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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Microbial communities of gut are well known to play vital roles in mammalian physiology. During [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Effects of a Voluntary Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labelling System on Packaged Food Reformulation: The Health Star Rating System in New Zealand
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080918
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Interpretive, front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels may encourage reformulation of packaged foods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the Health Star Rating (HSR), a new voluntary interpretive FOP labelling system, on food reformulation in New Zealand. Annual surveys of packaged food and beverage
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Interpretive, front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels may encourage reformulation of packaged foods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the Health Star Rating (HSR), a new voluntary interpretive FOP labelling system, on food reformulation in New Zealand. Annual surveys of packaged food and beverage labelling and composition were undertaken in supermarkets before and after adoption of HSR i.e., 2014 to 2016. Outcomes assessed were HSR uptake by food group star ratings of products displaying a HSR label; nutritional composition of products displaying HSR compared with non-HSR products; and the composition of products displaying HSR labels in 2016 compared with their composition prior to introduction of HSR. In 2016, two years after adoption of the voluntary system, 5.3% of packaged food and beverage products surveyed (n = 807/15,357) displayed HSR labels. The highest rates of uptake were for cereals, convenience foods, packaged fruit and vegetables, sauces and spreads, and ‘Other’ products (predominantly breakfast beverages). Products displaying HSR labels had higher energy density but had significantly lower mean saturated fat, total sugar and sodium, and higher fibre, contents than non-HSR products (all p-values < 0.001). Small but statistically significant changes were observed in mean energy density (−29 KJ/100 g, p = 0.002), sodium (−49 mg/100 g, p = 0.03) and fibre (+0.5 g/100 g, p = 0.001) contents of HSR-labelled products compared with their composition prior to adoption of HSR. Reformulation of HSR-labelled products was greater than that of non-HSR-labelled products over the same period, e.g., energy reduction in HSR products was greater than in non-HSR products (−1.5% versus −0.4%), and sodium content of HSR products decreased by 4.6% while that of non-HSR products increased by 3.1%. We conclude that roll-out of the voluntary HSR labelling system is driving healthier reformulation of some products. Greater uptake across the full food supply should improve population diets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Acute Dose of Specific Grape and Apple Polyphenols Improves Endurance Performance: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind versus Placebo Controlled Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080917
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Polyphenols are thought to be an interesting ergogenic aid for exercise and recovery. However, most studies regarding the effects of polyphenols investigated several days of supplementations. The present work aimed to study the effects of an acute intake of grape and apple polyphenols
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Polyphenols are thought to be an interesting ergogenic aid for exercise and recovery. However, most studies regarding the effects of polyphenols investigated several days of supplementations. The present work aimed to study the effects of an acute intake of grape and apple polyphenols on the capacity to maintain intense exercise, here named endurance performance. Forty-eight physically active men (31 ± 6 years) were included in this study. During the two testing sessions, volunteers completed an endurance test at a high percentage of their maximal aerobic power and time to exhaustion was measured. Respiratory and pain parameters were also monitored. The preceding evening and 1 h before testing, volunteers had to absorb either 500 mg of polyphenols or placebo according to randomization. In comparison with the placebo, the mean duration of the maximal endurance test was significantly increased with polyphenols (+9.7% ± 6.0%, p < 0.05). The maximal perceived exertion was reached later with polyphenols (+12.8% ± 6.8%, p < 0.05). Practically, the present study showed the beneficial effects of grape and apple polyphenols for athletes looking for endurance performance improvements. The specifically designed profile of polyphenols appeared to enhance the capacity to maintain intensive efforts and delay perceived exertion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oil with Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Wastewater Produced by Physical Refining
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080916
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods
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While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods enriched with natural antioxidants, no data has been available on the production of a phenol-enriched refined olive oil with its own phenolic compounds extracted from wastewater produced during physical refining. In this study; we aimed to: (i) verify the effectiveness of a multi-step extraction process to recover the high-added-value phenolic compounds contained in wastewater derived from the preliminary washing degumming step of the physical refining of vegetal oils; (ii) evaluate their potential application for the stabilization of olive oil obtained with refined olive oils; and (iii) evaluate their antioxidant activity in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of using the refining wastewater as a source of bioactive compounds to improve the nutraceutical value as well as the antioxidant capacity of commercial olive oils. In the conditions adopted, the phenolic content significantly increased in the prototypes of phenol-enriched olive oils when compared with the control oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Potential of Pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) In Vitro and In Vivo
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080915
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Several reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of pistachio against oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we investigate if polyphenols extracts from natural raw shelled pistachios (NP) or roasted salted pistachio (RP) kernels have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties at lower doses than reported
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Several reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of pistachio against oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we investigate if polyphenols extracts from natural raw shelled pistachios (NP) or roasted salted pistachio (RP) kernels have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties at lower doses than reported previously, in both in vitro and in vivo models. The monocyte/macrophage cell line J774 was used to assess the extent of protection by NP and RP pistachios against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Moreover, antioxidant activity of NP and RP was assessed in an in vivo model of paw edema in rats induced by carrageenan (CAR) injection in the paw. Results from the in vitro study demonstrated that pre-treatment with NP (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL) and RP (0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL) exerted a significant protection against LPS induced inflammation. Western blot analysis showed NP reduced the degradation of IκB-α, although not significantly, whereas both NP and RP decreased the TNF-α and IL-1β production in a dose-dependent way. A significant reduction of CAR-induced histological paw damage, neutrophil infiltration and nitrotyrosine formation was observed in the rats treated with NP. These data demonstrated that, at lower doses, polyphenols present in pistachios possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This may contribute toward a better understanding of the beneficial health effects associated with consumption of pistachios. Full article
