Sensors 2013, 13(7), 9321-9343; doi:10.3390/s130709321
Article

Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Using Wearable Acceleration and Gyro Sensors Based on Quaternion Calculations

1,* email, 1email and 2email
Received: 3 June 2013; in revised form: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Gait Sensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This paper proposes a method for three dimensional gait analysis using wearable sensors and quaternion calculations. Seven sensor units consisting of a tri-axial acceleration and gyro sensors, were fixed to the lower limbs. The acceleration and angular velocity data of each sensor unit were measured during level walking. The initial orientations of the sensor units were estimated using acceleration data during upright standing position and the angular displacements were estimated afterwards using angular velocity data during gait. Here, an algorithm based on quaternion calculation was implemented for orientation estimation of the sensor units. The orientations of the sensor units were converted to the orientations of the body segments by a rotation matrix obtained from a calibration trial. Body segment orientations were then used for constructing a three dimensional wire frame animation of the volunteers during the gait. Gait analysis was conducted on five volunteers, and results were compared with those from a camera-based motion analysis system. Comparisons were made for the joint trajectory in the horizontal and sagittal plane. The average RMSE and correlation coefficient (CC) were 10.14 deg and 0.98, 7.88 deg and 0.97, 9.75 deg and 0.78 for the hip, knee and ankle flexion angles, respectively.
Keywords: gait analysis; acceleration sensor; gyro sensor; quaternion; lower limb; joint angle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tadano, S.; Takeda, R.; Miyagawa, H. Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Using Wearable Acceleration and Gyro Sensors Based on Quaternion Calculations. Sensors 2013, 13, 9321-9343.

AMA Style

Tadano S, Takeda R, Miyagawa H. Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Using Wearable Acceleration and Gyro Sensors Based on Quaternion Calculations. Sensors. 2013; 13(7):9321-9343.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tadano, Shigeru; Takeda, Ryo; Miyagawa, Hiroaki. 2013. "Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Using Wearable Acceleration and Gyro Sensors Based on Quaternion Calculations." Sensors 13, no. 7: 9321-9343.

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