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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 773; doi:10.3390/nu9070773

Quercetin and Green Tea Extract Supplementation Downregulates Genes Related to Tissue Inflammatory Responses to a 12-Week High Fat-Diet in Mice

1
Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine—WG 48, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2
Program in Cardiovascular & Metabolic Diseases and Center for Computational Biology, Duke NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore
3
Department of Exercise Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Winston-Salem State University, 601 S. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Winston-Salem, NC 27110, USA
4
Levine Center for Health and Wellness, Queens University of Charlotte, 1900 Selwyn Avenue, Charlotte, NC 28274, USA
5
Department of Health & Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, ASU Box 32071, 111 Rivers Street, 050 Convocation Center, Boone, NC 28608, USA
6
Human Performance Laboratory, North Carolina Research Campus, Appalachian State University, 600 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Quercetin (Q) and green tea extract (E) are reported to counter insulin resistance and inflammation and favorably alter fat metabolism. We investigated whether a mixture of E + Q (EQ) could synergistically influence metabolic and inflammation endpoints in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed to mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 40) were put on HFD (fat = 60%kcal) for 12 weeks and randomly assigned to Q (25 mg/kg of body weight (BW)/day), E (3 mg of epigallocatechin gallate/kg BW/day), EQ, or control groups for four weeks. At 16 weeks, insulin sensitivity was measured via the glucose tolerance test (GTT), followed by area-under-the-curve (AUC) estimations. Plasma cytokines and quercetin were also measured, along with whole genome transcriptome analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues. Univariate analyses were conducted via analysis of variance (ANOVA), and whole-genome expression profiles were examined via gene set enrichment. At 16 weeks, plasma quercetin levels were higher in Q and EQ groups vs. the control and E groups (p < 0.05). Plasma cytokines were similar among groups (p > 0.05). AUC estimations for GTT was 14% lower for Q vs. E (p = 0.0311), but non-significant from control (p = 0.0809). Genes for cholesterol metabolism and immune and inflammatory response were downregulated in Q and EQ groups vs. control in adipose tissue and soleus muscle tissue. These data support an anti-inflammatory role for Q and EQ, a result best captured when measured with tissue gene downregulation in comparison to changes in plasma cytokine levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokines; fat metabolism; flavonoids; inflammation; insulin resistance; immune function; obesity; metabolic syndrome; phytochemicals cytokines; fat metabolism; flavonoids; inflammation; insulin resistance; immune function; obesity; metabolic syndrome; phytochemicals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cialdella-Kam, L.; Ghosh, S.; Meaney, M.P.; Knab, A.M.; Shanely, R.A.; Nieman, D.C. Quercetin and Green Tea Extract Supplementation Downregulates Genes Related to Tissue Inflammatory Responses to a 12-Week High Fat-Diet in Mice. Nutrients 2017, 9, 773.

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