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Open AccessReview Prevention and Therapy of Type 2 Diabetes—What Is the Potential of Daily Water Intake and Its Mineral Nutrients?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080914
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
We aim to present an overview of the possible influence of drinking water in general and mineral water in particular in improving glycemic parameters in persons with or without type 2 diabetes. We performed a literature search that produced 15 randomized controlled trials
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We aim to present an overview of the possible influence of drinking water in general and mineral water in particular in improving glycemic parameters in persons with or without type 2 diabetes. We performed a literature search that produced 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic with mainly small sample sizes. We also discuss relevant observational and animal studies as well as the effects of important supplements in mineral water such as hydrogencarbonate and magnesium. There is low evidence for the positive effects of water or mineral water in improving glycemic parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic persons, and the results are heterogenous, making it difficult to reach an unequivocal conclusion. Meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies and other observational studies, studies with animal models and interventional studies using hydrogencarbonate and magnesium supplements suggest a probable positive effect of drinking water and mineral water in particular on glycemic parameters, supporting the positive results found in some of the RCTs, especially those substituting diet beverages or caloric beverages with water, or those using bicarbonate and magnesium-rich water. Regarding the high prevalence, the associated suffering and the resulting health expenditures of type 2 diabetes, it is imperative to conduct larger and more rigorous trials to answer the question whether drinking water or mineral water can improve glycemic parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic persons. Full article
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Open AccessReview Precision Nutrition: A Review of Personalized Nutritional Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080913
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account
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The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account in designing personalized and unbiased nutritional solutions for individuals or population sub-groups. Likewise, a concerted effort among basic, clinical scientists and health professionals will be needed to establish a comprehensive framework allowing the implementation of these new findings at the population level. In a world characterized by an overwhelming increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, tailored nutrition prescription represents a promising approach for both the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. This review aims to discuss recent works in the field of precision nutrition analyzing most relevant aspects affecting an individual response to lifestyle/nutritional interventions. Latest advances in the analysis and monitoring of dietary habits, food behaviors, physical activity/exercise and deep phenotyping will be discussed, as well as the relevance of novel applications of nutrigenomics, metabolomics and microbiota profiling. Recent findings in the development of precision nutrition are highlighted. Finally, results from published studies providing examples of new avenues to successfully implement innovative precision nutrition approaches will be reviewed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080904
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics’
[...] Read more.
Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics’ efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71–0.88), p < 0.0001). According to feeding type, the beneficial effect of probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65–0.86), p < 0.0001). Among HM-fed infants, only probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57–0.80) p < 0.00001). The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Stress and Appetite Responses in Male Power-Trained Athletes during Intensive Training Camp
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080912
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end
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An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end of a 9-day intensive training camp (Camp1 and Camp2, respectively) were compared with those of the resting period (Rest) and the regular training period (Regular; n = 13). The stress state was assessed based on plasma cortisol level, salivary immunoglobulin A level, and a profile of mood states score. The sensation of appetite was assessed using visual analog scale scores, and fasting plasma acylated ghrelin, insulin, and glucose were measured. The cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at Camp2 (466.7 ± 60.7 nmol∙L−1) than at Rest (356.3 ± 100.9 nmol∙L−1; p = 0.002) or Regular (361.7 ± 111.4 nmol∙L−1; p = 0.003). Both prospective and actual food consumption significantly decreased at Camp2, and acylated ghrelin concentration was significantly lower at Camp1 (34.2 ± 8.0 pg∙mL−1) and Camp2 (32.0 ± 8.7 pg∙mL−1) than at Rest (47.2 ± 11.2 pg∙mL−1) or Regular (53.4 ± 12.6 pg∙mL−1). Furthermore, the change in acylated ghrelin level was negatively correlated with the change in cortisol concentration. This study’s findings suggest that an early-phase physiological stress response may decrease the acylated ghrelin level in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. Full article
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Open AccessReview Polyphenolic Nutrients in Cancer Chemoprevention and Metastasis: Role of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal (EMT) Pathway
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080911
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer
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The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer metastasis. Polyphenols have been reported to be efficacious in the prevention of cancer and reversing cancer progression. Recently, the antimetastatic efficacy of polyphenols has been reported, thereby expanding the potential use of these compounds beyond chemoprevention. Polyphenols may affect EMT pathways, which are involved in cancer metastasis; for example, polyphenols increase the levels of epithelial markers, but downregulate the mesenchymal markers. Polyphenols also alter the level of expression and functionality of important proteins in other signaling pathways that control cellular mesenchymal characteristics. However, the specific proteins that are directly affected by polyphenols in these signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to analyze current evidence regarding the role of polyphenols in attenuating EMT-mediated cancer progression and metastasis. We also discuss the role of the most important polyphenol subclasses and members of the polyphenols in reversing metastasis and targeting EMT. Finally, limitations and future directions to improve our understanding in this field are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Adapting the Healthy Eating Index 2010 for the Canadian Population: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080910
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made.
