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Mar. Drugs, Volume 16, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The current study elaborates on unique collagen fibers derived from Sarcophyton octocorals, their [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Cembranoids from the Soft Coral Genus Sinularia sp. in Borneo
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040099
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Soft corals are known to be prolific producers of a wide spectrum of biologically active cembranoids. One new cembranoid, sinularolide F (2), along with three known compounds, cembranolide (1), (E,E,E)-6,10,14-trimethyl-3-methylene-cis-3α,4,5,8,9,12,13,15α-octahydrocyclo tetradeca[β]furan-2(
[...] Read more.
Soft corals are known to be prolific producers of a wide spectrum of biologically active cembranoids. One new cembranoid, sinularolide F (2), along with three known compounds, cembranolide (1), (E,E,E)-6,10,14-trimethyl-3-methylene-cis-3α,4,5,8,9,12,13,15α-octahydrocyclo tetradeca[β]furan-2(3H)-one (3), and denticulatolide (4), were isolated from the Bornean soft coral Sinularia sp. Compounds 2 and 4 showed potential anti-inflammatory activities against lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 with IC50 values less than 6.25 µg/mL and anticancer activity against HL60 cell lines. The compounds’ mechanisms of action were investigated via the Western blot evaluation of their protein markers. These activities could be attributed to the presence of tertiary methyl at C-8 and the compounds’ 3D configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Natural Product Studies in Asia)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Peptides from Cartilage Protein Hydrolysate of Spotless Smoothhound and Their Antioxidant Activity In Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040100
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
In the experiment, crude proteins from spotless smoothhound (Mustelus griseus), cartilages were isolated by HCl-Guanidine buffer, and its hydrolysate was prepared using trypsin at pH 8.0, 40 °C with a total enzyme dose of 2.5%. Subsequently, three antioxidant peptides were purified
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In the experiment, crude proteins from spotless smoothhound (Mustelus griseus), cartilages were isolated by HCl-Guanidine buffer, and its hydrolysate was prepared using trypsin at pH 8.0, 40 °C with a total enzyme dose of 2.5%. Subsequently, three antioxidant peptides were purified from the hydrolysate using membrane ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequences of isolated peptides were identified as Gly-Ala-Glu-Arg-Pro (MCPE-A); Gly-Glu-Arg-Glu-Ala-Asn-Val-Met (MCPE-B); and Ala-Glu-Val-Gly (MCPE-C) with molecular weights of 528.57, 905.00, and 374.40 Da, respectively, using protein amino acid sequence analyzer and mass spectrum. MCPE-A, MCPE-B and MCPE-C exhibited good scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) (EC50 3.73, 1.87, and 2.30 mg/mL, respectively), hydroxyl radicals (HO•) (EC50 0.25, 0.34, and 0.06 mg/mL, respectively), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals (ABTS+•) (EC50 0.10, 0.05, and 0.07 mg/mL, respectively) and superoxide anion radicals ( O 2 •) (EC50 0.09, 0.33, and 0.18 mg/mL, respectively). MCPE-B showed similar inhibiting ability on lipid peroxidation with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in a linoleic acid model system. Furthermore, MCPE-A, MCPE-B, and MCPE-C could protect H2O2-induced HepG2 cells from oxidative stress by decreasing the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) and increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rx). Glu, Gly, Met, and Pro in their sequences and low molecular weight could be attributed to the antioxidant activities of three isolated peptides. These results suggested that GAERP (MCPE-A), GEREANVM (MCPE-B), and AEVG (MCPE-C) from cartilage protein hydrolysate of spotless smoothhound might serve as potential antioxidants and be used in the pharmaceutical and health food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Pharmacological Potential of Marine-Derived Peptides and Proteins)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Alkyl-Glycerolipids Standards for Gas Chromatography Analysis: Application for Chimera and Shark Liver Oils
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040101
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Natural O-alkyl-glycerolipids, also known as alkyl-ether-lipids (AEL), feature a long fatty alkyl chain linked to the glycerol unit by an ether bond. AEL are ubiquitously found in different tissues but, are abundant in shark liver oil, breast milk, red blood cells, blood
[...] Read more.
Natural O-alkyl-glycerolipids, also known as alkyl-ether-lipids (AEL), feature a long fatty alkyl chain linked to the glycerol unit by an ether bond. AEL are ubiquitously found in different tissues but, are abundant in shark liver oil, breast milk, red blood cells, blood plasma, and bone marrow. Only a few AEL are commercially available, while many others with saturated or mono-unsaturated alkyl chains of variable length are not available. These compounds are, however, necessary as standards for analytical methods. Here, we investigated different reported procedures and we adapted some of them to prepare a series of 1-O-alkyl-glycerols featuring mainly saturated alkyl chains of various lengths (14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 19:0, 20:0, 22:0) and two monounsaturated chains (16:1, 18:1). All of these standards were fully characterized by NMR and GC-MS. Finally, we used these standards to identify the AEL subtypes in shark and chimera liver oils. The distribution of the identified AEL were: 14:0 (20–24%), 16:0 (42–54%) and 18:1 (6–16%) and, to a lesser extent, (0.2–2%) for each of the following: 16:1, 17:0, 18:0, and 20:0. These standards open the possibilities to identify AEL subtypes in tumours and compare their composition to those of non-tumour tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Marine-Derived Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Unique Collagen Fibers for Biomedical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040102
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
The challenge to develop grafts for tissue regeneration lies in the need to obtain a scaffold that will promote cell growth in order to form new tissue at a trauma-damaged site. Scaffolds also need to provide compatible mechanical properties that will support the
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The challenge to develop grafts for tissue regeneration lies in the need to obtain a scaffold that will promote cell growth in order to form new tissue at a trauma-damaged site. Scaffolds also need to provide compatible mechanical properties that will support the new tissue and facilitate the desired physiological activity. Here, we used natural materials to develop a bio-composite made of unique collagen embedded in an alginate hydrogel material. The collagen fibers used to create the building blocks exhibited a unique hyper-elastic behavior similar to that of natural human tissue. The prominent mechanical properties, along with the support of cell adhesion affects cell shape and supports their proliferation, consequently facilitating the formation of a new tissue-like structure. The current study elaborates on these unique collagen fibers, focusing on their structure and biocompatibility, in an in vitro model. The findings suggest it as a highly appropriate material for biomedical applications. The promising in vitro results indicate that the distinctive collagen fibers could serve as a scaffold that can be adapted for tissue regeneration, in support of healing processes, along with maintaining tissue mechanical properties for the new regenerate tissue formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen from Marine Biological Source and Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Further New Diterpenoids as PTP1B Inhibitors from the Xisha Soft Coral Sinularia polydactyla
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040103
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
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Abstract
A new prenyleudesmane type diterpene, sinupol (8), and a new capnosane type diterpenoid, sinulacetate (9), were isolated from the Xisha soft coral Sinularia polydactyla along with five known related diterpenes (47 and 10). Their structures,
[...] Read more.
