPs, toll-like receptors, and fatty acid receptors were determined, as well as colonic short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbiota. Exposure to 108 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of L. reuteri I5007 for 6 h significantly increased the expression of porcine β-Defensin2 (PBD2), pBD3, pBD114, pBD129, and protegrins (PG) 1-5 in IPEC-J2 cells. Similarly, L. reuteri I5007 administration significantly increased the expression of jejunal pBD2 as well as colonic pBD2, pBD3, pBD114, and pBD129 in neonatal piglets (p < 0.05). This was probably associated with the increase in colonic butyric acid concentration and up-regulating expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and G Protein-Coupled Receptor 41 (GPR41) (p < 0.05), but not with stimulation of Pattern-Recognition Receptors. Additionally, supplementation with L. reuteri I5007 in the piglets did not affect the colonic microbiota structure. Our findings suggested that L. reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression and improve the gut health of neonatal piglets, probably through the increase in colonic butyric acid concentration and the up-regulation of the downstream molecules of butyric acid, PPAR-γ and GPR41, but not through modifying gut microbiota structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060558
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A
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The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040400
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order
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Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order to understand what health benefits these products may offer. The Food Label Information Program was used to identify probiotic-containing products in the food supply. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled trials that tested the health effects of these strains in humans. There were six probiotic strains/strain combinations identified in the food supply. Thirty-one studies investigated these strains and found that they are associated with decreased diarrhea and constipation, improved digestive symptoms, glycemic control, antioxidant status, blood lipids, oral health, and infant breastfeeding outcomes, as well as enhanced immunity and support for Helicobacter pylori eradication. There were a limited number of studies investigating these strains. Many studies were funded by the food industry and tested dosages that were up to twenty-five times the dosage found in most food products. Probiotic food products could have health benefits not currently reported on their labels. However, many dosages are too low to provide the benefits demonstrated in clinical trials. Further research is needed to enable more effective use of these functional foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Probiotic Mixture on Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030293
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Growing evidence has indicated that supplementation with probiotics improves lipid metabolism. We aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of a probiotics mixture (PM) of three strains belonging to the species Bifidobacterium (B. longum, B. lactis, and B. breve) and
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Growing evidence has indicated that supplementation with probiotics improves lipid metabolism. We aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of a probiotics mixture (PM) of three strains belonging to the species Bifidobacterium (B. longum, B. lactis, and B. breve) and two strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus (L. reuteri and L. plantarum) on cholesterol-lowering efficacy in hypercholesterolemic rats. A hypercholesterolemic rat model was established by feeding a high-cholesterol diet for eight weeks. To test the effects of PM on hypercholesterolemia, hypercholesterolemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were treated daily with low (1.65 × 109 cfu/kg), medium (5.5 × 109 cfu/kg), or high (1.65 × 1010 cfu/kg) doses of probiotic mixture or simvastatin for eight weeks. Significant reductions of serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels, but increases of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol were observed after supplementation of PM in hypercholesterolemic rats. In PM-supplemented hypercholesterolemic rats, hepatic tissue contents of TC and TG also significantly decreased. Notably, the histological evaluation of liver tissues demonstrated that PM dramatically decreased lipid accumulation. For their underlying mechanisms, we demonstrated that PM reduced expressions of cholesterol synthesis-related proteins such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the liver. Taken together, these findings suggest that PM has beneficial effects against hypercholesterolemia. Accordingly, our PM might be utilized as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of hypercholesterolemia. Full article
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Open AccessReview Immune-Mediated Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Treating Pediatric Intestinal Diseases
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010042
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pediatric population is continually at risk of developing infectious and inflammatory diseases. The treatment for infections, particularly gastrointestinal conditions, focuses on oral or intravenous rehydration, nutritional support and, in certain case, antibiotics. Over the past decade, the probiotics and synbiotics administration for
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The pediatric population is continually at risk of developing infectious and inflammatory diseases. The treatment for infections, particularly gastrointestinal conditions, focuses on oral or intravenous rehydration, nutritional support and, in certain case, antibiotics. Over the past decade, the probiotics and synbiotics administration for the prevention and treatment of different acute and chronic infectious diseases has dramatically increased. Probiotic microorganisms are primarily used as treatments because they can stimulate changes in the intestinal microbial ecosystem and improve the immunological status of the host. The beneficial impact of probiotics is mediated by different mechanisms. These mechanisms include the probiotics’ capacity to increase the intestinal barrier function, to prevent bacterial transferation and to modulate inflammation through immune receptor cascade signaling, as well as their ability to regulate the expression of selected host intestinal genes. Nevertheless, with respect to pediatric intestinal diseases, information pertaining to these key mechanisms of action is scarce, particularly for immune-mediated mechanisms of action. In the present work, we review the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of action of probiotics and synbiotics that affect the immune system. Full article
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Open AccessReview Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Brain Development
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111247
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria
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Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria as therapeutics has attracted much interest. Recent research has found that there are a variety of mechanisms by which bacteria can signal to the brain and influence several processes in relation to neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and behaviour. Data derived from both in vitro experiments and in vivo clinical trials have supported some of these new health implications. While recent molecular advancement has provided strong indications to support and justify the role of the gut microbiota on the gut–brain axis, it is still not clear whether manipulations through probiotics and prebiotics administration could be beneficial in the treatment of neurological problems. The understanding of the gut microbiota and its activities is essential for the generation of future personalized healthcare strategies. Here, we explore and summarize the potential beneficial effects of probiotics and prebiotics in the neurodevelopmental process and in the prevention and treatment of certain neurological human diseases, highlighting current and future perspectives in this topic. Full article
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Open AccessReview A New Proposal for the Pathogenic Mechanism of Non-Coeliac/Non-Allergic Gluten/Wheat Sensitivity: Piecing Together the Puzzle of Recent Scientific Evidence
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111203
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Non-coeliac/non-allergic gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) is a gluten-related disorder, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear. Recently, the involvement of an increased intestinal permeability has been recognized in the onset of this clinical condition. However, mechanisms through which it takes place are still unclear. In
[...] Read more.
