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Special Issue "Marine Bacterial Toxins"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Hanna Mazur-Marzec

1. Department of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81378 Gdynia, Poland
2. Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, PL-81712 Sopot, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bioactive natural products; marine drugs; nonribosomal peptides structure and activity; cyanobacteria toxins; peptidomics
Guest Editor
Dr. Anna Toruńska-Sitarz

Department of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, , Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 46, PL-81378 Gdynia, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: marine microbes; bioactive natural products; marine drugs; nonribosomal peptides; antibacterial activity; molecular ecology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Seas and oceans are inhabited by a vast diversity of bacteria. Together with other microbes, they account for the largest fraction of biomass produced in seas and oceans. Marine bacteria also constitute a rich source of metabolites characterized by a unique structure and potent biological activity. Toxic metabolites produced by these microorganisms can be divided into endotoxins—the lipopolysaccharides that constitute an integral part of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, and exotoxins—which are produced and excreted by living cells of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Several toxic compounds, originally ascribed to fish or invertebrates, have turned out to be produced by symbiotic bacteria. For example, a cytotoxic peptide called dolastatin was initially isolated from sea hare, Dolabella auricularia. Later, the cyanobacteria from Symploca and Lyngbya genus were found to be the actual producers of the compound.

The significance of toxins in functioning of bacteria is still a subject of debate. They may constitute an element of survival strategy or play the role of signal molecules. Despite their toxicity, they are also exploited as potential therapeutic agents or tools in studies into the mechanism of essential metabolic processes. In this way, their Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde nature is manifested.

This Special Issue, “Marine Bacterial Toxins”, will collate high quality papers focused on (1) known and new marine bacterial producers of toxins, their diversity, phylogeny and geography; (2) structure, biosynthesis, biological activity and mode of action of the compounds; (3) environmental relevance, impact on human health and biotechnological and pharmaceutical application; and (4) new tools and innovative methods used in the analysis of toxic marine bacteria and their metabolites.

We cordially invite you to submit your research to this Special Issue of Marine Drugs, and hope that, with your input, the present state of knowledge regarding different aspects of marine bacterial toxins will be updated and/or reviewed.

Prof. Hanna Mazur-Marzec
Dr. Anna Toruńska-Sitarz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Marine bacteria
  • Neurotoxins
  • Cyanotoxins
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Dermatotoxins
  • Marine drugs
  • Symbiotic bacteria

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Cyanopeptolins with Trypsin and Chymotrypsin Inhibitory Activity from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc edaphicum CCNP1411
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(7), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16070220
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
PDF Full-text (2314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cyanopeptolins (CPs) are one of the most frequently occurring cyanobacterial peptides, many of which are inhibitors of serine proteases. Some CP variants are also acutely toxic to aquatic organisms, especially small crustaceans. In this study, thirteen CPs, including twelve new variants, were detected
[...] Read more.
Cyanopeptolins (CPs) are one of the most frequently occurring cyanobacterial peptides, many of which are inhibitors of serine proteases. Some CP variants are also acutely toxic to aquatic organisms, especially small crustaceans. In this study, thirteen CPs, including twelve new variants, were detected in the cyanobacterium Nostoc edaphicum CCNP1411 isolated from the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea). Structural elucidation was performed by tandem mass spectrometry with verification by NMR for CP962 and CP985. Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibition assays confirmed the significance of the residue adjacent to 3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone (Ahp) for the activity of the peptides. Arginine-containing CPs (CPs-Arg2) inhibited trypsin at low IC50 values (0.24–0.26 µM) and showed mild activity against chymotrypsin (IC50 3.1–3.8 µM), while tyrosine-containing CPs (CPs-Tyr2) were selectively and potently active against chymotrypsin (IC50 0.26 µM). No degradation of the peptides was observed during the enzyme assays. Neither of the CPs were active against thrombin, elastase or protein phosphatase 1. Two CPs (CP962 and CP985) had no cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Strong and selective activity of the new cyanopeptolin variants makes them potential candidates for the development of drugs against metabolic disorders and other diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bacterial Toxins)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Specific Chemical and Genetic Markers Revealed a Thousands-Year Presence of Toxic Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040116
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
PDF Full-text (2205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the Baltic Sea, diazotrophic cyanobacteria have been present for thousands of years, over the whole brackish water phase of the ecosystem. However, our knowledge about the species composition of the cyanobacterial community is limited to the last several decades. In the current
[...] Read more.
In the Baltic Sea, diazotrophic cyanobacteria have been present for thousands of years, over the whole brackish water phase of the ecosystem. However, our knowledge about the species composition of the cyanobacterial community is limited to the last several decades. In the current study, the presence of species-specific chemical and genetic markers in deep sediments were analyzed to increase the existing knowledge on the history of toxic Nodularia spumigena blooms in the Baltic Sea. As chemical markers, three cyclic nonribosomal peptides were applied: the hepatotoxic nodularin, which in the sea was detected solely in N. spumigena, and two anabaenopeptins (AP827 and AP883a) characteristic of two different chemotypes of this species. From the same sediment samples, DNA was isolated and the gene involved in biosynthesis of nodularin, as well as the phycocyanin intergenic spacer region (PC-IGS), were amplified. The results of chemical and genetic analyses proved for the first time the thousands-year presence of toxic N. spumigena in the Baltic Sea. They also indicated that through all this time, the same two sub-populations of the species co-existed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bacterial Toxins)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Structural Insights into the Cytotoxic Mechanism of Vibrio parahaemolyticus PirAvp and PirBvp Toxins
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(12), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15120373
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In aquaculture, shrimp farming is a popular field. The benefits of shrimp farming include a relatively short grow-out time, high sale price, and good cost recovery. However, outbreaks of serious diseases inflict serious losses, and acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is an emerging
[...] Read more.
In aquaculture, shrimp farming is a popular field. The benefits of shrimp farming include a relatively short grow-out time, high sale price, and good cost recovery. However, outbreaks of serious diseases inflict serious losses, and acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is an emerging challenge to this industry. In South American white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) and grass shrimp (Penaeus monodon), this disease has a 70–100% mortality. The pathogenic agent of AHPND is a specific strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus which contains PirAvp and PirBvp toxins encoded in the pVA1 plasmid. PirAvp and PirBvp have been shown to cause the typical histological symptoms of AHPND in infected shrimps, and in this review, we will focus on our structural understanding of these toxins. By analyzing their structures, a possible cytotoxic mechanism, as well as strategies for anti-AHPND drug design, is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bacterial Toxins)
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