A new prenyleudesmane type diterpene, sinupol (8), and a new capnosane type diterpenoid, sinulacetate (9), were isolated from the Xisha soft coral Sinularia polydactyla along with five known related diterpenes (47 and 10). Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, the comparison of their NMR data with those of related compounds, and time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT ECD) calculations. Both new compounds (8 and 9) exhibited promising inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a potential drug target for the treatment of type II diabetes and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Coral Reef Organisms)
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Open AccessArticle 7-Acetylsinumaximol B Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells through Mitochondria Dysfunction and Activation of the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP Signaling Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040104
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
The 7-Acetylsinumaximol B (7-AB), a bioactive cembranoid, was originally discovered from aquaculture soft coral Sinularia sandensis. The current study investigated the anti-proliferative property of 7-AB towards the NCI-N87 human gastric cancer cell line. An MTT cell proliferative assay was applied to evaluate
[...] Read more.
The 7-Acetylsinumaximol B (7-AB), a bioactive cembranoid, was originally discovered from aquaculture soft coral Sinularia sandensis. The current study investigated the anti-proliferative property of 7-AB towards the NCI-N87 human gastric cancer cell line. An MTT cell proliferative assay was applied to evaluate cell survival, and immunofluorescence staining and western blotting were employed to analyze the effects of 7-AB on autophagy and apoptosis. Our results showed that 7-AB exerted a concentration-dependent anti-proliferative effect on NCI-N87 cells, and fluorescence staining indicated that the effect was due to the apoptosis induced by 7-AB. In addition, the 7-AB-induced anti-proliferation towards NCI-N87 cells was associated with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activation of pro-apoptotic proteins (such as caspase-3/-9, Bax and Bad), and inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1). The 7-AB treatment also triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to activation of the PERK/elF2α/ATF4/CHOP apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, 7-AB initiated autophagy in NCI-N87 cells and induced the expression of autophagy-related proteins, including Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, LC3-I, and LC3-II. Taken together, our findings suggested that 7-AB has the potential to be further developed as a useful anti-cancer or adjuvant agent for the treatment of human gastric cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of the Combination of Gliotoxin and Adriamycin on the Adriamycin-Resistant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cell Line
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040105
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 24 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Acquired drug resistance constitutes an enormous hurdle in cancer treatment, and the search for effective compounds against resistant cancer is still advancing. Marine organisms are a promising natural resource for the discovery and development of anticancer agents. In this study, we examined whether
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Acquired drug resistance constitutes an enormous hurdle in cancer treatment, and the search for effective compounds against resistant cancer is still advancing. Marine organisms are a promising natural resource for the discovery and development of anticancer agents. In this study, we examined whether gliotoxin (GTX), a secondary metabolite isolated from marine-derived Aspergillus fumigatus, inhibits the growth of adriamycin (ADR)-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines A549/ADR. We investigated the effects of GTX on A549/ADR cell viability with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the induction of apoptosis in A549/ADR cells treated with GTX via fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, Hoechst staining, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) staining, and western blotting. We found that GTX induced apoptosis in A549/ADR cells through the mitochondria-dependent pathway by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and activating p53, thereby increasing the expression levels of p21, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and cleaved caspase-9. More importantly, we discovered that GTX works in conjunction with ADR to exert combinational effects on A549/ADR cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that GTX may have promising effects on ADR-resistant NSCLC cells by inducing mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and through the combined effects of sequential treatment with ADR. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Novel Water Soluble Chitosan Derivatives with 1,2,3-Triazolium and Their Free Radical-Scavenging Activity
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040107
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 24 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Chitosan is an abundant and renewable polysaccharide, which exhibits attractive bioactivities and natural properties. Improvement such as chemical modification of chitosan is often performed for its potential of providing high bioactivity and good water solubility. A new class of chitosan derivatives possessing 1,2,3-triazolium
[...] Read more.
Chitosan is an abundant and renewable polysaccharide, which exhibits attractive bioactivities and natural properties. Improvement such as chemical modification of chitosan is often performed for its potential of providing high bioactivity and good water solubility. A new class of chitosan derivatives possessing 1,2,3-triazolium charged units by associating “click reaction” with efficient 1,2,3-triazole quaternization were designed and synthesized. Their free radical-scavenging activity against three free radicals was tested. The inhibitory property and water solubility of the synthesized chitosan derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over chitosan. It is hypothesized that triazole or triazolium groups enable the synthesized chitosan to possess obviously better radical-scavenging activity. Moreover, the scavenging activity against superoxide radical of chitosan derivatives with triazolium (IC50 < 0.01 mg mL−1) was more efficient than that of derivatives with triazole and Vitamin C. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay, the same pattern were observed, which should be related to the triazolium grafted at the periphery of molecular chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin)
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Open AccessArticle New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. J-54
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040108
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, penicieudesmol A–D (14), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. J-54. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, the in situ dimolybdenum CD method, and modified Mosher’s method. The
[...] Read more.
Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, penicieudesmol A–D (14), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. J-54. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, the in situ dimolybdenum CD method, and modified Mosher’s method. The bioassays results showed that 2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against K-562 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Mangroves and Their-Associated Microbes)
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Open AccessArticle Makaluvamine G from the Marine Sponge Zyzzia fuliginosa Inhibits Muscle nAChR by Binding at the Orthosteric and Allosteric Sites
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040109
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Diverse ligands of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are used as muscle relaxants during surgery. Although a plethora of such molecules exists in the market, there is still a need for new drugs with rapid on/off-set, increased selectivity, and so forth. We
[...] Read more.
Diverse ligands of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are used as muscle relaxants during surgery. Although a plethora of such molecules exists in the market, there is still a need for new drugs with rapid on/off-set, increased selectivity, and so forth. We found that pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloid Makaluvamine G (MG) inhibits several subtypes of nicotinic receptors and ionotropic γ-aminobutiric acid receptors, showing a higher affinity and moderate selectivity toward muscle nAChR. The action of MG on the latter was studied by a combination of electrophysiology, radioligand assay, fluorescent microscopy, and computer modeling. MG reveals a combination of competitive and un-competitive inhibition and caused an increase in the apparent desensitization rate of the murine muscle nAChR. Modeling ion channel kinetics provided evidence for MG binding in both orthosteric and allosteric sites. We also demonstrated that theα1 (G153S) mutant of the receptor, associated with the myasthenic syndrome, is more prone to inhibition by MG. Thus, MG appears to be a perspective hit molecule for the design of allosteric drugs targeting muscle nAChR, especially for treating slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndromes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Invertebrate Toxins)
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Open AccessCommunication A New Breviane Spiroditerpenoid from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. TJ403-1
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040110
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Marine-derived fungi are a promising and untapped reservoir for discovering structurally interesting and pharmacologically active natural products. In our efforts to identify novel bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi, four breviane spiroditerpenoids, including a new compound, brevione O (1), and three known
[...] Read more.
