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Optimizing the Thermal Read-Out Technique for MIP-Based Biomimetic Sensors: Towards Nanomolar Detection Limits
Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
IMEC vzw, Division IMOMEC, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2013; in revised form: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Abstract: In previous work, the novel heat-transfer method (HTM) for the detection of small molecules with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIP)-type receptors was presented. In this study we focus on optimization of this sensor performance, with as final aim to lower the detection limit by reducing the noise level. It was determined that the noise originates foremost from the power supply, which can be controlled by varying the PID parameters. Therefore, the effect of the individual parameters was evaluated by tuning P, I and D separately at a temperature of 37 °C, giving a first indication of the optimal configuration. Next, a temperature profile was programmed and the standard deviation of the heat-transfer resistance over the entire regime was studied for a set of parameters. The optimal configuration, P1-I6-D0, reduced the noise level with nearly a factor of three compared to the original parameters of P10-I5-D0. With the optimized settings, the detection of L-nicotine in buffer solutions was studied and the detection limit improved significantly from 100 nM to 35 nM. Summarizing, optimization of the PID parameters and thereby improving the detection limit is a key parameter for first applications of the HTM-method for MIP receptors in analytical research.
Keywords: heat-transfer method (HTM); molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs); L-nicotine; PID parameters
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Geerets, B.; Peeters, M.; Grinsven, B.V.; Bers, K.; de Ceuninck, W.; Wagner, P. Optimizing the Thermal Read-Out Technique for MIP-Based Biomimetic Sensors: Towards Nanomolar Detection Limits. Sensors 2013, 13, 9148-9159.
Geerets B, Peeters M, Grinsven BV, Bers K, de Ceuninck W, Wagner P. Optimizing the Thermal Read-Out Technique for MIP-Based Biomimetic Sensors: Towards Nanomolar Detection Limits. Sensors. 2013; 13(7):9148-9159.
Geerets, Bram; Peeters, Marloes; Grinsven, Bart V.; Bers, Karolien; de Ceuninck, Ward; Wagner, Patrick. 2013. "Optimizing the Thermal Read-Out Technique for MIP-Based Biomimetic Sensors: Towards Nanomolar Detection Limits." Sensors 13, no. 7: 9148-9159.