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Special Issue "Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gilberto Brambilla

Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
E-Mail
Interests: nanowire sensors, optical fibre sensors, physical sensors, resonating sensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past decade, research on sensors based on nanowires and nanotubes has experienced a phenomenal growth because of the nanostructures extraordinary enabling properties. A variety of sensors rely on physical and chemical changes at the surface to monitor specific changes in targeted measurands. Because of the intrinsic high ratio between surface and volume, nanostructures can be easily functionalised, allow for an enhanced sensitivity in a very compact configuration and their small size is often also associated to an extremely fast response time. Furthermore, some nanomaterials behave in a fundamentally different way with respect to their macroscopic counterparts, paving the way for their exploitation in a variety of sensors exploiting their optical, electrical and chemical properties.This special issue will include recent results in the development of nanotubes and nanowires in sensing and in the study of the theory explaining their working mechanisms.

Dr. Gilberto Brambilla
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • Nanowire sensors
  • carbon nanotubes
  • nanotube sensors
  • resonant sensors
  • physical sensors
  • chemical sensors
  • nanosensors
  • fast-response sensors

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Research on the Design of an Optical Information Storage Sensing System Using a Diffractive Optical Element
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15409-15421; doi:10.3390/s131115409
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper introduces a compact optical information storage sensing system. Applications of this system include longitudinal surface plasmon resonance detection of gold nanorods with a single femtosecond laser in three-dimensional space as well as data storage. A diffractive optical element (DOE) is applied
[...] Read more.
This paper introduces a compact optical information storage sensing system. Applications of this system include longitudinal surface plasmon resonance detection of gold nanorods with a single femtosecond laser in three-dimensional space as well as data storage. A diffractive optical element (DOE) is applied in the system to separate the recording-reading beam from the servo beam. This allows us to apply a single laser and one objective lens in a single optical path for the servo beam and the recording-reading beam. The optical system has a linear region of 8 λ, which is compatible with current DVD servo modules. The wavefront error of the optical system is below 0.03 λrms. The minimum grating period of the DOE is 13.4 µm, and the depth of the DOE is 1.2 µm, which makes fabrication of it possible. The DOE is also designed to conveniently control the layer-selection process, as there is a linear correlation between the displacement of the DOE and the layer-selection distance. The displacement of DOE is in the range of 0–6.045 mm when the thickness of the layer-selection is 0.3 mm. Experiments were performed and the results have been verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Development of Anodic Titania Nanotubes for Application in High Sensitivity Amperometric Glucose and Uric Acid Biosensors
Sensors 2013, 13(10), 14161-14174; doi:10.3390/s131014161
Received: 24 August 2013 / Revised: 29 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop novel nanoscale biosensors using titania nanotubes (TNTs) made by anodization. Titania nanotubes were produced on pure titanium sheets by anodization at room temperature. In this research, the electrolyte composition ethylene glycol 250 mL/NH4F
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to develop novel nanoscale biosensors using titania nanotubes (TNTs) made by anodization. Titania nanotubes were produced on pure titanium sheets by anodization at room temperature. In this research, the electrolyte composition ethylene glycol 250 mL/NH4F 1.5 g/DI water 20 mL was found to produce the best titania nanotubes array films for application in amperometric biosensors. The amperometric results exhibit an excellent linearity for uric acid (UA) concentrations in the range between 2 and 14 mg/dL, with 23.3 (µA·cm−2)·(mg/dL)−1 UA sensitivity, and a correlation coefficient of 0.993. The glucose biosensor presented a good linear relationship in the lower glucose concentration range between 50 and 125 mg/dL, and the corresponding sensitivity was approximately 249.6 (µA·cm−2)·(100 mg/dL)−1 glucose, with a correlation coefficient of 0.973. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Direct Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin Immobilized on a Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Gold Nanoparticles Nanocomplex-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode
Sensors 2013, 13(7), 8595-8611; doi:10.3390/s130708595
Received: 13 May 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 30 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Direct electron transfer of hemoglobin (Hb) was realized by immobilizing Hb on a carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomplex-modified glassy carbon electrode. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) methods were
[...] Read more.
Direct electron transfer of hemoglobin (Hb) was realized by immobilizing Hb on a carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomplex-modified glassy carbon electrode. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) methods were utilized for additional characterization of the AuNPs and FMWCNTs. The cyclic voltammogram of the modified electrode has a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of −0.270 ± 0.002 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (ks) was evaluated to be 4.0 ± 0.2 s−1. The average surface concentration of electro-active Hb on the surface of the modified glassy carbon electrode was calculated to be 6.8 ± 0.3 × 10−10 mol cm−2. The cathodic peak current of the modified electrode increased linearly with increasing concentration of hydrogen peroxide (from 0.05 nM to 1 nM) with a detection limit of 0.05 ± 0.01 nM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp) was calculated to be 0.85 ± 0.1 nM. Thus, the modified electrode could be applied as a third generation biosensor with high sensitivity, long-term stability and low detection limit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Wireless Monitoring Sub-nA Resolution Test Platform for Nanostructure Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7827-7837; doi:10.3390/s130607827
