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Photo-Detectors Integrated with Resonant Tunneling Diodes
Centro de Electrónica, Optoelectrónica e Telecomunicações (CEOT), Departamento de Física, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
INESC TEC, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2013; in revised form: 9 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Abstract: We report on photo-detectors consisting of an optical waveguide that incorporates a resonant tunneling diode (RTD). Operating at wavelengths around 1.55 μm in the optical communications C band we achieve maximum sensitivities of around 0.29 A/W which is dependent on the bias voltage. This is due to the nature of RTD nonlinear current-voltage characteristic that has a negative differential resistance (NDR) region. The resonant tunneling diode photo-detector (RTD-PD) can be operated in either non-oscillating or oscillating regimes depending on the bias voltage quiescent point. The oscillating regime is apparent when the RTD-PD is biased in the NDR region giving rise to electrical gain and microwave self-sustained oscillations Taking advantage of the RTD’s NDR distinctive characteristics, we demonstrate efficient detection of gigahertz (GHz) modulated optical carriers and optical control of a RTD GHz oscillator. RTD-PD based devices can have applications in generation and optical control of GHz low-phase noise oscillators, clock recovery systems, and fiber optic enabled radio frequency communication systems.
Keywords: double barrier quantum well structures; clock recovery; microwave-photonics; optical injection locking; optoelectronic circuits; oscillators; photo-detectors; radio-over-fiber; resonant tunneling diodes
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Romeira, B.; Pessoa, L.M.; Salgado, H.M.; Ironside, C.N.; Figueiredo, J.M.L. Photo-Detectors Integrated with Resonant Tunneling Diodes. Sensors 2013, 13, 9464-9482.
Romeira B, Pessoa LM, Salgado HM, Ironside CN, Figueiredo JML. Photo-Detectors Integrated with Resonant Tunneling Diodes. Sensors. 2013; 13(7):9464-9482.
Romeira, Bruno; Pessoa, Luis M.; Salgado, Henrique M.; Ironside, Charles N.; Figueiredo, José M.L. 2013. "Photo-Detectors Integrated with Resonant Tunneling Diodes." Sensors 13, no. 7: 9464-9482.