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Sensors, Volume 13, Issue 7 (July 2013), Pages 8060-9548

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Ferreira, P.M., et al. A Neural Network Based Intelligent Predictive Sensor for Cloudiness, Solar Radiation and Air Temperature. Sensors 2012, 12, 15750–15777
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9547-9548; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709547
Received: 17 June 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
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Abstract
The authors would like to correct the acknowledgements of this article [1] as follows: [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Temperature-Insensitive Bend Sensor Using Entirely Centered Erbium Doping in the Fiber Core
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9536-9546; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709536
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fiber based bend sensor using a uniquely designed Bend-Sensitive Erbium Doped Fiber (BSEDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The BSEDF has two core regions, namely an undoped outer region with a diameter of about 9.38 μm encompassing a doped, inner core region with
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A fiber based bend sensor using a uniquely designed Bend-Sensitive Erbium Doped Fiber (BSEDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The BSEDF has two core regions, namely an undoped outer region with a diameter of about 9.38 μm encompassing a doped, inner core region with a diameter of 4.00 μm. The doped core region has about 400 ppm of an Er2O3 dopant. Pumping the BSEDF with a conventional 980 nm laser diode gives an Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) spectrum spanning from 1,510 nm to over 1,560 nm at the output power level of about −58 dBm. The ASE spectrum has a peak power of −52 dBm at a central wavelength of 1,533 nm when not spooled. Spooling the BSEDF with diameters of 10 cm to 2 cm yields decreasing peak powers from −57.0 dBm to −61.8 dBm, while the central wavelength remains unchanged. The output is highly stable over time, with a low temperature sensitivity of around ~0.005 dBm/°C, thus allowing for the development of a highly stable sensor system based in the change of the peak power alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optomechatronics)
Open AccessArticle Further In-vitro Characterization of an Implantable Biosensor for Ethanol Monitoring in the Brain
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9522-9535; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709522
Received: 5 June 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ethyl alcohol may be considered one of the most widespread central nervous system (CNS) depressants in Western countries. Because of its toxicological and neurobiological implications, the detection of ethanol in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) is of great importance. In a previous study, we
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Ethyl alcohol may be considered one of the most widespread central nervous system (CNS) depressants in Western countries. Because of its toxicological and neurobiological implications, the detection of ethanol in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) is of great importance. In a previous study, we described the development and characterization of an implantable biosensor successfully used for the real-time detection of ethanol in the brain of freely-moving rats. The implanted biosensor, integrated in a low-cost telemetry system, was demonstrated to be a reliable device for the short-time monitoring of exogenous ethanol in brain ECF. In this paper we describe a further in-vitro characterization of the above-mentioned biosensor in terms of oxygen, pH and temperature dependence in order to complete its validation. With the aim of enhancing ethanol biosensor performance, different enzyme loadings were investigated in terms of apparent ethanol Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters, viz. IMAX, KM and linear region slope, as well as ascorbic acid interference shielding. The responses of biosensors were studied over a period of 28 days. The overall findings of the present study confirm the original biosensor configuration to be the best of those investigated for in-vivo applications up to one week after implantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessLetter An In-situ Real-Time Optical Fiber Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance for Monitoring the Growth of TiO2 Thin Films
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9513-9521; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709513
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 18 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed for monitoring the thickness of deposited nano-thin films. A side-polished multimode SPR optical fiber sensor with an 850 nm-LD is used as the transducing element for real-time monitoring of the deposited
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An optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed for monitoring the thickness of deposited nano-thin films. A side-polished multimode SPR optical fiber sensor with an 850 nm-LD is used as the transducing element for real-time monitoring of the deposited TiO2 thin films. The SPR optical fiber sensor was installed in the TiO2 sputtering system in order to measure the thickness of the deposited sample during TiO2 deposition. The SPR response declined in real-time in relation to the growth of the thickness of the TiO2 thin film. Our results show the same trend of the SPR response in real-time and in spectra taken before and after deposition. The SPR transmitted intensity changes by approximately 18.76% corresponding to 50 nm of deposited TiO2 thin film. We have shown that optical fiber sensors utilizing SPR have the potential for real-time monitoring of the SPR technology of nanometer film thickness. The compact size of the SPR fiber sensor enables it to be positioned inside the deposition chamber, and it could thus measure the film thickness directly in real-time. This technology also has potential application for monitoring the deposition of other materials. Moreover, in-situ real-time SPR optical fiber sensor technology is in inexpensive, disposable technique that has anti-interference properties, and the potential to enable on-line monitoring and monitoring of organic coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optomechatronics)
Open AccessArticle Fixed-Base Comb with Window-Non-Adjacent Form (NAF) Method for Scalar Multiplication
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9483-9512; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709483
Received: 23 May 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
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Abstract
Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is one of the most promising public-key techniques in terms of short key size and various crypto protocols. For this reason, many studies on the implementation of ECC on resource-constrained devices within a practical execution time have been conducted.
