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An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions
Centro de Reconocimiento Molecular y Desarrollo Tecnológico (IDM), Unidad Mixta Universidad Politécnica de Valencia–Universidad de Valencia de Valéncia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia, Spain
CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nano medicina (CIBER-BBN), Bellaterra, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain
Departamento de Química. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Camino de Vera s/n., E-46022 Valencia, Spain
Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n. E-46022 Valencia, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2013; in revised form: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Abstract: An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni) encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH4)2SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate.
Keywords: ammonium nitrate; electronic tongue; PCA; fuzzy ARTMAP; PLS
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Campos, I.; Pascual, L.; Soto, J.; Gil-Sánchez, L.; Martínez-Máez, R. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions. Sensors 2013, 13, 14064-14078.
Campos I, Pascual L, Soto J, Gil-Sánchez L, Martínez-Máez R. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions. Sensors. 2013; 13(10):14064-14078.
Campos, Inmaculada; Pascual, Lluis; Soto, Juan; Gil-Sánchez, Luis; Martínez-Máez, Ramón. 2013. "An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions." Sensors 13, no. 10: 14064-14078.