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BeiDou Inter-Satellite-Type Bias Evaluation and Calibration for Mixed Receiver Attitude Determination
GNSS Research Centre, Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS), Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5058, 2600 GB Delft, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2013; in revised form: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Abstract: The Chinese BeiDou system (BDS), having different types of satellites, is an important addition to the ever growing system of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). It consists of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. This paper investigates the receiver-dependent bias between these satellite types, for which we coined the name “inter-satellite-type bias” (ISTB), and its impact on mixed receiver attitude determination. Assuming different receiver types may have different delays/biases for different satellite types, we model the differential ISTBs among three BeiDou satellite types and investigate their existence and their impact on mixed receiver attitude determination. Our analyses using the real data sets from Curtin’s GNSS array consisting of different types of BeiDou enabled receivers and series of zero-baseline experiments with BeiDou-enabled receivers reveal the existence of non-zero ISTBs between different BeiDou satellite types. We then analyse the impact of these biases on BeiDou-only attitude determination using the constrained (C-)LAMBDA method, which exploits the knowledge of baseline length. Results demonstrate that these biases could seriously affect the integer ambiguity resolution for attitude determination using mixed receiver types and that a priori correction of these biases will dramatically improve the success rate.
Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS); BeiDou system (BDS); inter-satellite-type biases; attitude determination; multivariate constrained integer leastsquares( MC-LAMBDA); carrier phase ambiguity resolution
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Nadarajah, N.; Teunissen, P.J.G.; Raziq, N. BeiDou Inter-Satellite-Type Bias Evaluation and Calibration for Mixed Receiver Attitude Determination. Sensors 2013, 13, 9435-9463.
Nadarajah N, Teunissen PJG, Raziq N. BeiDou Inter-Satellite-Type Bias Evaluation and Calibration for Mixed Receiver Attitude Determination. Sensors. 2013; 13(7):9435-9463.
Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Teunissen, Peter J.G.; Raziq, Noor. 2013. "BeiDou Inter-Satellite-Type Bias Evaluation and Calibration for Mixed Receiver Attitude Determination." Sensors 13, no. 7: 9435-9463.