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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040116

Specific Chemical and Genetic Markers Revealed a Thousands-Year Presence of Toxic Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea

1
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81-727 Sopot, Poland
2
Division of Marine Biotechnology, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, University of Gdańsk, Marszałka J. Płisudskiego 46, PL-81-378 Gdynia, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bacterial Toxins)
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Abstract

In the Baltic Sea, diazotrophic cyanobacteria have been present for thousands of years, over the whole brackish water phase of the ecosystem. However, our knowledge about the species composition of the cyanobacterial community is limited to the last several decades. In the current study, the presence of species-specific chemical and genetic markers in deep sediments were analyzed to increase the existing knowledge on the history of toxic Nodularia spumigena blooms in the Baltic Sea. As chemical markers, three cyclic nonribosomal peptides were applied: the hepatotoxic nodularin, which in the sea was detected solely in N. spumigena, and two anabaenopeptins (AP827 and AP883a) characteristic of two different chemotypes of this species. From the same sediment samples, DNA was isolated and the gene involved in biosynthesis of nodularin, as well as the phycocyanin intergenic spacer region (PC-IGS), were amplified. The results of chemical and genetic analyses proved for the first time the thousands-year presence of toxic N. spumigena in the Baltic Sea. They also indicated that through all this time, the same two sub-populations of the species co-existed. View Full-Text
Keywords: nodularin; toxin; anabaenopeptins; molecular markers; cyanobacteria; Baltic Sea nodularin; toxin; anabaenopeptins; molecular markers; cyanobacteria; Baltic Sea
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Cegłowska, M.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A.; Kowalewska, G.; Mazur-Marzec, H. Specific Chemical and Genetic Markers Revealed a Thousands-Year Presence of Toxic Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 116.

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