Marine-derived fungi are a promising and untapped reservoir for discovering structurally interesting and pharmacologically active natural products. In our efforts to identify novel bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi, four breviane spiroditerpenoids, including a new compound, brevione O (1), and three known compounds breviones I (2), J (3), and H (4), together with a known diketopiperazine alkaloid brevicompanine G (5), were isolated and identified from an ethyl acetate extract of the fermented rice substrate of the coral-derived fungus Penicillium sp. TJ403-1. The absolute structure of 1 was elucidated by HRESIMS, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data, and a comparison of its electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum with the literature. Moreover, we confirmed the absolute configuration of 5 by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity, and compound 2 showed significant inhibitory activities against HL-60, A-549, and HEP3B tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 4.92 ± 0.65, 8.60 ± 1.36, and 5.50 ± 0.67 µM, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Production, Characterization and Biocompatibility Evaluation of Collagen Membranes Derived from Marine Sponge Chondrosia reniformis Nardo, 1847
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040111
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Collagen is involved in the formation of complex fibrillar networks, providing the structural integrity of tissues. Its low immunogenicity and mechanical properties make this molecule a biomaterial that is extremely suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies in human health issues.
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Collagen is involved in the formation of complex fibrillar networks, providing the structural integrity of tissues. Its low immunogenicity and mechanical properties make this molecule a biomaterial that is extremely suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies in human health issues. Here, for the first time, we performed a thorough screening of four different methods to obtain sponge collagenous fibrillar suspensions (FSs) from C. reniformis demosponge, which were then chemically, physically, and biologically characterized, in terms of protein, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans content, viscous properties, biocompatibility, and antioxidant activity. These four FSs were then tested for their capability to generate crosslinked or not thin sponge collagenous membranes (SCMs) that are suitable for TERM purposes. Two types of FSs, of the four tested, were able to generate SCMs, either from crosslinking or not, and showed good mechanical properties, enzymatic degradation resistance, water binding capacity, antioxidant activity, and biocompatibility on both fibroblast and keratinocyte cell cultures. Finally, our results demonstrate that it is possible to adapt the extraction procedure in order to alternatively improve the mechanical properties or the antioxidant performances of the derived biomaterial, depending on the application requirements, thanks to the versatility of C. reniformis extracellular matrix extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen from Marine Biological Source and Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Cloning, Synthesis and Functional Characterization of a Novel α-Conotoxin Lt1.3
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040112
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
α-Conotoxins (α-CTxs) are small peptides composed of 11 to 20 amino acid residues with two disulfide bridges. Most of them potently and selectively target nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes, and a few were found to inhibit the GABAB receptor (GABABR)-coupled
[...] Read more.
α-Conotoxins (α-CTxs) are small peptides composed of 11 to 20 amino acid residues with two disulfide bridges. Most of them potently and selectively target nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes, and a few were found to inhibit the GABAB receptor (GABABR)-coupled N-type calcium channels (Cav2.2). However, in all of α-CTxs targeting both receptors, the disulfide connectivity arrangement “C1-C3, C2-C4” is present. In this work, a novel α4/7-CTx named Lt1.3 (GCCSHPACSGNNPYFC-NH2) was cloned from the venom ducts of Conus litteratus (C. litteratus) in the South China Sea. Lt1.3 was then chemically synthesized and two isomers with disulfide bridges “C1-C3, C2-C4” and “C1-C4, C2-C3” were found and functionally characterized. Electrophysiological experiments showed that Lt1.3 containing the common disulfide bridges “C1-C3, C2-C4” potently and selectively inhibited α3β2 nAChRs and not GABABR-coupled Cav2.2. Surprisingly, but the isomer with the disulfide bridges “C1-C4, C2-C3” showed exactly the opposite inhibitory activity, inhibiting only GABABR-coupled Cav2.2 and not α3β2 nAChRs. These findings expand the knowledge of the targets and selectivity of α-CTxs and provide a new structural motif to inhibit the GABABR-coupled Cav2.2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Invertebrate Toxins)
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Open AccessArticle Intraocular Penetration of a vNAR: In Vivo and In Vitro VEGF165 Neutralization
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040113
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Variable new antigen receptor domain (vNAR) antibodies are novel, naturally occurring antibodies that can be isolated from naïve, immune or synthetic shark libraries. These molecules are very interesting to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries because of their unique characteristics related to size and
[...] Read more.
Variable new antigen receptor domain (vNAR) antibodies are novel, naturally occurring antibodies that can be isolated from naïve, immune or synthetic shark libraries. These molecules are very interesting to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries because of their unique characteristics related to size and tissue penetrability. There have been some approved anti-angiogenic therapies for ophthalmic conditions, not related to vNAR. This includes biologics and chimeric proteins that neutralize vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165, which are injected intravitreal, causing discomfort and increasing the possibility of infection. In this paper, we present a vNAR antibody against human recombinant VEGF165 (rhVEGF165) that was isolated from an immunized Heterodontus francisci shark. A vNAR called V13, neutralizes VEGF165 cytokine starting at 75 μg/mL in an in vitro assay based on co-culture of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and green fluorescence protein (GFP)-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cells. In the oxygen-induced retinopathy model in C57BL/6:Hsd mice, we demonstrate an endothelial cell count decrease. Further, we demonstrate the intraocular penetration after topical administration of 0.1 μg/mL of vNAR V13 by its detection in aqueous humor in New Zealand rabbits with healthy eyes after 3 h of application. These findings demonstrate the potential of topical application of vNAR V13 as a possible new drug candidate for vascular eye diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Pharmacological Potential of Marine-Derived Peptides and Proteins)
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Open AccessArticle Two New Diketomorpholine Derivatives and a New Highly Conjugated Ergostane-Type Steroid from the Marine Algal-Derived Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus alabamensis EN-547
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040114
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Chemical investigation of the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus alabamensis EN-547 resulted in the isolation of 4-epi-seco-shornephine A methyl ester (1) and 4-epi-seco-shornephine A carboxylic acid (2), two new secondary metabolites
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Chemical investigation of the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus alabamensis EN-547 resulted in the isolation of 4-epi-seco-shornephine A methyl ester (1) and 4-epi-seco-shornephine A carboxylic acid (2), two new secondary metabolites having a rare diketomorpholine motif, and 28-acetoxy-12β,15α,25-trihydroxyergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), a new highly conjugated ergostane-type steroid, together with four known metabolites (47). Their chemical structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of their NMR spectra, ECDs, HRESIMS, optical rotation, and X-ray crystallographic data, and by comparison with literature data as well. The antimicrobial activities of compounds 17 were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes II, 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Specific Chemical and Genetic Markers Revealed a Thousands-Year Presence of Toxic Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040116
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
In the Baltic Sea, diazotrophic cyanobacteria have been present for thousands of years, over the whole brackish water phase of the ecosystem. However, our knowledge about the species composition of the cyanobacterial community is limited to the last several decades. In the current
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In the Baltic Sea, diazotrophic cyanobacteria have been present for thousands of years, over the whole brackish water phase of the ecosystem. However, our knowledge about the species composition of the cyanobacterial community is limited to the last several decades. In the current study, the presence of species-specific chemical and genetic markers in deep sediments were analyzed to increase the existing knowledge on the history of toxic Nodularia spumigena blooms in the Baltic Sea. As chemical markers, three cyclic nonribosomal peptides were applied: the hepatotoxic nodularin, which in the sea was detected solely in N. spumigena, and two anabaenopeptins (AP827 and AP883a) characteristic of two different chemotypes of this species. From the same sediment samples, DNA was isolated and the gene involved in biosynthesis of nodularin, as well as the phycocyanin intergenic spacer region (PC-IGS), were amplified. The results of chemical and genetic analyses proved for the first time the thousands-year presence of toxic N. spumigena in the Baltic Sea. They also indicated that through all this time, the same two sub-populations of the species co-existed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bacterial Toxins)
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Open AccessArticle Astaxanthin Promotes Nrf2/ARE Signaling to Inhibit HG-Induced Renal Fibrosis in GMCs
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040117
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
Oxidative stress is the main cause of diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling is a crucial cellular defense system to cope with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST) is a fat-soluble xanthophyll carotenoid with remarkable antioxidative capacity.
