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Sensors, Volume 13, Issue 10 (October 2013), Pages 12744-14247

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Open AccessReview Towards a Chemiresistive Sensor-Integrated Electronic Nose: A Review
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14214-14247; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014214
Received: 7 August 2013 / Revised: 28 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (3007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electronic noses have potential applications in daily life, but are restricted by their bulky size and high price. This review focuses on the use of chemiresistive gas sensors, metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors and conductive polymer gas sensors in an electronic nose for system
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Electronic noses have potential applications in daily life, but are restricted by their bulky size and high price. This review focuses on the use of chemiresistive gas sensors, metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors and conductive polymer gas sensors in an electronic nose for system integration to reduce size and cost. The review covers the system design considerations and the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated technology for a chemiresistive gas sensor electronic nose, including the integrated sensor array, its readout interface, and pattern recognition hardware. In addition, the state-of-the-art technology integrated in the electronic nose is also presented, such as the sensing front-end chip, electronic nose signal processing chip, and the electronic nose system-on-chip. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Highly Sensitive Fiber Optic Sensor Based on Two-Core Fiber for Refractive Index Measurement
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14200-14213; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014200
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple and compact fiber optic sensor based on a two-core fiber is demonstrated for high-performance measurements of refractive indices (RI) of liquids. In order to demonstrate the suitability of the proposed sensor to perform high-sensitivity sensing in a variety of applications, the
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A simple and compact fiber optic sensor based on a two-core fiber is demonstrated for high-performance measurements of refractive indices (RI) of liquids. In order to demonstrate the suitability of the proposed sensor to perform high-sensitivity sensing in a variety of applications, the sensor has been used to measure the RI of binary liquid mixtures. Such measurements can accurately determine the salinity of salt water solutions, and detect the water content of adulterated alcoholic beverages. The largest sensitivity of the RI sensor that has been experimentally demonstrated is 3,119 nm per Refractive Index Units (RIU) for the RI range from 1.3160 to 1.3943. On the other hand, our results suggest that the sensitivity can be enhanced up to 3485.67 nm/RIU approximately for the same RI range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Sensors for Industrial, Environmental and Health Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Quorum Sensing Activity of Enterobacter asburiae Isolated from Lettuce Leaves
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14189-14199; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014189
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 30 September 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial communication or quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via sensing of QS signaling molecules consisting of oligopeptides in Gram-positive bacteria and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in most Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Batavia lettuce were screened for AHL production. Enterobacter
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Bacterial communication or quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via sensing of QS signaling molecules consisting of oligopeptides in Gram-positive bacteria and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in most Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Batavia lettuce were screened for AHL production. Enterobacter asburiae, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was found to produce short chain AHLs. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the E. asburiae spent supernatant confirmed the production of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N–hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL production by E. asburiae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Remote Driven and Read MEMS Sensors for Harsh Environments
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14175-14188; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014175
Received: 4 September 2013 / Revised: 29 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow
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The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Harsh-Environment Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Anodic Titania Nanotubes for Application in High Sensitivity Amperometric Glucose and Uric Acid Biosensors
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14161-14174; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014161
Received: 24 August 2013 / Revised: 29 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop novel nanoscale biosensors using titania nanotubes (TNTs) made by anodization. Titania nanotubes were produced on pure titanium sheets by anodization at room temperature. In this research, the electrolyte composition ethylene glycol 250 mL/NH4F
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The purpose of this study was to develop novel nanoscale biosensors using titania nanotubes (TNTs) made by anodization. Titania nanotubes were produced on pure titanium sheets by anodization at room temperature. In this research, the electrolyte composition ethylene glycol 250 mL/NH4F 1.5 g/DI water 20 mL was found to produce the best titania nanotubes array films for application in amperometric biosensors. The amperometric results exhibit an excellent linearity for uric acid (UA) concentrations in the range between 2 and 14 mg/dL, with 23.3 (µA·cm−2)·(mg/dL)−1 UA sensitivity, and a correlation coefficient of 0.993. The glucose biosensor presented a good linear relationship in the lower glucose concentration range between 50 and 125 mg/dL, and the corresponding sensitivity was approximately 249.6 (µA·cm−2)·(100 mg/dL)−1 glucose, with a correlation coefficient of 0.973. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Multi Sensor Fusion Framework for Indoor-Outdoor Localization of Limited Resource Mobile Robots
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14133-14160; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014133
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (11829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a sensor fusion framework that improves the localization of mobile robots with limited computational resources. It employs an event based Kalman Filter to combine the measurements of a global sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on an event based
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This paper presents a sensor fusion framework that improves the localization of mobile robots with limited computational resources. It employs an event based Kalman Filter to combine the measurements of a global sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on an event based schedule, using fewer resources (execution time and bandwidth) but with similar performance when compared to the traditional methods. The event is defined to reflect the necessity of the global information, when the estimation error covariance exceeds a predefined limit. The proposed experimental platforms are based on the LEGO Mindstorm NXT, and consist of a differential wheel mobile robot navigating indoors with a zenithal camera as global sensor, and an Ackermann steering mobile robot navigating outdoors with a SBG Systems GPS accessed through an IGEP board that also serves as datalogger. The IMU in both robots is built using the NXT motor encoders along with one gyroscope, one compass and two accelerometers from Hitecnic, placed according to a particle based dynamic model of the robots. The tests performed reflect the correct performance and low execution time of the proposed framework. The robustness and stability is observed during a long walk test in both indoors and outdoors environments. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pandoraea sp. RB-44, A Novel Quorum Sensing Soil Bacterium
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14121-14132; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014121
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 20 September 2013 / Accepted: 30 September 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Proteobacteria are known to communicate via signaling molecules and this process is known as quorum sensing. The most commonly studied quorum sensing molecules are N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) that consists of a homoserine lactone moiety and an N-acyl side chain with various
[...] Read more.
