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Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14064-14078; doi:10.3390/s131014064
Article

An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions

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Received: 20 August 2013; in revised form: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni) encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH4)2SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate.
Keywords: ammonium nitrate; electronic tongue; PCA; fuzzy ARTMAP; PLS ammonium nitrate; electronic tongue; PCA; fuzzy ARTMAP; PLS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Campos, I.; Pascual, L.; Soto, J.; Gil-Sánchez, L.; Martínez-Máez, R. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions. Sensors 2013, 13, 14064-14078.

AMA Style

Campos I, Pascual L, Soto J, Gil-Sánchez L, Martínez-Máez R. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions. Sensors. 2013; 13(10):14064-14078.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Campos, Inmaculada; Pascual, Lluis; Soto, Juan; Gil-Sánchez, Luis; Martínez-Máez, Ramón. 2013. "An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions." Sensors 13, no. 10: 14064-14078.


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