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Oxidative stress is the main cause of diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling is a crucial cellular defense system to cope with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST) is a fat-soluble xanthophyll carotenoid with remarkable antioxidative capacity. AST exerted renal protective in diabetic rats. This study aimed to determine whether AST could alleviate the pathological progress of DN by activating Nrf2/ARE signaling and diminishing the excessive oxidative stress and fibronectin (FN) accumulation in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) challenged with high glucose (HG). In the current study, we found that AST treatment alleviated the metabolic parameters, renal morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Additionally, HG induced the adaptively activated Nrf2/ARE signaling and increased the expression of FN, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), as well as the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in GMCs. However, AST treatment strongly promoted the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of Nrf2 as well as upregulated the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), ultimately quenching the higher level of ROS and inhibiting the FN, ICAM-1 and TGF-β1 expression induced by HG. Collectively, our data suggest that the renoprotective effect of AST on DN depends on Nrf2/ARE signaling activation, which could be a potentially therapeutic strategy in the treatment of DN. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bis-Indolyl Benzenoids, Hydroxypyrrolidine Derivatives and Other Constituents from Cultures of the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Aspergillus candidus KUFA0062
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040119
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
A previously unreported bis-indolyl benzenoid, candidusin D (2e) and a new hydroxypyrrolidine alkaloid, preussin C (5b) were isolated together with fourteen previously described compounds: palmitic acid, clionasterol, ergosterol 5,8-endoperoxides, chrysophanic acid (1a), emodin (1b),
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A previously unreported bis-indolyl benzenoid, candidusin D (2e) and a new hydroxypyrrolidine alkaloid, preussin C (5b) were isolated together with fourteen previously described compounds: palmitic acid, clionasterol, ergosterol 5,8-endoperoxides, chrysophanic acid (1a), emodin (1b), six bis-indolyl benzenoids including asterriquinol D dimethyl ether (2a), petromurin C (2b), kumbicin B (2c), kumbicin A (2d), 2″-oxoasterriquinol D methyl ether (3), kumbicin D (4), the hydroxypyrrolidine alkaloid preussin (5a), (3S, 6S)-3,6-dibenzylpiperazine-2,5-dione (6) and 4-(acetylamino) benzoic acid (7), from the cultures of the marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus candidus KUFA 0062. Compounds 1a, 2a–e, 3, 4, 5a–b, and 6 were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative reference and multidrug-resistant strains isolated from the environment. Only 5a exhibited an inhibitory effect against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and E. faecalis ATCC29212 as well as both methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains. Both 1a and 5a also reduced significant biofilm formation in E. coli ATCC 25922. Moreover, 2b and 5a revealed a synergistic effect with oxacillin against MRSA S. aureus 66/1 while 5a exhibited a strong synergistic effect with the antibiotic colistin against E. coli 1410/1. Compound 1a, 2a–e, 3, 4, 5a–b, and 6 were also tested, together with the crude extract, for cytotoxic effect against eight cancer cell lines: HepG2, HT29, HCT116, A549, A 375, MCF-7, U-251, and T98G. Except for 1a, 2a, 2d, 4, and 6, all the compounds showed cytotoxicity against all the cancer cell lines tested. Full article
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Open AccessArticle AlgM4: A New Salt-Activated Alginate Lyase of the PL7 Family with Endolytic Activity
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040120
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Alginate lyases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the depolymerization of alginates into oligosaccharides or monosaccharides. These enzymes have been widely used for a variety of purposes, such as producing bioactive oligosaccharides, controlling the rheological properties of polysaccharides, and performing structural analyses
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Alginate lyases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the depolymerization of alginates into oligosaccharides or monosaccharides. These enzymes have been widely used for a variety of purposes, such as producing bioactive oligosaccharides, controlling the rheological properties of polysaccharides, and performing structural analyses of polysaccharides. The algM4 gene of the marine bacterium Vibrio weizhoudaoensis M0101 encodes an alginate lyase that belongs to the polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL7). In this study, the kinetic constants Vmax (maximum reaction rate) and Km (Michaelis constant) of AlgM4 activity were determined as 2.75 nmol/s and 2.72 mg/mL, respectively. The optimum temperature for AlgM4 activity was 30 °C, and at 70 °C, AlgM4 activity dropped to 11% of the maximum observed activity. The optimum pH for AlgM4 activity was 8.5, and AlgM4 was completely inactive at pH 11. The addition of 1 mol/L NaCl resulted in a more than sevenfold increase in the relative activity of AlgM4. The secondary structure of AlgM4 was altered in the presence of NaCl, which caused the α-helical content to decrease from 12.4 to 10.8% and the β-sheet content to decrease by 1.7%. In addition, NaCl enhanced the thermal stability of AlgM4 and increased the midpoint of thermal denaturation (Tm) by 4.9 °C. AlgM4 exhibited an ability to degrade sodium alginate, poly-mannuronic acid (polyM), and poly-guluronic acid (polyG), resulting in the production of oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 2–9. AlgM4 possessed broader substrate, indicating that it is a bifunctional alginate lyase. Thus, AlgM4 is a novel salt-activated and bifunctional alginate lyase of the PL7 family with endolytic activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fucoidan Rescues p-Cresol-Induced Cellular Senescence in Mesenchymal Stem Cells via FAK-Akt-TWIST Axis
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040121
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a source for cell-based therapy. Although MSCs have the potential for tissue regeneration, their therapeutic efficacy is restricted by the uremic toxin, p-cresol, in chronic kidney disease (CKD). To address this issue, we investigated the effect of
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a source for cell-based therapy. Although MSCs have the potential for tissue regeneration, their therapeutic efficacy is restricted by the uremic toxin, p-cresol, in chronic kidney disease (CKD). To address this issue, we investigated the effect of fucoidan, a marine sulfated polysaccharide, on cellular senescence in MSCs. After p-cresol exposure, MSC senescence was induced, as indicated by an increase in cell size and a decrease in proliferation capacity. Treatment of senescent MSCs with fucoidan significantly reversed this cellular senescence via regulation of SMP30 and p21, and increased proliferation through the regulation of cell cycle-associated proteins (CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, and cyclin E). These effects were dependent on FAK-Akt-TWIST signal transduction. In particular, fucoidan promoted the expression of cellular prion protein (PrPC), which resulted in the maintenance of cell expansion capacity in p-cresol-induced senescent MSCs. This protective effect of fucoidan on senescence-mediated inhibition of proliferation was dependent on the TWIST-PrPC axis. In summary, this study shows that fucoidan protects against p-cresol-induced cellular senescence in MSCs through activation of the FAK-Akt-TWIST pathway and suggests that fucoidan could be used in conjunction with functional MSC-based therapies in the treatment of CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Toxicological Investigations on the Sea Urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Toxopneustidae, Echinoid) from Anaho Bay (Nuku Hiva, French Polynesia): Evidence for the Presence of Pacific Ciguatoxins
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040122