Proteobacteria are known to communicate via signaling molecules and this process is known as quorum sensing. The most commonly studied quorum sensing molecules are N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) that consists of a homoserine lactone moiety and an N-acyl side chain with various chain lengths and degrees of saturation at the C-3 position. We have isolated a bacterium, RB-44, from a site which was formally a landfill dumping ground. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis, this isolate was identified as a Pandoraea sp.which was then screened for AHL production using biosensors which indicated its quorum sensing properties. To identify the AHL profile of Pandoraea sp. RB-44, we used high resolution tandem mass spectrometry confirming that this isolate produced N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that showed quorum sensing activity exhibited by Pandoraea sp. Our data add Pandoraea sp. to the growing number of bacteria that possess QS systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessReview Optical Fiber-Based MR-Compatible Sensors for Medical Applications: An Overview
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14105-14120; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014105
Received: 30 July 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During last decades, Magnetic Resonance (MR)—compatible sensors based on different techniques have been developed due to growing demand for application in medicine. There are several technological solutions to design MR-compatible sensors, among them, the one based on optical fibers presents several attractive features.
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During last decades, Magnetic Resonance (MR)—compatible sensors based on different techniques have been developed due to growing demand for application in medicine. There are several technological solutions to design MR-compatible sensors, among them, the one based on optical fibers presents several attractive features. The high elasticity and small size allow designing miniaturized fiber optic sensors (FOS) with metrological characteristics (e.g., accuracy, sensitivity, zero drift, and frequency response) adequate for most common medical applications; the immunity from electromagnetic interference and the absence of electrical connection to the patient make FOS suitable to be used in high electromagnetic field and intrinsically safer than conventional technologies. These two features further heightened the potential role of FOS in medicine making them especially attractive for application in MRI. This paper provides an overview of MR-compatible FOS, focusing on the sensors employed for measuring physical parameters in medicine (i.e., temperature, force, torque, strain, and position). The working principles of the most promising FOS are reviewed in terms of their relevant advantages and disadvantages, together with their applications in medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Resonance Sensors) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle A Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit for Long-Term Monitoring in the Dependency Care Area
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14079-14104; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014079
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 27 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human movement analysis is a field of wide interest since it enables the assessment of a large variety of variables related to quality of life. Human movement can be accurately evaluated through Inertial Measurement Units (IMU), which are wearable and comfortable devices with
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Human movement analysis is a field of wide interest since it enables the assessment of a large variety of variables related to quality of life. Human movement can be accurately evaluated through Inertial Measurement Units (IMU), which are wearable and comfortable devices with long battery life. The IMU’s movement signals might be, on the one hand, stored in a digital support, in which an analysis is performed a posteriori. On the other hand, the signal analysis might take place in the same IMU at the same time as the signal acquisition through online classifiers. The new sensor system presented in this paper is designed for both collecting movement signals and analyzing them in real-time. This system is a flexible platform useful for collecting data via a triaxial accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer, with the possibility to incorporate other information sources in real-time. A µSD card can store all inertial data and a Bluetooth module is able to send information to other external devices and receive data from other sources. The system presented is being used in the real-time detection and analysis of Parkinson’s disease symptoms, in gait analysis, and in a fall detection system. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14064-14078; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014064
Received: 20 August 2013 / Revised: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni) encapsulated in a stainless
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An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni) encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH4)2SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessCommunication Highly Sensitive Refractive Index Sensor Based on Adiabatically Tapered Microfiber Long Period Gratings
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14055-14063; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014055
Received: 23 July 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We demonstrate a refractive index sensor based on a long period grating (LPG) inscribed in a special photosensitive microfiber with double-clad profile. The fiber is tapered gradually enough to ensure the adiabaticity of the fiber taper. In other words, the resulting insertion loss
[...] Read more.
