Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14105-14120; doi:10.3390/s131014105
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Optical Fiber-Based MR-Compatible Sensors for Medical Applications: An Overview

1 Unit of Biomedical Robotics and Biomicrosystems, Center for Integrated Research, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, Rome 00128, Italy 2 Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Center for Integrated Research, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, Rome 00128, Italy 3 Institute of Neurology, Campus Bio-Medico University, and Fondazione Alberto Sordi-Research Institute for Ageing, Center for Integrated Research, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 200, Rome 00128, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2013; in revised form: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Resonance Sensors)
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Abstract: During last decades, Magnetic Resonance (MR)—compatible sensors based on different techniques have been developed due to growing demand for application in medicine. There are several technological solutions to design MR-compatible sensors, among them, the one based on optical fibers presents several attractive features. The high elasticity and small size allow designing miniaturized fiber optic sensors (FOS) with metrological characteristics (e.g., accuracy, sensitivity, zero drift, and frequency response) adequate for most common medical applications; the immunity from electromagnetic interference and the absence of electrical connection to the patient make FOS suitable to be used in high electromagnetic field and intrinsically safer than conventional technologies. These two features further heightened the potential role of FOS in medicine making them especially attractive for application in MRI. This paper provides an overview of MR-compatible FOS, focusing on the sensors employed for measuring physical parameters in medicine (i.e., temperature, force, torque, strain, and position). The working principles of the most promising FOS are reviewed in terms of their relevant advantages and disadvantages, together with their applications in medicine.
Keywords: fiber optic sensors; MR-compatibility; interferometry; fiber Bragg grating; hyperthermia; respiratory monitoring; MR-compatible robotic assistive device

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MDPI and ACS Style

Taffoni, F.; Formica, D.; Saccomandi, P.; Pino, G.D.; Schena, E. Optical Fiber-Based MR-Compatible Sensors for Medical Applications: An Overview. Sensors 2013, 13, 14105-14120.

AMA Style

Taffoni F, Formica D, Saccomandi P, Pino GD, Schena E. Optical Fiber-Based MR-Compatible Sensors for Medical Applications: An Overview. Sensors. 2013; 13(10):14105-14120.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico; Saccomandi, Paola; Pino, Giovanni D.; Schena, Emiliano. 2013. "Optical Fiber-Based MR-Compatible Sensors for Medical Applications: An Overview." Sensors 13, no. 10: 14105-14120.

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