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Further In-vitro Characterization of an Implantable Biosensor for Ethanol Monitoring in the Brain
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical School, University of Sassari, Viale S. Pietro 43/b, Sassari 07100, Italy
UCD School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Belﬁeld, Dublin 4, Ireland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2013; in revised form: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
Abstract: Ethyl alcohol may be considered one of the most widespread central nervous system (CNS) depressants in Western countries. Because of its toxicological and neurobiological implications, the detection of ethanol in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) is of great importance. In a previous study, we described the development and characterization of an implantable biosensor successfully used for the real-time detection of ethanol in the brain of freely-moving rats. The implanted biosensor, integrated in a low-cost telemetry system, was demonstrated to be a reliable device for the short-time monitoring of exogenous ethanol in brain ECF. In this paper we describe a further in-vitro characterization of the above-mentioned biosensor in terms of oxygen, pH and temperature dependence in order to complete its validation. With the aim of enhancing ethanol biosensor performance, different enzyme loadings were investigated in terms of apparent ethanol Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters, viz. IMAX, KM and linear region slope, as well as ascorbic acid interference shielding. The responses of biosensors were studied over a period of 28 days. The overall findings of the present study confirm the original biosensor configuration to be the best of those investigated for in-vivo applications up to one week after implantation.
Keywords: ethanol biosensor; oxygen dependence; pH dependence; implantable biosensor
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Secchi, O.; Zinellu, M.; Spissu, Y.; Pirisinu, M.; Bazzu, G.; Migheli, R.; Desole, M.S.; O'Neill, R.D.; Serra, P.A.; Rocchitta, G. Further In-vitro Characterization of an Implantable Biosensor for Ethanol Monitoring in the Brain. Sensors 2013, 13, 9522-9535.
Secchi O, Zinellu M, Spissu Y, Pirisinu M, Bazzu G, Migheli R, Desole MS, O'Neill RD, Serra PA, Rocchitta G. Further In-vitro Characterization of an Implantable Biosensor for Ethanol Monitoring in the Brain. Sensors. 2013; 13(7):9522-9535.
Secchi, Ottavio; Zinellu, Manuel; Spissu, Ylenia; Pirisinu, Marco; Bazzu, Gianfranco; Migheli, Rossana; Desole, Maria S.; O'Neill, Robert D.; Serra, Pier A.; Rocchitta, Gaia. 2013. "Further In-vitro Characterization of an Implantable Biosensor for Ethanol Monitoring in the Brain." Sensors 13, no. 7: 9522-9535.