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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16040135

The Protective Role of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Green Seaweed Udotea flabellum in Cells Exposed to Oxidative Damage

1
Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59078-970, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
2
Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59078-970, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
3
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência, e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Ceara-Mirim 59900-000, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
These authors contributed equally.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Application of Herbal Medicine from Marine Origin)
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Abstract

Seaweed is a rich source of bioactive sulfated polysaccharides. We obtained six sulfated polysaccharide-rich fractions (UF-0.3, UF-0.5, UF-0.6, UF-0.7, UF-1.0, and UF-2.0) from the green seaweed Udotea flabellum (UF) by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. Biochemical analysis of these fractions showed that they were enriched with sulfated galactans. The viability and proliferative capacity of 3T3 fibroblasts exposed to FeSO4 (2 µM), CuSO4 (1 µM) or ascorbate (2 mM) was not affected. However, these cells were exposed to oxidative stress in the presence of FeSO4 or CuSO4 and ascorbate, which caused the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, resulting in apoptosis of the cells. We also observed increased lipid peroxidation, evaluated by the detection of malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels. Treating the cells with the ultrafiltrate fractions (UF) fractions protected the cells from the oxidative damage caused by the two salts and ascorbate. The most effective protection against the oxidative damage caused by iron was provided by UF-0.7 (1.0 mg/mL); on treatment with UF-0.7, cell viability was 55%. In the case of copper, cell viability on treatment with UF-0.7 was ~80%, but the most effective fraction in this model was UF-2.0, with cell viability of more than 90%. The fractions, mainly UF-0.7 and UF-2.0, showed low iron chelating activity, but high copper chelating activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). These results suggested that some of their protective mechanisms stem from these properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfated galactan; 3T3 fibroblasts; green seaweed sulfated galactan; 3T3 fibroblasts; green seaweed
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Presa, F.B.; Marques, M.L.M.; Viana, R.L.S.; Nobre, L.T.D.B.; Costa, L.S.; Rocha, H.A.O. The Protective Role of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Green Seaweed Udotea flabellum in Cells Exposed to Oxidative Damage. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 135.

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