[...] Read more.
The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made. The aims of this study were: (a) to develop a Canadian adaptation of the HEI-2010 (i.e., Healthy Eating Index-Canada 2010 (HEI-C 2010)) by adapting the recommendations of the HEI-2010 to Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) 2007; (b) to evaluate the validity and reliability of the HEI-C 2010; and (c) to examine relationships between HEI-C 2010 scores with diet quality and the likelihood of being obese. Data from 12,805 participants (≥18 years) were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between compliance to the HEI-C 2010 recommendations and the likelihood of being obese, adjusting for errors in self-reported dietary data. The total mean error-corrected HEI-C 2010 score was 50.85 ± 0.35 out of 100. Principal component analysis confirmed multidimensionality of the HEI-C 2010, while Cronbach’s α = 0.78 demonstrated internal reliability. Participants in the fourth quartile of the HEI-C 2010 with the healthiest diets were less likely to consume refined grains and empty calories and more likely to consume beneficial nutrients and foods (p-trend < 0.0001). Lower adherence to the index recommendations was inversely associated with the likelihood of being obese; this association strengthened after correction for measurement error (Odds Ratio: 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.17–1.71). Closer adherence to Canada’s Food Guide 2007 assessed through the HEI-C 2010 was associated with improved diet quality and reductions in the likelihood of obesity when energy intake and measurement errors were taken into account. Consideration of energy requirements and energy density in future updates of Canada’s Food Guide are important and necessary to ensure broader application and usability of dietary quality indexes developed based on this national nutrition guideline. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nut Allergy in Two Different Areas of Spain: Differences in Clinical and Molecular Pattern
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080909
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: Different clinical and molecular patterns of food allergy have been reported in different areas of the world. The aim of the study is to evaluate differences in allergen patterns among nut-allergic patients in two different areas of Spain. Material and methods: A
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Introduction: Different clinical and molecular patterns of food allergy have been reported in different areas of the world. The aim of the study is to evaluate differences in allergen patterns among nut-allergic patients in two different areas of Spain. Material and methods: A total of 77 patients with nut allergy from two different regions of Spain (Madrid and Asturias) were evaluated. Results: Hazelnut, peanut, and walnut were the three most frequent nuts eliciting allergy in both regions, but in a different order. Patients from Madrid experienced systemic reactions more often than patients from Asturias (73.5% Madrid vs. 50.0%, p < 0.05). The percentage of sensitizations to LTP (Lipid Transfer Protein) was higher than Bet v 1 (p < 0.05) in the Madrid area. The percentage of sensitizations in Asturias area was similar to LTP than Bet v 1 (Pru p 3 46.4%, Bet v 1 42.9%, ns). Bet v 1 was the predominant allergen involved among hazelnut-allergic patients (56.2%), while LTP was more common in peanut-allergic patients (61.5%). Conclusion: Walnut, hazelnut, and peanut were the most frequent nuts eliciting allergy in Spain. Despite this, important differences in molecular pattern were appreciated not only between both regions, but also among nut-allergic patients in Asturias. The different molecular pattern was linked to the frequency of systemic symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Longitudinal Associations of High-Fructose Diet with Cardiovascular Events and Potential Risk Factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080872
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The relationship between fructose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess possible association of dietary intakes of fructose with the risk of CVD events in a prospective population-based study. Participants without CVD (n = 2369) were
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The relationship between fructose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess possible association of dietary intakes of fructose with the risk of CVD events in a prospective population-based study. Participants without CVD (n = 2369) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and followed a mean of 6.7 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary total fructose (TF) intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of dietary fructose. Linear regression models were used to indicate association of fructose intakes with changes of CVD risk factors over the study period. The mean age of participants (43.5% men) was 38.1 ± 13.3 years at baseline. During an average of 6.7 ± 1.4 years of follow-up, 79 participants experienced CVD outcomes. The mean daily intake of TF was 6.4 ± 3.7% of total energy (3.6 ± 2.0 from AF and 2.7 ± 1.8 from NF). Higher consumption of TF (≥7.4% vs. <4.5% of total energy) was accompanied with an increased risk of CVD (HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.04–3.15); higher energy intake from AF was also related to incidence of CVD (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.04–3.12), whereas NF was not associated with the risk of CVD outcomes. Both AF and TF were also related to changes of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference, serum insulin and creatinine levels, as well as HDL-C. Our data provides further evidence regarding undesirable effects of fructose intake in relation to risk of CVD events. Full article