[...] Read more.
Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is one of the most promising public-key techniques in terms of short key size and various crypto protocols. For this reason, many studies on the implementation of ECC on resource-constrained devices within a practical execution time have been conducted. To this end, we must focus on scalar multiplication, which is the most expensive operation in ECC. A number of studies have proposed pre-computation and advanced scalar multiplication using a non-adjacent form (NAF) representation, and more sophisticated approaches have employed a width-w NAF representation and a modified pre-computation table. In this paper, we propose a new pre-computation method in which zero occurrences are much more frequent than in previous methods. This method can be applied to ordinary group scalar multiplication, but it requires large pre-computation table, so we combined the previous method with ours for practical purposes. This novel structure establishes a new feature that adjusts speed performance and table size finely, so we can customize the pre-computation table for our own purposes. Finally, we can establish a customized look-up table for embedded microprocessors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Photo-Detectors Integrated with Resonant Tunneling Diodes
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9464-9482; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709464
Received: 14 June 2013 / Revised: 9 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on photo-detectors consisting of an optical waveguide that incorporates a resonant tunneling diode (RTD). Operating at wavelengths around 1.55 μm in the optical communications C band we achieve maximum sensitivities of around 0.29 A/W which is dependent on the bias
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We report on photo-detectors consisting of an optical waveguide that incorporates a resonant tunneling diode (RTD). Operating at wavelengths around 1.55 μm in the optical communications C band we achieve maximum sensitivities of around 0.29 A/W which is dependent on the bias voltage. This is due to the nature of RTD nonlinear current-voltage characteristic that has a negative differential resistance (NDR) region. The resonant tunneling diode photo-detector (RTD-PD) can be operated in either non-oscillating or oscillating regimes depending on the bias voltage quiescent point. The oscillating regime is apparent when the RTD-PD is biased in the NDR region giving rise to electrical gain and microwave self-sustained oscillations Taking advantage of the RTD’s NDR distinctive characteristics, we demonstrate efficient detection of gigahertz (GHz) modulated optical carriers and optical control of a RTD GHz oscillator. RTD-PD based devices can have applications in generation and optical control of GHz low-phase noise oscillators, clock recovery systems, and fiber optic enabled radio frequency communication systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors)
Open AccessArticle BeiDou Inter-Satellite-Type Bias Evaluation and Calibration for Mixed Receiver Attitude Determination
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9435-9463; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709435
Received: 12 June 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (2084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Chinese BeiDou system (BDS), having different types of satellites, is an important addition to the ever growing system of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). It consists of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and Medium Earth Orbit
[...] Read more.
The Chinese BeiDou system (BDS), having different types of satellites, is an important addition to the ever growing system of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). It consists of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. This paper investigates the receiver-dependent bias between these satellite types, for which we coined the name “inter-satellite-type bias” (ISTB), and its impact on mixed receiver attitude determination. Assuming different receiver types may have different delays/biases for different satellite types, we model the differential ISTBs among three BeiDou satellite types and investigate their existence and their impact on mixed receiver attitude determination. Our analyses using the real data sets from Curtin’s GNSS array consisting of different types of BeiDou enabled receivers and series of zero-baseline experiments with BeiDou-enabled receivers reveal the existence of non-zero ISTBs between different BeiDou satellite types. We then analyse the impact of these biases on BeiDou-only attitude determination using the constrained (C-)LAMBDA method, which exploits the knowledge of baseline length. Results demonstrate that these biases could seriously affect the integer ambiguity resolution for attitude determination using mixed receiver types and that a priori correction of these biases will dramatically improve the success rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Electric Field and Current Transport Mechanisms in Schottky CdTe X-ray Detectors under Perturbing Optical Radiation
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9414-9434; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709414
Received: 28 May 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (872 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Schottky CdTe X-ray detectors exhibit excellent spectroscopic performance but suffer from instabilities. Hence it is of extreme relevance to investigate their electrical properties. A systematic study of the electric field distribution and the current flowing in such detectors under optical perturbations is presented
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Schottky CdTe X-ray detectors exhibit excellent spectroscopic performance but suffer from instabilities. Hence it is of extreme relevance to investigate their electrical properties. A systematic study of the electric field distribution and the current flowing in such detectors under optical perturbations is presented here. The detector response is explored by varying experimental parameters, such as voltage, temperature, and radiation wavelength. The strongest perturbation is observed under 850 nm irradiation, bulk carrier recombination becoming effective there. Cathode and anode irradiations evidence the crucial role of the contacts, the cathode being Ohmic and the anode blocking. In particular, under irradiation of the cathode, charge injection occurs and peculiar kinks, typical of trap filling, are observed both in the current-voltage characteristic and during transients. The simultaneous access to the electric field and the current highlights the correlation between free and fixed charges, and unveils carrier transport/collection mechanisms otherwise hidden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors)