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 9 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have constructed a wireless monitoring test platform with a sub-nA resolution signal amplification/processing circuit (SAPC) and a wireless communication network to test the real-time remote monitoring of the signals from carbon nanotube (CNT) sensors. The operation characteristics of the CNT sensors can
[...] Read more.
We have constructed a wireless monitoring test platform with a sub-nA resolution signal amplification/processing circuit (SAPC) and a wireless communication network to test the real-time remote monitoring of the signals from carbon nanotube (CNT) sensors. The operation characteristics of the CNT sensors can also be measured by the ISD-VSD curve with the SAPC. The SAPC signals are transmitted to a personal computer by Bluetooth communication and the signals from the computer are transmitted to smart phones by Wi-Fi communication, in such a way that the signals from the sensors can be remotely monitored through a web browser. Successful remote monitoring of signals from a CNT sensor was achieved with the wireless monitoring test platform for detection of 0.15% methanol vapor with 0.5 nA resolution and 7 Hz sampling rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Highly Specific and Cost-Efficient Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A Combining Aptamers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6865-6881; doi:10.3390/s130506865
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were used as counter-selection targets. It was determined through a fluorescence assay that the selected aptamers had high binding ability and specificity to this pathogen. The dissociation constant of these aptamers were up to nanomolar range, and aptamer Apt22 with the lowest Kd (47 ± 3 nM) was used in cell imaging experiments. To detect this bacteria with high specificity and cost-efficiently, a novel useful detection method was also constructed based on the noncovalent self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and DNAzyme-labeled aptamer detection probes. The amounts of target bacteria could be quantified by exploiting chemoluminescence intensity changes at 420 nm and the detection limit of the method was 103 cfu/mL. This study demonstrated the applicability of Salmonella specific aptamers and their potential for use in the detection of Salmonella in food, clinical and environmental samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Hydrothermal Synthesis of Various Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures and Their Methane Sensing Properties
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6171-6182; doi:10.3390/s130506171
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 26 April 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods, net-like ZnO nanofibers and ZnO nanobulks have been successfully synthesized via a surfactant assisted hydrothemal method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the various
[...] Read more.
Hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods, net-like ZnO nanofibers and ZnO nanobulks have been successfully synthesized via a surfactant assisted hydrothemal method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the various hierarchical ZnO nanostructures is discussed in detail. Gas sensors based on the as-prepared ZnO nanostructures were fabricated by screen-printing on a flat ceramic substrate. Furthermore, their gas sensing characteristics towards methane were systematically investigated. Methane is an important characteristic hydrocarbon contaminant found dissolved in power transformer oil as a result of faults. We find that the hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods and net-like ZnO nanofibers samples show higher gas response and lower operating temperature with rapid response-recovery time compared to those of sensors based on ZnO nanobulks. These results present a feasible way of exploring high performance sensing materials for on-site detection of characteristic fault gases dissolved in transformer oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Simple Fabrication Process for 2D ZnO Nanowalls and Their Potential Application as a Methane Sensor
Sensors 2013, 13(3), 3941-3950; doi:10.3390/s130303941
Received: 28 January 2013 / Revised: 16 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) ZnO nanowalls were prepared on a glass substrate by a low-temperature thermal evaporation method, in which the fabrication process did not use a metal catalyst or the pre-deposition of a ZnO seed layer on the substrate. The nanowalls were characterized for
[...] Read more.
Two-dimensional (2D) ZnO nanowalls were prepared on a glass substrate by a low-temperature thermal evaporation method, in which the fabrication process did not use a metal catalyst or the pre-deposition of a ZnO seed layer on the substrate. The nanowalls were characterized for their surface morphology, and the structural and optical properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL). The fabricated ZnO nanowalls have many advantages, such as low growth temperature and good crystal quality, while being fast, low cost, and easy to fabricate. Methane sensor measurements of the ZnO nanowalls show a high sensitivity to methane gas, and rapid response and recovery times. These unique characteristics are attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the ZnO nanowalls. Thus, the ZnO nanowall methane sensor is a potential gas sensor candidate owing to its good performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle C59N Peapods Sensing the Temperature
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 966-974; doi:10.3390/s130100966
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 5 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report the novel photoresponse of nanodevices made from azafullerene (C59N)-encapsulated single-walled carbon nanotubes (C59N@SWNTs), so called peapods. The photoconducting properties of a C59N@SWNT are measured over a temperature range of 10 to 300 K under a
[...] Read more.
We report the novel photoresponse of nanodevices made from azafullerene (C59N)-encapsulated single-walled carbon nanotubes (C59N@SWNTs), so called peapods. The photoconducting properties of a C59N@SWNT are measured over a temperature range of 10 to 300 K under a field-effect transistor configuration. It is found that the photosensitivity of C59N@SWNTs depends very sensitively on the temperature, making them an attractive candidate as a component of nanothermometers covering a wide temperature range. Our results indicate that it is possible to read the temperature by monitoring the optoelectronics signal of C59N@SWNTs. In particular, sensing low temperatures would become more convenient and easy by giving a simple light pulse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)