Open AccessReview The Effect of Anthocyanin-Rich Foods or Extracts on Vascular Function in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080908
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3076 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anthocyanins are of interest due to their anti-oxidative and vasodilatory properties. Earlier reviews have shown that berries and other anthocyanin rich foods or extracts can improve vascular health, however the effect of anthocyanins on vascular function has not yet been reviewed. To address
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Anthocyanins are of interest due to their anti-oxidative and vasodilatory properties. Earlier reviews have shown that berries and other anthocyanin rich foods or extracts can improve vascular health, however the effect of anthocyanins on vascular function has not yet been reviewed. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials examining anthocyanin-rich foods or extracts on measures of vascular reactivity and/or stiffness in adults. Data from 24 studies were pooled as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Anthocyanin consumption significantly improved flow-mediated dilation (FMD) following acute (SMD: 3.92%, 95% CI: 1.47, 6.38, p = 0.002; I2 = 91.8%) and chronic supplementation (SMD: 0.84%, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.12, p = 0.000; I2 = 62.5%). Pulse wave velocity was improved following acute supplementation only (SMD: −1.27 m/s, 95% CI: −1.96, −0.58, p = 0.000; I2 = 17.8%). These results support the findings of previous reviews that anthocyanin rich foods or extracts may indeed improve vascular health, particularly with respect to vascular reactivity measured by FMD. More research is required to determine the optimal dosage, and the long-term effects of consumption. Full article
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Open AccessReview Multi-Targeted Molecular Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Polyphenols: An Opportunity for a Global Approach to Obesity
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080907
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
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Abstract
Improper diet can alter gene expression by breaking the energy balance equation and changing metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers, which can result in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. The pleiotropic effects of dietary plant polyphenols are capable of counteracting by modulating different
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Improper diet can alter gene expression by breaking the energy balance equation and changing metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers, which can result in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. The pleiotropic effects of dietary plant polyphenols are capable of counteracting by modulating different key molecular targets at the cell, as well as through epigenetic modifications. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS)-derived polyphenols are known to ameliorate various obesity-related conditions. Recent evidence leads to propose the complex nature of the underlying mechanism of action. This multi-targeted mechanism includes the regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways, transcription factors, hormones and peptides, digestive enzymes, as well as epigenetic modifications. This article reviews the accumulated evidence on the multiple anti-obesity effects of HS polyphenols in cell and animal models, as well as in humans, and its putative molecular targets. In silico studies reveal the capacity of several HS polyphenols to act as putative ligands for different digestive and metabolic enzymes, which may also deserve further attention. Therefore, a global approach including integrated and networked omics techniques, virtual screening and epigenetic analysis is necessary to fully understand the molecular mechanisms of HS polyphenols and metabolites involved, as well as their possible implications in the design of safe and effective polyphenolic formulations for obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080906
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as
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Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, pica, and rumination. The second is the group of disordered eating symptoms (DES), which include behaviors such as dieting for weight loss, binge eating, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and laxative or diuretic use; these behaviors cannot be categorized as complete diseases, and, although apparently mild, they must be closely evaluated because they can evolve into true EDs. In this review, present knowledge about the clinical relevance of EDs and DES and the possible preventive and therapeutic measures used to reduce their impact on the course of T1D will be discussed. As adolescents with diabetes are at higher risk of eating disturbances and consequently for higher rates of disease complications, care providers should pay attention to clinical warning signs that raise suspicion of disturbed eating to refer these patients early to an expert in nutrition and mental health disorders. To ensure the best care for adolescents with T1D, diabetes teams should be multidisciplinary and include a pediatric diabetologist, a skilled nurse, a dietician, and a psychologist. Full article
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