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Open AccessArticle A Mobile Robots Experimental Environment with Event-Based Wireless Communication
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9396-9413; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709396
Received: 15 May 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 18 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An experimental platform to communicate between a set of mobile robots through a wireless network has been developed. The mobile robots get their position through a camera which performs as sensor. The video images are processed in a PC and a Waspmote card
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An experimental platform to communicate between a set of mobile robots through a wireless network has been developed. The mobile robots get their position through a camera which performs as sensor. The video images are processed in a PC and a Waspmote card sends the corresponding position to each robot using the ZigBee standard. A distributed control algorithm based on event-triggered communications has been designed and implemented to bring the robots into the desired formation. Each robot communicates to its neighbors only at event times. Furthermore, a simulation tool has been developed to design and perform experiments with the system. An example of usage is presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Tensile Strain on Thermal Conductivity in Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbons: A Molecular Dynamics Study
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9388-9395; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709388
Received: 14 May 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thermal conductivity of monolayer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with different tensile strain is investigated by using a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method. Significant increasing amplitude of the molecular thermal vibration, molecular potential energy vibration and thermal conductivity vibration of stretching GNRs were detected. Some
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The thermal conductivity of monolayer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with different tensile strain is investigated by using a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method. Significant increasing amplitude of the molecular thermal vibration, molecular potential energy vibration and thermal conductivity vibration of stretching GNRs were detected. Some 20%~30% thermal conductivity decay is found in 9%~15% tensile strain of GNR cases. It is explained by the fact that GNR structural ridges scatter some low-frequency phonons which pass in the direction perpendicular to the direction of GNR stretching which was indicated by a phonon density of state investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessReview In-Plane Resonant Nano-Electro-Mechanical Sensors: A Comprehensive Study on Design, Fabrication and Characterization Challenges
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9364-9387; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709364
Received: 9 June 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 18 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The newly proposed in-plane resonant nano-electro-mechanical (IP R-NEM) sensor, that includes a doubly clamped suspended beam and two side electrodes, achieved a mass sensitivity of less than zepto g/Hz based on analytical and numerical analyses. The high frequency characterization and numerical/analytical studies of
[...] Read more.
The newly proposed in-plane resonant nano-electro-mechanical (IP R-NEM) sensor, that includes a doubly clamped suspended beam and two side electrodes, achieved a mass sensitivity of less than zepto g/Hz based on analytical and numerical analyses. The high frequency characterization and numerical/analytical studies of the fabricated sensor show that the high vacuum measurement environment will ease the resonance detection using the capacitance detection technique if only the thermoelsatic damping plays a dominant role for the total quality factor of the sensor. The usage of the intrinsic junction-less field-effect-transistor (JL FET) for the resonance detection of the sensor provides a more practical detection method for this sensor. As the second proposed sensor, the introduction of the monolithically integrated in-plane MOSFET with the suspended beam provides another solution for the ease of resonance frequency detection with similar operation to the junction-less transistor in the IP R-NEM sensor. The challenging fabrication technology for the in-plane resonant suspended gate field-effect-transistor (IP RSG-FET) sensor results in some post processing and simulation steps to fully explore and improve the direct current (DC) characteristics of the sensor for the consequent high frequency measurement. The results of modeling and characterization in this research provide a realistic guideline for these potential ultra-sensitive NEM sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK 2013)
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Open AccessReview Sensors and Sensory Processing for Airborne Vibrations in Silk Moths and Honeybees
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9344-9363; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709344
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 13 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Insects use airborne vibrations caused by their own movements to control their behaviors and produce airborne vibrations to communicate with conspecific mates. In this review, I use two examples to introduce how insects use airborne vibrations to accurately control behavior or for communication.