Review

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Open AccessReview Integration of Metal Oxide Nanowires in Flexible Gas Sensing Devices
Sensors 2013, 13(8), 10659-10673; doi:10.3390/s130810659
Received: 9 July 2013 / Revised: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 15 August 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metal oxide nanowires are very promising active materials for different applications, especially in the field of gas sensors. Advances in fabrication technologies now allow the preparation of nanowires on flexible substrates, expanding the potential market of the resulting sensors. The critical steps for
[...] Read more.
Metal oxide nanowires are very promising active materials for different applications, especially in the field of gas sensors. Advances in fabrication technologies now allow the preparation of nanowires on flexible substrates, expanding the potential market of the resulting sensors. The critical steps for the large-scale preparation of reliable sensing devices are the elimination of high temperatures processes and the stretchability of the entire final device, including the active material. Direct growth on flexible substrates and post-growth procedures have been successfully used for the preparation of gas sensors. The paper will summarize the procedures used for the preparation of flexible and wearable gas sensors prototypes with an overlook of the challenges and the future perspectives concerning this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessReview Spectroscopy, Manipulation and Trapping of Neutral Atoms, Molecules, and Other Particles Using Optical Nanofibers: A Review
Sensors 2013, 13(8), 10449-10481; doi:10.3390/s130810449
Received: 31 May 2013 / Revised: 18 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (1238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its
[...] Read more.
The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication, and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization, and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension of this work to molecules is introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for specific applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)

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