Non-coeliac/non-allergic gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) is a gluten-related disorder, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear. Recently, the involvement of an increased intestinal permeability has been recognized in the onset of this clinical condition. However, mechanisms through which it takes place are still unclear. In this review, we attempt to uncover these mechanisms by providing, for the first time, an integrated vision of recent scientific literature, resulting in a new hypothesis about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in NCG/WS. According to this, the root cause of NCG/WS is a particular dysbiotic profile characterized by decreased butyrate-producing-Firmicutes and/or Bifidobacteria, leading to low levels of intestinal butyrate. Beyond a critical threshold of the latter, a chain reaction of events and vicious circles occurs, involving other protagonists such as microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and wheat α-amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs). NCG/WS is likely to be a multi-factor-onset disorder, probably transient and preventable, related to quality and balance of the diet, and not to the presence of gluten in itself. If future studies confirm our proposal, this would have important implications both for the definition of the disease, as well as for the prevention and therapeutic-nutritional management of individuals with NCG/WS. Full article
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Open AccessReview Probiotic Supplementation in Preterm Infants Does Not Affect the Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111197
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Probiotic supplementation reduces the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants, but it remains to be determined whether this reduction translates into a reduction of other complications. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the possible
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Probiotic supplementation reduces the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants, but it remains to be determined whether this reduction translates into a reduction of other complications. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the possible role of probiotics in altering the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Fifteen randomized controlled trials (4782 infants; probiotics: 2406) were included. None of the included studies assessed BPD as the primary outcome. Meta-analysis confirmed a significant reduction of NEC (risk ratio (RR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.81, p = 0.004; random effects model), and an almost significant reduction of LOS (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.03, p = 0.084). In contrast, meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant effect of probiotics on BPD, defined either as oxygen dependency at 28 days of life (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.11, p = 0.900, 6 studies) or at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.20, p = 0.203, 12 studies). Meta-regression did not show any significant association between the RR for NEC or LOS and the RR for BPD. In conclusion, our results suggest that NEC and LOS prevention by probiotics does not affect the risk of developing BPD in preterm infants. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effect of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111175
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the immune response to influenza vaccination in adults. We conducted a literature search of Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Airiti Library,
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We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the immune response to influenza vaccination in adults. We conducted a literature search of Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Airiti Library, and PerioPath Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature in Taiwan. Databases were searched from inception to July 2017. We used the Cochrane Review risk of bias assessment tool to assess randomized controlled trial (RCT) quality. A total of 20 RCTs comprising 1979 adults were included in our systematic review. Nine RCTs including 623 participants had sufficient data to be pooled in a meta-analysis. Participants who took probiotics or prebiotics showed significant improvements in the H1N1 strain seroprotection rate (with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.83 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.19–2.82, p = 0.006, I2 = 0%), the H3N2 strain seroprotection rate (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.59–5.10, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%), and the B strain seroconversion rate (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.38–3.21, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%). This meta-analysis suggested that probiotics and prebiotics are effective in elevating immunogenicity by influencing seroconversion and seroprotection rates in adults inoculated with influenza vaccines. Full article
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Open AccessReview Gut Microbiota and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Insights on Mechanisms and Therapy
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101124
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can
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The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can be manipulated, including through use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and some active components from herbal medicines. In this review, we review the main roles of gut microbiota in mediating the development of NAFLD, and the advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies for NAFLD in both the experimental and clinical studies, as well as the conclusions on the prospect of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in the future. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091021
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for
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The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effect of Probiotics on Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050461
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The metabolic effects of probiotic administration in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. The objective of this review was to investigate the effect of probiotics on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and LDL-cholesterol levels in pregnant women diagnosed with