We demonstrate a refractive index sensor based on a long period grating (LPG) inscribed in a special photosensitive microfiber with double-clad profile. The fiber is tapered gradually enough to ensure the adiabaticity of the fiber taper. In other words, the resulting insertion loss is sufficiently small. The boron and germanium co-doped inner cladding makes it suitable for inscribing gratings into its tapered form. The manner of wavelength shift for refractive indices (RIs) differs from conventional LPG, and the refractive index detection limit is 1.67 × 10−5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Sensors for Industrial, Environmental and Health Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Acoustic Emission Source Location Using a Distributed Feedback Fiber Laser Rosette
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14041-14054; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014041
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes an approach for acoustic emission (AE) source localization in a large marble stone using distributed feedback (DFB) fiber lasers. The aim of this study is to detect damage in structures such as those found in civil applications. The directional sensitivity
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This paper proposes an approach for acoustic emission (AE) source localization in a large marble stone using distributed feedback (DFB) fiber lasers. The aim of this study is to detect damage in structures such as those found in civil applications. The directional sensitivity of DFB fiber laser is investigated by calculating location coefficient using a method of digital signal analysis. In this, autocorrelation is used to extract the location coefficient from the periodic AE signal and wavelet packet energy is calculated to get the location coefficient of a burst AE source. Normalization is processed to eliminate the influence of distance and intensity of AE source. Then a new location algorithm based on the location coefficient is presented and tested to determine the location of AE source using a Delta (Δ) DFB fiber laser rosette configuration. The advantage of the proposed algorithm over the traditional methods based on fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) include the capability of: having higher strain resolution for AE detection and taking into account two different types of AE source for location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Determination of Dopamine, Serotonin and Ascorbic Acid at a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Carbon-Spheres
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14029-14040; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131014029
Received: 7 September 2013 / Revised: 6 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carbon-spheres has been fabricated through a simple casting procedure. The modified GCE displays high selectivity and excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid (AA). In the co-existence system, the peak
[...] Read more.
A novel glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carbon-spheres has been fabricated through a simple casting procedure. The modified GCE displays high selectivity and excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid (AA). In the co-existence system, the peak separations between AA and DA, DA and 5-HT, and AA and 5-HT are large up to 230, 180, and 410 mV, respectively. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) has been employed to simultaneously detect DA, 5-HT, and AA, and the linear calibration curves for DA, 5-HT, and AA are obtained in the range of 20.0–150.0 μM, 40.0–750.0 μM and 300.0–2,000.0 μM with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 2.0 μM, 0.7 μM and 0.6 μM, respectively. The proposed electrode has been applied to detect DA, 5-HT, and AA in real samples using standard addition method with satisfactory results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Dynamic Task Allocation in Multi-Hop Multimedia Wireless Sensor Networks with Low Mobility
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 13998-14028; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131013998
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 4 October 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a task allocation-oriented framework to enable efficient in-network processing and cost-effective multi-hop resource sharing for dynamic multi-hop multimedia wireless sensor networks with low node mobility, e.g., pedestrian speeds. The proposed system incorporates a fast task reallocation algorithm to quickly recover
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This paper presents a task allocation-oriented framework to enable efficient in-network processing and cost-effective multi-hop resource sharing for dynamic multi-hop multimedia wireless sensor networks with low node mobility, e.g., pedestrian speeds. The proposed system incorporates a fast task reallocation algorithm to quickly recover from possible network service disruptions, such as node or link failures. An evolutional self-learning mechanism based on a genetic algorithm continuously adapts the system parameters in order to meet the desired application delay requirements, while also achieving a sufficiently long network lifetime. Since the algorithm runtime incurs considerable time delay while updating task assignments, we introduce an adaptive window size to limit the delay periods and ensure an up-to-date solution based on node mobility patterns and device processing capabilities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that yields multi-objective task allocation in a mobile multi-hop wireless environment under dynamic conditions. Simulations are performed in various settings, and the results show considerable performance improvement in extending network lifetime compared to heuristic mechanisms. Furthermore, the proposed framework provides noticeable reduction in the frequency of missing application deadlines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Accelerometer-Based Event Detector for Low-Power Applications
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 13978-13997; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131013978
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, an adaptive, autocovariance-based event detection algorithm is proposed, which can be used with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer sensors to build inexpensive and power efficient event detectors. The algorithm works well with low signal-to-noise ratio input signals, and its computational complexity
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In this paper, an adaptive, autocovariance-based event detection algorithm is proposed, which can be used with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer sensors to build inexpensive and power efficient event detectors. The algorithm works well with low signal-to-noise ratio input signals, and its computational complexity is very low, allowing its utilization on inexpensive low-end embedded sensor devices. The proposed algorithm decreases its energy consumption by lowering its duty cycle, as much as the event to be detected allows it. The performance of the algorithm is tested and compared to the conventional filter-based approach. The comparison was performed in an application where illegal entering of vehicles into restricted areas was detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2013)
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