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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 794; doi:10.3390/nu9070794

Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Improves Learning and Memory by Enhancing Synaptogenesis in Mice Hippocampus

1
Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju-si 63243, Korea
2
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 35365, Korea
3
Department of Biomedical Science, Jungwon University, Goesan-gun, Chungbuk 28024, Korea
4
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
5
LES Corporation Inc., 4 Munhwawon-ro 46beon-gil Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34167, Korea
6
School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16419, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 23 July 2017
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Abstract

Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A.DC. (PG) has long been used as an ingredient of foods and is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive functions as well. The present study examined the effect of each PG extract (PGE) from root, aerial part, and seeds on cognitive functions in mice. Changes in spatial learning and memory using a Y-maze test, and markers of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis were examined. Moreover, changes in neuritogenesis and activation of the ERK1/2 pathway were investigated. Results indicated that mice administered PGE (root) showed increased spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze test and synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. In addition, PGE (root) and platycodin D, the major bioactive compound from the PG root, significantly stimulated neuritic outgrowth by phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in vitro. These results indicate that the PGE (root), containing platycodin D, enhances cognitive function through synaptogenesis via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: Platycodon grandiflorus; platycodin D; cognition; synaptogenesis; neuritogenesis Platycodon grandiflorus; platycodin D; cognition; synaptogenesis; neuritogenesis
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Kim, J.-I.; Jeon, S.G.; Kim, K.A.; Kim, J.-J.; Song, E.J.; Jeon, Y.; Kim, E.; Lee, K.B.; Kwak, J.H.; Moon, M. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Improves Learning and Memory by Enhancing Synaptogenesis in Mice Hippocampus. Nutrients 2017, 9, 794.

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