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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 765; doi:10.3390/nu9070765

Maternal Choline Supplementation Alters Fetal Growth Patterns in a Mouse Model of Placental Insufficiency

1
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
2
Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Abstract

Impairments in placental development can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. The bioactive nutrient choline may mitigate some of these impairments, as suggested by data in humans, animals, and human trophoblasts. Herein, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on parameters of fetal growth in a Dlx3+/− (distal-less homeobox 3) mouse model of placental insufficiency. Dlx3+/− female mice were assigned to 1X (control), 2X, or 4X choline intake levels during gestation. Dams were sacrificed at embryonic days E10.5, 12.5, 15.5, and 18.5. At E10.5, placental weight, embryo weight, and placental efficiency were higher in 4X versus 1X choline. Higher concentrations of hepatic and placental betaine were detected in 4X versus 1X choline, and placental betaine was positively associated with embryo weight. Placental mRNA expression of Igf1 was downregulated by 4X (versus 1X) choline at E10.5. No differences in fetal growth parameters were detected at E12.5 and 15.5, whereas a small but significant reduction in fetal weight was detected at E18.5 in 4X versus 1X choline. MCS improved fetal growth during early pregnancy in the Dlx3+/− mice with the compensatory downregulation of Igf1 to slow growth as gestation progressed. Placental betaine may be responsible for the growth-promoting effects of choline. View Full-Text
Keywords: betaine; choline; fetal growth; placenta; pregnancy; IGF betaine; choline; fetal growth; placenta; pregnancy; IGF
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MDPI and ACS Style

King, J.H.; Kwan, S.T.C.; Yan, J.; Klatt, K.C.; Jiang, X.; Roberson, M.S.; Caudill, M.A. Maternal Choline Supplementation Alters Fetal Growth Patterns in a Mouse Model of Placental Insufficiency. Nutrients 2017, 9, 765.

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