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Toxopneustidae, Echinoids) is a source of protein for many islanders in the Indo-West Pacific. It was previously reported to occasionally cause ciguatera-like poisoning; however, the exact nature of the causative agent was not confirmed. In April
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The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Toxopneustidae, Echinoids) is a source of protein for many islanders in the Indo-West Pacific. It was previously reported to occasionally cause ciguatera-like poisoning; however, the exact nature of the causative agent was not confirmed. In April and July 2015, ciguatera poisonings were reported following the consumption of T. gratilla in Anaho Bay (Nuku Hiva Island, Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia). Patient symptomatology was recorded and sea urchin samples were collected from Anaho Bay in July 2015 and November 2016. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell–based assay (CBA-N2a) detected the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in T. gratilla samples. Gambierdiscus species were predominant in the benthic assemblages of Anaho Bay, and G. polynesiensis was highly prevalent in in vitro cultures according to qPCR results. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major ciguatoxin congener in toxic sea urchin samples, followed by 51-OH-P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A, and P-CTX-4B. Between July 2015 and November 2016, the toxin content in T. gratilla decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit allowed for human consumption. This study provides evidence of CTX bioaccumulation in T. gratilla as a cause of ciguatera-like poisoning associated with a documented symptomatology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Invertebrate Toxins)
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Open AccessArticle Holotoxin A1 Induces Apoptosis by Activating Acid Sphingomyelinase and Neutral Sphingomyelinase in K562 and Human Primary Leukemia Cells
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040123
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
Marine triterpene glycosides are attractive candidates for the development of anticancer agents. Holotoxin A1 is a triterpene glycoside found in the edible sea cucumber, Apostichopus (Stichopus) japonicus. We previously showed that cladoloside C2, the 25(26)-dihydro derivative of holotoxin A1,
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Marine triterpene glycosides are attractive candidates for the development of anticancer agents. Holotoxin A1 is a triterpene glycoside found in the edible sea cucumber, Apostichopus (Stichopus) japonicus. We previously showed that cladoloside C2, the 25(26)-dihydro derivative of holotoxin A1, induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by activating ceramide synthase 6. Thus, we hypothesized that holotoxin A1, which is structurally similar to cladoloside C2, might induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells through the same molecular mechanism. In this paper, we compared holotoxin A1 and cladoloside C2 for killing potency and mechanism of action. We found that holotoxin A1 induced apoptosis more potently than cladoloside C2. Moreover, holotoxin A1 induced apoptosis in K562 cells by activating caspase-8 and caspase-3, but not by activating caspase-9. During holotoxin A1-induced apoptosis, acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) and neutral SMase were activated in both K562 cells and human primary leukemia cells. Specifically inhibiting acid SMase and neutral SMаse with chemical inhibitors or siRNAs significantly inhibited holotoxin A1–induced apoptosis. These results indicated that holotoxin A1 might induce apoptosis by activating acid SMase and neutral SMase. In conclusion, holotoxin A1 represents a potential anticancer agent for treating leukemia. Moreover, the aglycone structure of marine triterpene glycosides might affect the mechanism involved in inducing apoptosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Structure of the Lipid A from the Halophilic Bacterium Spiribacter salinus M19-40T
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040124
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
The study of the adaptation mechanisms that allow microorganisms to live and proliferate in an extreme habitat is a growing research field. Directly exposed to the external environment, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria are of great appeal as they can present particular structural
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The study of the adaptation mechanisms that allow microorganisms to live and proliferate in an extreme habitat is a growing research field. Directly exposed to the external environment, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria are of great appeal as they can present particular structural features that may aid the understanding of the adaptation processes. Moreover, through being involved in modulating the mammalian immune system response in a structure-dependent fashion, the elucidation of the LPS structure can also be seen as a fundamental step from a biomedical point of view. In this paper, the lipid A structure of the LPS from Spiribacter salinus M19-40T, a halophilic gamma-proteobacteria, was characterized through chemical analyses and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. This revealed a mixture of mono- and bisphosphorylated penta- to tri-acylated species with the uncommon 2 + 3 symmetry and bearing an unusual 3-oxotetradecaonic acid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anticancer Activity of Anthopleura anjunae Oligopeptides in Prostate Cancer DU-145 Cells
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040125
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Anthopleura anjunae anti-tumor peptide (AAP-H) is a pentapeptide from the sea anemone Anthopleura anjunae with an amino acid sequence of Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Pro that is obtained by alkaline protease enzymatic hydrolysis extraction. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of AAP-H on prostate cancer
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Anthopleura anjunae anti-tumor peptide (AAP-H) is a pentapeptide from the sea anemone Anthopleura anjunae with an amino acid sequence of Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Pro that is obtained by alkaline protease enzymatic hydrolysis extraction. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of AAP-H on prostate cancer DU-145 cell proliferation using a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Cell morphology was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescence staining, Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopy. The mitochondrial membrane potential was determined by flow cytometry following JC-1 staining. The cell apoptosis rate was measured by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis, and the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins was assayed by Western blotting. The results demonstrated that AAP-H induced significant reductions in the number of viable cells and increased cell death in both a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, with an IC50 of approximately 9.605 mM, 7.910 mM, and 2.298 mM at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively. The morphologic characteristics of apoptotic cells were observed after treatment with AAP-H. The mitochondrial membrane potential was markedly decreased, and apoptosis increased after AAP-H treatment. Pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Bax, cytochrome-C, caspase-3, and caspase-9 were increased, but Bcl-2 was decreased. These findings suggest that AAP-H has moderate inhibitory effects on prostate cancer DU-145 cells, and the mechanism might involve the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Therefore, AAP-H is a candidate anti-prostate cancer drug or health-care food. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Astaxanthin Restrains Nitrative-Oxidative Peroxidation in Mitochondrial-Mimetic Liposomes: A Pre-Apoptosis Model
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040126
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a ketocarotenoid found in many marine organisms and that affords many benefits to human health. ASTA is particularly effective against radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, and recent findings hypothesize a “mitochondrial-targeted” action of ASTA in cells. Therefore, we examined the protective effects
