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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040126

Astaxanthin Restrains Nitrative-Oxidative Peroxidation in Mitochondrial-Mimetic Liposomes: A Pre-Apoptosis Model

1
Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo (IQUSP), 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2
Instituto de Ciências da Atividade Física e do Esporte (ICAFE), Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
3
Superintendência da Polícia Técnico Científica, 05507-060 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
4
Lychnoflora Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Produtos Naturais LTDA, 14030-090 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
5
Grupo Fleury, 04344-070 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
6
Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP, Brazil
7
Departamento de Química Fundamental, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo (IQUSP), 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
8
Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Departamento de Ciencia de los Alimentos, Calle Catedrático Agustín Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connection of Marine Natural Products and Cell Apoptosis)
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Abstract

Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a ketocarotenoid found in many marine organisms and that affords many benefits to human health. ASTA is particularly effective against radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, and recent findings hypothesize a “mitochondrial-targeted” action of ASTA in cells. Therefore, we examined the protective effects of ASTA against lipid peroxidation in zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PCLs) and anionic phosphatidylcholine: phosphatidylglycerol liposomes (PCPGLs), at different pHs (6.2 to 8.0), which were challenged by oxidizing/nitrating conditions that mimic the regular and preapoptotic redox environment of active mitochondria. Pre-apoptotic conditions were created by oxidized/nitr(osyl)ated cytochrome c and resulted in the highest levels of lipoperoxidation in both PCL and PCPGLs (pH 7.4). ASTA was less protective at acidic conditions, especially in anionic PCPGLs. Our data demonstrated the ability of ASTA to hamper oxidative and nitrative events that lead to cytochrome c-peroxidase apoptosis and lipid peroxidation, although its efficiency changes with pH and lipid composition of membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondria; membrane; lipid peroxidation; apoptosis; carotenoid; antioxidant; liposome; oxidative stress mitochondria; membrane; lipid peroxidation; apoptosis; carotenoid; antioxidant; liposome; oxidative stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mano, C.M.; Guaratini, T.; Cardozo, K.H.M.; Colepicolo, P.; Bechara, E.J.H.; Barros, M.P. Astaxanthin Restrains Nitrative-Oxidative Peroxidation in Mitochondrial-Mimetic Liposomes: A Pre-Apoptosis Model. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 126.

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