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The metabolic effects of probiotic administration in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. The objective of this review was to investigate the effect of probiotics on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and LDL-cholesterol levels in pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Seven electronic databases were searched for RCTs published in English between 2001 and 2017 investigating the metabolic effects of a 6–8 week dietary probiotic intervention in pregnant women following diagnosis with GDM. Eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias and subjected to qualitative and quantitative synthesis using a random effects model meta-analyses. Four high quality RCTs involving 288 participants were included in the review. Probiotic supplementation was not effective in decreasing FBG (Mean Difference = −0.13; 95% CI −0.32, 0.06, p = 0.18) or LDL-cholesterol (−0.16; 95% CI −0.45, 0.13, p = 0.67) in women with GDM. However, a significant reduction in HOMA-IR was observed following probiotic supplementation (−0.69; 95% CI −1.24, −0.14, p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in gestational weight gain, delivery method or neonatal outcomes between experimental and control groups, and no adverse effects of the probiotics were reported. Probiotic supplementation for 6–8 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in insulin resistance in pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. The use of probiotic supplementation is promising as a potential therapy to assist in the metabolic management of GDM. Further high quality studies of longer duration are required to determine the safety, optimal dose and ideal bacterial composition of probiotics before their routine use can be recommended in this patient group. Full article
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Open AccessReview Consumption of Yogurt and the Incident Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Nine Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030315
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1098 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the association of dairy consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the findings were inconsistent. No quantitative analysis has specifically assessed the effect of yogurt intake on the incident risk of CVD. We searched
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Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the association of dairy consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the findings were inconsistent. No quantitative analysis has specifically assessed the effect of yogurt intake on the incident risk of CVD. We searched the PubMed and the Embase databases from inception to 10 January 2017. A generic inverse-variance method was used to pool the fully-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with a random-effects model. A generalized least squares trend estimation model was used to calculate the specific slopes in the dose-response analysis. The present systematic review and meta-analysis identified nine prospective cohort articles involving a total of 291,236 participants. Compared with the lowest category, highest category of yogurt consumption was not significantly related with the incident risk of CVD, and the RR (95% CI) was 1.01 (0.95, 1.08) with an evidence of significant heterogeneity (I2 = 52%). However, intake of ≥200 g/day yogurt was significantly associated with a lower risk of CVD in the subgroup analysis. There was a trend that a higher level of yogurt consumption was associated with a lower incident risk of CVD in the dose-response analysis. A daily dose of ≥200 g yogurt intake might be associated with a lower incident risk of CVD. Further cohort studies and randomized controlled trials are still demanded to establish and confirm the observed association in populations with different characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview The Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis HN019 on Cellular Immune Function in Healthy Elderly Subjects: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030191
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
Elderly people have increased susceptibility to infections and cancer that are associated with decline in cellular immune function. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis ssp. lactis HN019 (HN019) supplementation on cellular immune activity
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Elderly people have increased susceptibility to infections and cancer that are associated with decline in cellular immune function. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis ssp. lactis HN019 (HN019) supplementation on cellular immune activity in healthy elderly subjects. We conducted a systematic review of Medline and Embase for controlled trials that reported polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell phagocytic capacity or natural killer (NK) cell tumoricidal activity following B. lactis HN019 consumption in the elderly. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval between probiotic and control groups for each outcome. A total of four clinical trials were included in this analysis. B. lactis HN019 supplementation was highly efficacious in increasing PMN phagocytic capacity with an SMD of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 1.11, p < 0.001) and moderately efficacious in increasing NK cell tumoricidal activity with an SMD of 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.08 to 0.78, p = 0.02). The main limitations of this research were the small number of included studies, short-term follow-up, and assessment of a single probiotic strain. In conclusion, daily consumption of B. lactis HN019 enhances NK cell and PMN function in healthy elderly adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommentary Para-probiotics for Preterm Neonates—The Next Frontier
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070871
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current evidence supports the use of probiotics in preterm neonates for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis, mortality and late onset sepsis. Despite the strong evidence, the uptake of this intervention has not been universal due to concerns including probiotic sepsis, pro-inflammatory response and transmission
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Current evidence supports the use of probiotics in preterm neonates for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis, mortality and late onset sepsis. Despite the strong evidence, the uptake of this intervention has not been universal due to concerns including probiotic sepsis, pro-inflammatory response and transmission of antibiotic resistance. Critically ill extremely preterm neonates with potentially compromised gut integrity are at higher risk of probiotic sepsis due to translocation. In most countries, probiotics are sold as food supplements with poor quality control. The traditional definition of probiotics as “live microorganisms” has been challenged as many experts have questioned the importance of viability in the context of the beneficial effects of probiotics. Paraprobiotics (ghost probiotics), are defined as non-viable microbial cells (intact or broken) or crude cell extracts (i.e., with complex chemical composition), which, when administered (orally or topically) in adequate amounts, confer a benefit on the human or animal consumer. Current evidence indicates that paraprobiotics could be safe alternatives to probiotics in preterm neonates. High-quality pre-clinical and clinical studies including adequately powered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are warranted in preterm neonates to explore this new frontier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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