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Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a ketocarotenoid found in many marine organisms and that affords many benefits to human health. ASTA is particularly effective against radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, and recent findings hypothesize a “mitochondrial-targeted” action of ASTA in cells. Therefore, we examined the protective effects of ASTA against lipid peroxidation in zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PCLs) and anionic phosphatidylcholine: phosphatidylglycerol liposomes (PCPGLs), at different pHs (6.2 to 8.0), which were challenged by oxidizing/nitrating conditions that mimic the regular and preapoptotic redox environment of active mitochondria. Pre-apoptotic conditions were created by oxidized/nitr(osyl)ated cytochrome c and resulted in the highest levels of lipoperoxidation in both PCL and PCPGLs (pH 7.4). ASTA was less protective at acidic conditions, especially in anionic PCPGLs. Our data demonstrated the ability of ASTA to hamper oxidative and nitrative events that lead to cytochrome c-peroxidase apoptosis and lipid peroxidation, although its efficiency changes with pH and lipid composition of membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connection of Marine Natural Products and Cell Apoptosis)
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Open AccessArticle Terpenoids from the Soft Coral Sinularia sp. Collected in Yongxing Island
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040127
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Three new sesquiterpenoids (sinuketal (1), sinulins A and B (2 and 3)) and two new cembranoids (sinulins C and D (4 and 5)), as well as eight known sesquiterpenoids (6–13) and eight known cembranoids (
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Three new sesquiterpenoids (sinuketal (1), sinulins A and B (2 and 3)) and two new cembranoids (sinulins C and D (4 and 5)), as well as eight known sesquiterpenoids (6–13) and eight known cembranoids (14–21), were isolated from the Xisha soft coral Sinularia sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 possesses an unprecedented isopropyl-branched bicyclo [6.3.0] undecane carbon skeleton with unique endoperoxide moiety, and a plausible biosynthetic pathway of it was postulated. According to the reported biological properties of endoperoxide, the antimalarial, cytotoxic, antiviral, and target inhibitory activities of 1 were tested. Compound 1 showed mild in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, weak cytotoxic activities toward Jurkat, MDA-MB-231, and U2OS cell lines, inhibitory effects against influenza A viruses H1N1 and PR8, as well as mild target inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase. The other compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicities against HeLa, HCT-116, and A549 tumor cell lines and target inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Compound 20 exhibited cytotoxicities against HeLa and HCT-116, and compounds 5, 11, and 15 showed mild target inhibitory activities against PTP1B. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural Characterization and Interaction with RCA120 of a Highly Sulfated Keratan Sulfate from Blue Shark (Prionace glauca) Cartilage
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040128
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
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Abstract
As an important glycosaminoglycan, keratan sulfate (KS) mainly exists in corneal and cartilage, possessing various biological activities. In this study, we purified KS from blue shark (Prionace glauca) cartilage and prepared KS oligosaccharides (KSO) through keratanase II-catalyzed hydrolysis. The structures of
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As an important glycosaminoglycan, keratan sulfate (KS) mainly exists in corneal and cartilage, possessing various biological activities. In this study, we purified KS from blue shark (Prionace glauca) cartilage and prepared KS oligosaccharides (KSO) through keratanase II-catalyzed hydrolysis. The structures of KS and KSO were characterized using multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Shark cartilage KS was highly sulfated and modified with ~2.69% N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) through α(2,3)-linked to galactose. Additionally, KS exhibited binding affinity to Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA120) in a concentration-dependent manner, a highly toxic lectin from beans of the castor plant. Furthermore, KSO from dp2 to dp8 bound to RCA120 in the increasing trend while the binding affinity of dp8 was superior to polysaccharide. These results define novel structural features for KS from Prionace glauca cartilage and demonstrate the potential application on ricin-antidote exploitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Drugs Interact with Functional Proteins)
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Open AccessArticle Biochemical Characterization and Degradation Pattern of a Unique pH-Stable PolyM-Specific Alginate Lyase from Newly Isolated Serratia marcescens NJ-07
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040129
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 15 April 2018
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Abstract
Enzymatic preparation of alginate oligosaccharides with versatile bioactivities by alginate lyases has attracted increasing attention due to its featured characteristics, such as wild condition and specific products. In this study, AlgNJ-07, a novel polyM-specific alginate lyase with high specific activity and pH stability,
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Enzymatic preparation of alginate oligosaccharides with versatile bioactivities by alginate lyases has attracted increasing attention due to its featured characteristics, such as wild condition and specific products. In this study, AlgNJ-07, a novel polyM-specific alginate lyase with high specific activity and pH stability, has been purified from the newly isolated marine bacterium Serratia marcescens NJ-07. It has a molecular weight of approximately 25 kDa and exhibits the maximal activity of 2742.5 U/mg towards sodium alginate under 40 °C at pH 9.0. Additionally, AlgNJ-07 could retain more than 95% of its activity at pH range of 8.0–10.0, indicating it possesses excellent pH-stability. Moreover, it shows high activity and affinity towards polyM block and no activity to polyG block, which suggests that it is a strict polyM-specific alginate lyase. The degradation pattern of AlgNJ-07 has also been explored. The activity of AlgNJ-07 could be activated by NaCl with a low concentration (100–300 mM). It can be observed that AlgNJ-07 can recognize the trisaccharide as the minimal substrate and hydrolyze the trisaccharide into monosaccharide and disaccharide. The TLC and ESI-MS analysis indicate that it can hydrolyze substrates in a unique endolytic manner, producing not only oligosaccharides with Dp of 2–5 but also a large fraction of monosaccharide. Therefore, it may be a potent tool to produce alginate oligosaccharides with lower Dps (degree of polymerization). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antartin, a Cytotoxic Zizaane-Type Sesquiterpenoid from a Streptomyces sp. Isolated from an Antarctic Marine Sediment
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040130
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Antartin (1), a new zizaane-type sesquiterpene, was isolated from Streptomyces sp. SCO736. The chemical structure of 1 was assigned from the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR in addition to mass spectrometric data. The relative stereochemistry of 1 was determined by
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Antartin (1), a new zizaane-type sesquiterpene, was isolated from Streptomyces sp. SCO736. The chemical structure of 1 was assigned from the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR in addition to mass spectrometric data. The relative stereochemistry of 1 was determined by analysis of NOE data, while the absolute stereochemistry was decided based on a comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Antartin (1) showed cytotoxicity against A549, H1299, and U87 cancer cell lines by causing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Marine Actinomycetes)
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Open AccessArticle Marine Longilenes, Oxasqualenoids with Ser-Thr Protein Phosphatase 2A Inhibition Activity