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Insects use airborne vibrations caused by their own movements to control their behaviors and produce airborne vibrations to communicate with conspecific mates. In this review, I use two examples to introduce how insects use airborne vibrations to accurately control behavior or for communication. The first example is vibration-sensitive sensilla along the wing margin that stabilize wingbeat frequency. There are two specialized sensors along the wing margin for detecting the airborne vibration caused by wingbeats. The response properties of these sensors suggest that each sensor plays a different role in the control of wingbeats. The second example is Johnston’s organ that contributes to regulating flying speed and perceiving vector information about food sources to hive-mates. There are parallel vibration processing pathways in the central nervous system related with these behaviors, flight and communication. Both examples indicate that the frequency of airborne vibration are filtered on the sensory level and that on the central nervous system level, the extracted vibration signals are integrated with other sensory signals for executing quick adaptive motor response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan 2012)
Open AccessArticle Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Using Wearable Acceleration and Gyro Sensors Based on Quaternion Calculations
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9321-9343; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709321
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (2422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a method for three dimensional gait analysis using wearable sensors and quaternion calculations. Seven sensor units consisting of a tri-axial acceleration and gyro sensors, were fixed to the lower limbs. The acceleration and angular velocity data of each sensor unit
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This paper proposes a method for three dimensional gait analysis using wearable sensors and quaternion calculations. Seven sensor units consisting of a tri-axial acceleration and gyro sensors, were fixed to the lower limbs. The acceleration and angular velocity data of each sensor unit were measured during level walking. The initial orientations of the sensor units were estimated using acceleration data during upright standing position and the angular displacements were estimated afterwards using angular velocity data during gait. Here, an algorithm based on quaternion calculation was implemented for orientation estimation of the sensor units. The orientations of the sensor units were converted to the orientations of the body segments by a rotation matrix obtained from a calibration trial. Body segment orientations were then used for constructing a three dimensional wire frame animation of the volunteers during the gait. Gait analysis was conducted on five volunteers, and results were compared with those from a camera-based motion analysis system. Comparisons were made for the joint trajectory in the horizontal and sagittal plane. The average RMSE and correlation coefficient (CC) were 10.14 deg and 0.98, 7.88 deg and 0.97, 9.75 deg and 0.78 for the hip, knee and ankle flexion angles, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Gait Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Tree Spectral Reflectance Characteristics Using a Mobile Terrestrial Line Spectrometer and Laser Scanner
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9305-9320; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709305
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In mobile terrestrial hyperspectral imaging, individual trees often present large variations in spectral reflectance that may impact the relevant applications, but the related studies have been seldom reported. To fill this gap, this study was dedicated to investigating the spectral reflectance characteristics of
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In mobile terrestrial hyperspectral imaging, individual trees often present large variations in spectral reflectance that may impact the relevant applications, but the related studies have been seldom reported. To fill this gap, this study was dedicated to investigating the spectral reflectance characteristics of individual trees with a Sensei mobile mapping system, which comprises a Specim line spectrometer and an Ibeo Lux laser scanner. The addition of the latter unit facilitates recording the structural characteristics of the target trees synchronously, and this is beneficial for revealing the characteristics of the spatial distributions of tree spectral reflectance with variations at different levels. Then, the parts of trees with relatively low-level variations can be extracted. At the same time, since it is difficult to manipulate the whole spectrum, the traditional concept of vegetation indices (VI) based on some particular spectral bands was taken into account here. Whether the assumed VIs capable of behaving consistently for the whole crown of each tree was also checked. The specific analyses were deployed based on four deciduous tree species and six kinds of VIs. The test showed that with the help of the laser scanner data, the parts of individual trees with relatively low-level variations can be located. Based on these parts, the relatively stable spectral reflectance characteristics for different tree species can be learnt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Technologies and Processes in Agriculture and Forestry)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication of an SPR Sensor Surface with Antifouling Properties for Highly Sensitive Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Using Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Polymerization
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9294-9304; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130709294
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we modified a surface plasmon resonance immunosensor chip with a polymer using surface-initiated atom transfer polymerization (SI-ATRP) for the highly sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). To immobilize a TNT analogue on the polymer, mono-2-(methacryloyloxy)ethylsuccinate (MES), which has a carboxyl group,
[...] Read more.
In this study, we modified a surface plasmon resonance immunosensor chip with a polymer using surface-initiated atom transfer polymerization (SI-ATRP) for the highly sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). To immobilize a TNT analogue on the polymer, mono-2-(methacryloyloxy)ethylsuccinate (MES), which has a carboxyl group, was used in this study. However, the anti-TNT antibody may adsorb non-specifically on the polymer surface by an electrostatic interaction because MES is negatively charged. Therefore, a mixed monomer with MES and diethylaminoethylmethacrylate (DEAEM), which has a tertiary amino group and is positively charged, was prepared to obtain electroneutrality for suppressing the nonspecific adsorption. The detection of TNT was performed by inhibition assay using the polymer surface. To ensure high sensitivity to TNT, the affinity between the surface and the antibody was optimized by controlling the density of the initiator for ATRP by mixing two types of self-assembled monolayer reagents. As a result, a limit of detection of 5.7 pg/mL (ppt) for TNT was achieved using the optimized surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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