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040131
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
The red seaweed Laurencia viridis is a rich source of oxygenated secondary metabolites that were derived from squalene. We report here the structures of three novel compounds, (+)-longilene peroxide (1), longilene (2), and (+)-prelongilene (3) that were
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The red seaweed Laurencia viridis is a rich source of oxygenated secondary metabolites that were derived from squalene. We report here the structures of three novel compounds, (+)-longilene peroxide (1), longilene (2), and (+)-prelongilene (3) that were isolated from this alga, in addition to other substances, 4 and 5, resulting from their acid-mediated degradation. The effect of compounds 1 and 3 against Ser-Thr protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) was evaluated, showing that (+)-longilene peroxide (1) inhibited PP2A (IC50 11.3 μM). In order to explain the interaction between PP2A and compounds 1 and 3, molecular docking simulations onto the PP2A enzyme-binding region were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pre-Clinical Marine Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distribution of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus after Oral Administration to Rats
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040132
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Fucus vesiculosus L., known as bladderwrack, belongs to the brown seaweeds, which are widely distributed throughout northern Russia, Atlantic shores of Europe, the Baltic Sea, Greenland, the Azores, the Canary Islands, and shores of the Pacific Ocean. Fucoidan is a major fucose-rich sulfated
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Fucus vesiculosus L., known as bladderwrack, belongs to the brown seaweeds, which are widely distributed throughout northern Russia, Atlantic shores of Europe, the Baltic Sea, Greenland, the Azores, the Canary Islands, and shores of the Pacific Ocean. Fucoidan is a major fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide found in Fucus (F.) vesiculosus. The pharmacokinetic profiling of active compounds is essential for drug development and approval. The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of fucoidan in rats after a single-dose oral administration. Fucoidan was isolated from F. vesiculosus. The method of measuring anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) activity by amidolytic assay was used to analyze the plasma and tissue concentrations of fucoidan. The tissue distribution of fucoidan after intragastric administration to the rats was characterized, and it exhibited considerable heterogeneity. Fucoidan preferentially accumulates in the kidneys (AUC0–t = 10.74 µg·h/g; Cmax = 1.23 µg/g after 5 h), spleen (AUC0–t = 6.89 µg·h/g; Cmax = 0.78 µg/g after 3 h), and liver (AUC0–t = 3.26 µg·h/g; Cmax = 0.53 µg/g after 2 h) and shows a relatively long absorption time and extended circulation in the blood, with a mean residence time (MRT) = 6.79 h. The outcome of this study provides additional scientific data for traditional use of fucoidan-containing plants and offers tangible support for the continued development of new effective pharmaceuticals using fucoidan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Natural Product Studies in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle A Low Molecular Weight Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis with an Anti-Angiogenic Activity
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040134
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Sea anemones are a remarkable source of active principles due to a decentralized venom system. New blood vessel growth or angiogenesis is a very promising target against cancer, but the few available antiangiogenic compounds have limited efficacy. In this study, a protein fraction,
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Sea anemones are a remarkable source of active principles due to a decentralized venom system. New blood vessel growth or angiogenesis is a very promising target against cancer, but the few available antiangiogenic compounds have limited efficacy. In this study, a protein fraction, purified from tentacles of Anemonia viridis, was able to limit endothelial cells proliferation and angiogenesis at low concentration (14 nM). Protein sequences were determined with Edman degradation and mass spectrometry in source decay and revealed homologies with Blood Depressing Substance (BDS) sea anemones. The presence of a two-turn alpha helix observed with circular dichroism and a trypsin activity inhibition suggested that the active principle could be a Kunitz-type inhibitor, which may interact with an integrin due to an Arginine Glycin Aspartate (RGD) motif. Molecular modeling showed that this RGD motif was well exposed to solvent. This active principle could improve antiangiogenic therapy from existing antiangiogenic compounds binding on the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle The Protective Role of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Green Seaweed Udotea flabellum in Cells Exposed to Oxidative Damage
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040135
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Seaweed is a rich source of bioactive sulfated polysaccharides. We obtained six sulfated polysaccharide-rich fractions (UF-0.3, UF-0.5, UF-0.6, UF-0.7, UF-1.0, and UF-2.0) from the green seaweed Udotea flabellum (UF) by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. Biochemical analysis of these fractions showed
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Seaweed is a rich source of bioactive sulfated polysaccharides. We obtained six sulfated polysaccharide-rich fractions (UF-0.3, UF-0.5, UF-0.6, UF-0.7, UF-1.0, and UF-2.0) from the green seaweed Udotea flabellum (UF) by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. Biochemical analysis of these fractions showed that they were enriched with sulfated galactans. The viability and proliferative capacity of 3T3 fibroblasts exposed to FeSO4 (2 µM), CuSO4 (1 µM) or ascorbate (2 mM) was not affected. However, these cells were exposed to oxidative stress in the presence of FeSO4 or CuSO4 and ascorbate, which caused the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, resulting in apoptosis of the cells. We also observed increased lipid peroxidation, evaluated by the detection of malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels. Treating the cells with the ultrafiltrate fractions (UF) fractions protected the cells from the oxidative damage caused by the two salts and ascorbate. The most effective protection against the oxidative damage caused by iron was provided by UF-0.7 (1.0 mg/mL); on treatment with UF-0.7, cell viability was 55%. In the case of copper, cell viability on treatment with UF-0.7 was ~80%, but the most effective fraction in this model was UF-2.0, with cell viability of more than 90%. The fractions, mainly UF-0.7 and UF-2.0, showed low iron chelating activity, but high copper chelating activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). These results suggested that some of their protective mechanisms stem from these properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Application of Herbal Medicine from Marine Origin)
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Open AccessArticle Eurotiumins A–E, Five New Alkaloids from the Marine-Derived Fungus Eurotium sp. SCSIO F452
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040136
Received: 25 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Three new prenylated indole 2,5-diketopiperazine alkaloids (13) with nine known ones (513), one new indole alkaloid (4), and one new bis-benzyl pyrimidine derivative (14) were isolated and characterized from the marine-derived
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Three new prenylated indole 2,5-diketopiperazine alkaloids (13) with nine known ones (513), one new indole alkaloid (4), and one new bis-benzyl pyrimidine derivative (14) were isolated and characterized from the marine-derived fungus Eurotium sp. SCSIO F452. 1 and 2, occurring as a pair of diastereomers, both presented a hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole skeleton. Their chemical structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, quantum chemical calculations of electronic circular dichroism, and single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Most isolated compounds were screened for antioxidative potency. Compounds 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12 showed significant radical scavenging activities against DPPH with IC50 values of 13, 19, 4, 3, 24, 13, and 18 µM, respectively. Five new compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Compounds from Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile Impair Malignant Cell Migration through Autophagy Modulation
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040137
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a marine plant with interesting biological properties potentially ascribed to the synergistic combination of bioactive compounds. Our previously described extract, obtained from the leaves of P. oceanica, showed the ability to impair HT1080 cell migration by targeting
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Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a marine plant with interesting biological properties potentially ascribed to the synergistic combination of bioactive compounds. Our previously described extract, obtained from the leaves of P. oceanica, showed the ability to impair HT1080 cell migration by targeting both expression and activity of gelatinases. Commonly, the lack of knowledge about the mechanism of action of phytocomplexes may be an obstacle regarding their therapeutic use and development. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the molecular signaling through which such bioactive compounds impact on malignant cell migration and gelatinolytic activity. The increase in autophagic vacuoles detected by confocal microscopy suggested an enhancement of autophagy in a time and dose dependent manner. This autophagy activation was further confirmed by monitoring pivotal markers of autophagy signaling as well as by evidencing an increase in IGF-1R accumulation on cell membranes. Taken together, our results confirm that the P. oceanica phytocomplex is a promising reservoir of potent and cell safe molecules able to defend against malignancies and other diseases in which gelatinases play a major role in progression. In conclusion, the attractive properties of this phytocomplex may be of industrial interest in regard to the development of novel health-promoting and pharmacological products for the treatment or prevention of several diseases. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Potential Adjuvant Agent of Chemotherapy: Sepia Ink Polysaccharides
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040106
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Sepia ink polysaccharide (SIP) isolated from squid and cuttlefish ink is a kind of acid mucopolysaccharide that has been identified in three types of primary structures from squid (Illex argentinus and Ommastrephes bartrami), cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni, and cuttlefish Sepia esculenta ink.
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Sepia ink polysaccharide (SIP) isolated from squid and cuttlefish ink is a kind of acid mucopolysaccharide that has been identified in three types of primary structures from squid (Illex argentinus and Ommastrephes bartrami), cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni, and cuttlefish Sepia esculenta ink. Although SIP has been proved to be multifaceted, most of the reported evidence has illuminated its chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. As a natural product playing a role in cancer treatment, SIP may be used as chemotherapeutic ancillary agent or functional food. Based on the current findings on SIP, we have summarized four topics in this review, including: chemopreventive, antineoplastic, chemosensitive, and procoagulant and anticoagulant activities, which are correlative closely with the actions of anticancer agents on cancer patients, such as anticancer, toxicity and thrombogenesis, with the latter two actions being common causes of death in cancer cases exposed to chemotherapeutic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Total Synthesis of Bioactive Marine Meroterpenoids: The Cases of Liphagal and Frondosin B
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040115
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Liphagal and frondosin B are two marine-derived secondary metabolites sharing a very similar polyfused-benzofuran skeleton. The two tetracyclic meroterpenoids were isolated from marine sponges, both featuring a 6-5-7-6 fused ring system. A preliminary bioactive study shows that (+)-liphagal is a selective kinase (PI3K
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Liphagal and frondosin B are two marine-derived secondary metabolites sharing a very similar polyfused-benzofuran skeleton. The two tetracyclic meroterpenoids were isolated from marine sponges, both featuring a 6-5-7-6 fused ring system. A preliminary bioactive study shows that (+)-liphagal is a selective kinase (PI3K α) inhibitor, while (+)-frondosin B is shown to inhibit the binding of the cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) to its receptor, CX-CLR1/2. The unique structures and interesting biological profiles of these two meroterpenoids have attracted considerable attention from synthetic chemists. Herein we summarize the synthetic efforts with respect to (+)-liphagal and (+)-frondosin B during the past two decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Parasitic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Neglected Predatory Marine Gastropods
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040118
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
A diverse range of predatory marine gastropods produce toxins, yet most of these molecules remain uncharacterized. Conus species have received the most attention from researchers, leading to several conopeptides reaching clinical trials. This review aims to summarize what is known about bioactive compounds
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A diverse range of predatory marine gastropods produce toxins, yet most of these molecules remain uncharacterized. Conus species have received the most attention from researchers, leading to several conopeptides reaching clinical trials. This review aims to summarize what is known about bioactive compounds isolated from species of neglected marine gastropods, especially in the Turridae, Terebridae, Babyloniidae, Muricidae, Buccinidae, Colubrariidae, Nassariidae, Cassidae, and Ranellidae families. Multiple species have been reported to contain bioactive compounds with potential toxic activity, but most of these compounds have not been characterized or even clearly identified. The bioactive properties and potential applications of echotoxins and related porins from the Ranellidae family are discussed in more detail. Finally, the review concludes with a call for research on understudied species. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Open AccessReview Recent Synthesis and Discovery of Brefeldin A Analogs
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040133
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
The recent development of analogs of brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite, for the improvement of BFA apoptosis-inducing activity is described. BFA has been isolated from various soil or, more recently, marine fungi and has shown versatile beneficial activities. More importantly, the apoptosis-inducing
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The recent development of analogs of brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite, for the improvement of BFA apoptosis-inducing activity is described. BFA has been isolated from various soil or, more recently, marine fungi and has shown versatile beneficial activities. More importantly, the apoptosis-inducing activity of BFA in cancer cells highlights the possibility of further developing this natural product as an anticancer agent. Besides its biological importance, its structural features have also gathered tremendous interest from both medicinal and synthetic chemists. By a medicinal chemistry and total synthesis approach, numerous analogs from BFA have been developed to improve its inferior bioavailability and its antiproliferative ability. In this review, the recent medicinal chemistry efforts in relation to the production of BFA analogs are extensively presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connection of Marine Natural Products and Cell Apoptosis)
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